Myrcene-What Are the Potential Health Benefits of This Flavouring and Aroma Agent?

Neuroenergetics, Nutrition and Brain Health | Authors“Myrcene (β-myrcene) is an abundant monoterpene which occurs as a major constituent in many plant species, including hops and cannabis. It is a popular flavouring and aroma agent (food additive) used in the manufacture of food and beverages. This review aims to report on the occurrence, biological and toxicological profile of β-myrcene. The main reported biological properties of β-myrcene-anxiolytic, antioxidant, anti-ageing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic properties-are discussed, with the mechanisms of activity. Here we also discuss recent data regarding the safety of β-myrcene. Overall, β-myrcene has shown promising health benefits in many animal studies. However, studies conducted in humans is lacking. In the future, there is potential for the formulation and production of non-alcoholic beers, functional foods and drinks, and cannabis extracts (low in THC) rich in β-myrcene.”

“β-Myrcene characteristically gives cannabis strains a mildly sweet flavour profile and provides scent notes that are spicy, earthy and musky. Cannabis strains which contain high concentrations of myrcene (>0.5% myrcene), are likely to induce sedative qualities (“couch-lock effect”), which are classically attributed to Cannabis indica Lam (a synonym of C. sativa L.) strains. On the other hand, strains low in β-myrcene (<0.5%) are likely to induce a more energic “high”.β-Myrcene reported biological activities include analgesic, sedative, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer effects.”

Natural Salicylates and Their Roles in Human Health

ijms-logo“Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone which plays a crucial role in the plant defense against various pathogens and abiotic stresses. Increasing reports suggest that this phenolic compound and its derivatives, collectively termed salicylates, not only regulate plant defense but also have beneficial effects on human health. Both natural and synthetic salicylates are known to have multiple targets in humans, thereby exhibiting various appreciating pharmacological roles, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, antidiabetic effects, and so on. The role of some salicylates, such as acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine), and amorfrutins in human diseases has been well studied in vitro. However, their clinical significance in different diseases is largely unknown. Based on recent studies, five natural salicylates, including amorfrutin, ginkgolic acid, grifolic acid, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, and cannabidiolic acid, showed potential roles in different challenging human diseases. This review summarizes together some of the recent information on multitarget regulatory activities of these natural salicylates and their pharmacological roles in human health.”

Insulinotropic and antidiabetic effects of β-caryophyllene with l-arginine in type 2 diabetic rats.

Journal of Food Biochemistry banner“Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a flavoring agent, whereas l-arginine (LA) is used as a food supplement.

They possess insulinotropic and β cell regeneration activities, respectively.

We assessed the antidiabetic potential of BCP, LA, and its combination in RIN-5F cell lines and diabetic rats.

The results indicated that the combination of BCP with LA showed a significant decrease in glucose absorption and an increase in its uptake in tissues and also an increase in insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells. The combination treatment of BCP with LA showed a significant reduction in glucose, lipid levels, and oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue when compared with the diabetic group. Furthermore, the combination of BCP with LA normalized glucose tolerance and pancreatic cell damage in diabetic rats.

In conclusion, the combinational treatment showed significant potentials in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent chronic metabolic disorder affecting a large population.

Beta-caryophyllene is a CB2 receptor agonist shown to have insulinotropic activity.

l-Arginine is a food supplement that possesses beta-cell regeneration property.

The combination of BCP with LA could work as a potential therapeutic intervention, considering the individual pharmacological activities of each.

We evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the combination of BCP with LA in diabetic rats using ex vivo and in vitro experimentations.

Results from the study revealed that the combination of BCP with LA showed a significant (p < .001) reduction in glucose and lipid levels as compared to individual treatment. In vitro study also supports the diabetic potential of the combination of BCP with LA in the glucose-induced insulin secretion in RIN-5F cell lines.

The study indicates a therapeutic approach to treat T2DM by BCP and LA combination as food and dietary supplement.”

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”

Time-dependent effect of phytocannabinoid treatments in fat cells.

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“The objectives of this paper is to investigate, demonstrate, and compare the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids as antidiabetic and anti-obesity agents in preadipocytes and adipocytes, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin.

Briefly, cannabis extract, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (in very low dosages) were shown to promote glucose uptake higher or to equivalent levels, reduce fat accumulation, and reverse the insulin-resistant state of 3T3-L1 cells more effectively, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. The phytocannabinoids had a more pronounced effect in preadipocytes undifferentiated model rather than the differentiated model. They induced a protective effect at the mitochondrial level by preventing overactivity of the succinate dehydrogenase pathway (p < .01), unlike rosiglitazone, through activation of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase shuttling system. An increase in oxygen consumption and an increased expression of beta to alpha adrenoceptors (p < .05) in treated cells were noted.

These findings contribute toward understanding the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids in fat cells and highlight the antidiabetic and anti-obesity properties of various phytocannabinoids that could potentially support the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance.”

Antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic and toxicity profile of ENV-2: A potent pyrazole derivative against diabetes and related diseases.

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“Diabetes is a major health problem and a predisposition factor for further degenerative complications and, therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. Currently, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptor) antagonists have been considered as promissory entities for metabolic disorders treatment.

Accordingly, the purpose of this work was the evaluation of the sub-acute antidiabetic, anti-hyperglycemic, antidyslipidemic and toxicological profile of ENV-2, a potent hypoglycemic and antioxidant CB1 receptor antagonist.

In this study, ENV-2 showed a pronounced anti-hyperglycemic effect even at a dose of 5mg/kg (P< 0.001) in a glucose tolerance test on normoglycemic rats. Moreover, after administration of ENV-2 (16mg/kg) to diabetic rats, a prominent antidiabetic activity was observed (P< 0.001), which was higher than glibenclamide.

Sub-acute treatment (10 days) of ENV-2 resulted in a significant reduction of plasma glucose (P< 0.001). Also, the levels of peripheral lipids were improved; blood triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (CHOL) were diminished (P< 0.001). In addition, it was found that ENV-2 reduced IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA expression in adipose tissue (P< 0.05). Due to the satisfactory outcomes, we were interested in evaluating the toxicity of ENV-2 in both acute and sub-chronic approaches. Regarding the acute administration, the compound resulted to be non-toxic and was grouped in category 5 according to OECD. It was also found that sub-chronic administration did not increase the size of the studied organs, while no structural damage was observed in heart, lung, liver and kidney tissues. Finally, neither AST nor ALT damage hepatic markers were augmented.”