Effect of cannabidiolic acid and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and edema in a rodent model of inflammatory pain.

“Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating component of cannabis, or the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabiol (THC), shows anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory properties.

OBJECTIVES:

The present study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects of CBD’s potent acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), in a rodent model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in the rat hind paw, when administered systemically (intraperitoneal, i.p.) or orally before and/or after carrageenan. In addition, we assess the effects of oral administration of THC or CBDA, their mechanism of action, and the efficacy of combined ineffective doses of THC and CBDA in this model. Finally, we compare the efficacy of CBD and CBDA.

RESULTS:

CBDA given i.p. 60 min prior to carrageenan (but not 60 min after carrageenan) produced dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, THC or CBDA given by oral gavage 60 min prior to carrageenan produced anti-hyperalgesia effects, and THC reduced inflammation. The anti-hyperalgesia effects of THC were blocked by SR141716 (a cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist), while CBDA’s effects were blocked by AMG9810 (a transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 antagonist). In comparison to CBDA, an equivalent low dose of CBD did not reduce hyperalgesia, suggesting that CBDA is more potent than CBD for this indication. Interestingly, when ineffective doses of CBDA or THC alone were combined, this combination produced an anti-hyperalgesia effect and reduced inflammation.

CONCLUSION:

CBDA or THC alone, as well as very low doses of combined CBDA and THC, has anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects in this animal model of acute inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30225659

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-018-5034-1

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Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, exhibits therapeutic potential for various human diseases, including chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, ischemic stroke, epilepsy and other convulsive syndromes, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic allodynia and certain types of cancer.

CBD does not bind directly to endocannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and despite research efforts, its specific targets remain to be fully identified. Notably, sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) antagonists inhibit glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor (NMDAR) activity and display positive effects on most of the aforesaid diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of CBD on three animal models in which NMDAR overactivity plays a critical role: opioid analgesia attenuation, NMDA-induced convulsive syndrome and ischemic stroke.

In an in vitro assay, CBD disrupted the regulatory association of σ1R with the NR1 subunit of NMDAR, an effect shared by σ1R antagonists, such as BD1063 and progesterone, and prevented by σ1R agonists, such as 4-IBP, PPCC and PRE084. The in vivo administration of CBD or BD1063 enhanced morphine-evoked supraspinal antinociception, alleviated NMDA-induced convulsive syndrome, and reduced the infarct size caused by permanent unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion.

These positive effects of CBD were reduced by the σ1R agonists PRE084 and PPCC, and absent in σ1R-/- mice. Thus, CBD displays antagonist-like activity toward σ1R to reduce the negative effects of NMDAR overactivity in the abovementioned experimental situations.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30223868

https://molecularbrain.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13041-018-0395-2

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Restored Self: A Phenomenological Study of Pain Relief by Cannabis.

Pain Medicine

“OBJECTIVE:

To explore the subjective experience of pain relief by cannabis.

RESULTS:

Three key themes that emerged from the analysis were explored: 1) the Sigh of Relief, describing the corporal sensation of using cannabis, including a sense of relaxation and reduction in pain; 2) the Return to Normality, describing the comprehensive effect of using cannabis, including an increased ability to sleep, focus, and function; and 3) the Side Effects of using cannabis.

CONCLUSIONS:

We propose the term Restored Self to conceptualize the effect of medical cannabis. Restored Self is the experience of regaining one’s sense of self, sense of normality, and sense of control over one’s life.”

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Cannabis analgesia in chronic neuropathic pain is associated with altered brain connectivity.

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“To characterize the functional brain changes involved in δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) modulation of chronic neuropathic pain.

RESULTS:

THC significantly reduced patients’ pain compared to placebo. THC-induced analgesia was correlated with a reduction in functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the degree of reduction was predictive of the response to THC. Graph theory analyses of local measures demonstrated reduction in network connectivity in areas involved in pain processing, and specifically in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which were correlated with individual pain reduction.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that the ACC and DLPFC, 2 major cognitive-emotional modulation areas, and their connections to somatosensory areas, are functionally involved in the analgesic effect of THC in chronic pain. This effect may therefore be mediated through induction of functional disconnection between regulatory high-order affective regions and the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, baseline functional connectivity between these brain areas may serve as a predictor for the extent of pain relief induced by THC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30185448

http://n.neurology.org/content/early/2018/09/05/WNL.0000000000006293

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Should Cannabinoids Be Added to Multimodal Pain Regimens After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty?

Journal of Arthroplasty Home

“This study investigated the effects of dronabinol on pain, nausea, and length of stay following total joint arthroplasty (TJA).

CONCLUSION:

These findings suggest that further investigation into the role of cannabinoid medications for non-opioid pain control in the post-arthroplasty patient may hold merit.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30170713

“In conclusion, our study suggests that cannabinoids may have a role in post-arthroplasty pain management and may reduce patient’s need for opioid-containing pain medications. Further randomized, prospective clinical trials are warranted to shed more light onto the possible beneficial effects of cannabinoid medications in the orthopedic surgery patient population.” https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(18)30670-3/fulltext

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Reprint of: Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of non-pharmacological therapies for chronic pain: An umbrella review on various CAM approaches.

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry

“Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may be used as a non-pharmacological approach to chronic pain management.

Inhaled cannabis, graded motor imagery, and Compound Kushen injection (a form of Chinese medicine) were found the most efficient and tolerable for chronic pain relief.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30107944

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027858461830602X?via%3Dihub

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Personal experience and attitudes of pain medicine specialists in Israel regarding the medical use of cannabis for chronic pain.

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“The scientific study of the role of cannabis in pain medicine still lags far behind the growing use driven by public approval. Accumulated clinical experience is therefore an important source of knowledge. However, no study to date has targeted physicians who actually use cannabis in their daily practice.

RESULTS:

Sixty-four percent of all practicing pain specialists in Israel responded. Almost all prescribe cannabis. Among them, 63% find cannabis moderately to highly effective, 56% have encountered mild or no side effects, and only 5% perceive it as significantly harmful. Common indications are neuropathic pain (65%), oncological pain (50%), arthralgias (25%), and any intractable pain (29%). Leading contraindications are schizophrenia (76%), pregnancy/breastfeeding (65%), and age <18 years (59%). Only 12% rated cannabis as more hazardous than opiates. On a personal note, 45% prefer cannabis for themselves or a family member. Lastly, 54% would like to see cannabis legalized in Israel.

CONCLUSION:

In this survey, pain clinicians experienced in prescribing cannabis over prolonged periods view it as an effective and relatively safe treatment for chronic pain, based on their own experience. Their responses suggest a possible change of paradigm from using cannabis as the last resort.”

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Therapeutic applications of cannabinoids.

Chemico-Biological Interactions

“The psychoactive properties of cannabinoids are well known and there has been a continuous controversy regarding the usage of these compounds for therapeutic purposes all over the world. Their use for medical and research purposes are restricted in various countries. However, their utility as medications should not be overshadowed by their negative physiological activities.

This review article is focused on the therapeutic potential and applications of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids. It highlights their mode of action, overall effects on physiology, various in vitro and in vivo studies that have been done so far and the extent to which these compounds can be useful in different disease conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, pain, inflammation, glaucoma and many others.

Thus, this work is an attempt to make the readers understand the positive implications of these compounds and indicates the significant developments that can occur upon utilizing cannabinoids as therapeutic agents.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30040916

“Cannabinoids can be used as therapeutic agents.”   https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009279718307373?via%3Dihub
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Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and costs associated with the treatment of chronic pain with medical cannabis.

College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists

“Medical cannabis (MC) is commonly claimed to be an effective treatment for chronic or refractory pain. With interest in MC in the United States growing, as evidenced by the 29 states and 3 US districts that now have public MC programs, the need for clinical evidence supporting this claim has never been greater.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective, mirror-image study that investigated MC’s effectiveness in patients suffering from chronic pain associated with qualifying conditions for MC in New York State. The primary outcome was to compare European Quality of Life 5 Dimension Questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Pain Quality Assessment Scale (PQAS) scores at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. The secondary outcomes included comparisons of monthly analgesic prescription costs and opioid consumption pre- and post-therapy. Tolerability was assessed by side effect incidence.

RESULTS:

This investigation included 29 subjects. Quality of life and pain improved, measured by change in EQ-5D (Pre 36 - Post 64, P < .0001) and change in PQAS paroxysmal (Pre 6.76 - Post 2.04, P < .0001), surface (Pre 4.20 - Post 1.30, P < .0001), deep (Pre 5.87 - Post 2.03, P < .0001), unpleasant (Pre “miserable” - Post “annoying”, P < .0001). Adverse effects were reported in 10% of subjects.

DISCUSSION:

After 3 months treatment, MC improved quality of life, reduced pain and opioid use, and lead to cost savings. Large randomized clinical trials are warranted to further evaluate the role of MC in the treatment of chronic pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29955555

http://mhc.cpnp.org/doi/10.9740/mhc.2018.05.110

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Role of the cannabinoid signaling in the brain orexin- and ghrelin-induced visceral antinociception in conscious rats.

Journal of Pharmacological Sciences

“We hypothesized that the cannabinoid (CB) system may mediate the brain orexin- or ghrelin-induced visceral antinociception. Intraperitoneal injection of either CB1/2 agonist, WIN 55212 or O-Arachidonoyl ethanolamine increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex in rats, suggesting CB could induce visceral antinociception. Pretreatment with either the CB1 or CB2 antagonist potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension while CB2 but not CB1 antagonist blocked the brain ghrelin-induced visceral antinociception. These results suggest that the cannabinoid signaling may be involved in the central orexin- or ghrelin-induced antinociceptive action in a different mechanistic manner.”

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