Continuous Intrathecal Infusion of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists Attenuates Nerve Ligation-Induced Pain in Rats.

 

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“Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R/CB2R) are known to play important roles in pain transmission.

In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous intrathecal infusion of CB1/2R agonists in the L5/6 spinal nerve ligation pain model.

Continuous intrathecal infusion of CB1/2R agonists elicits antinociception in the pain model.

The mechanisms might involve their actions on neurons and glial cells. CB2R, but not CB1R, seems to play an important role in the regulation of nerve injury-induced neuroinflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28492437

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Combined cannabinoid therapy via an oromucosal spray.

“Extensive basic science research has identified the potential therapeutic benefits of active compounds extracted from the Cannabis sativa L. plant (the cannabinoids). It is recognized that a significant proportion of patients suffering with the debilitating symptoms of pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis or other conditions smoke cannabis despite the legal implications and stigma associated with this controlled substance. GW Pharmaceuticals have developed Sativex (GW- 1000-02), a combined cannabinoid medicine that delivers and maintains therapeutic levels of two principal cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), via an oromucosal pump spray, that aims to minimize psychotropic side effects.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16969427

“Sativex has proved to be well tolerated and successfully self-administered and self-titrated in both healthy volunteers and patient cohorts. Clinical assessment of this combined cannabinoid medicine has demonstrated efficacy in patients with intractable pain (chronic neuropathic pain, pain due to brachial plexus nerve injury, allodynic peripheral neuropathic pain and advanced cancer pain), rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis (bladder problems, spasticity and central pain), with no significant intoxication-like symptoms, tolerance or withdrawal syndrome.”  https://journals.prous.com/journals/servlet/xmlxsl/pk_journals.xml_summaryn_pr?p_JournalId=4&p_RefId=1021517

“Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) oromucosal spray contains the two main active constituents of Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 molecular ratio, and acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449855

“Abuse potential and psychoactive effects of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol oromucosal spray (Sativex), a new cannabinoid medicine. Evidence to date suggests that abuse or dependence on Sativex is likely to occur in only a very small proportion of recipients.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21542664

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Cannabinoid CB2 receptor ligand profiling reveals biased signalling and off-target activity

“The cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R) represents a promising therapeutic target for various forms of tissue injury and inflammatory diseases. There is a great interest in the development of selective type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) agonists as potential drug candidates for various pathophysiological conditions, which include chronic and inflammatory pain, pruritus, diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy, liver cirrhosis, and protective effects after ischaemic-reperfusion injury.” https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13958

“Pain relief without the high. Researchers at Leiden University led by Mario van der Stelt (Leiden Institute for Chemistry) have set ‘gold standards’ for developing new painkillers based on the medicinal effects of cannabis.”  https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170104103916.htm

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Antihyperalgesic Activities of Endocannabinoids in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

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“Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs.

Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy.

Conclusion: These data show that ddC induces thermal hyperalgesia, which is associated with dysregulation of the mRNA expression of some endocannabinoid system molecules. The endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG have antihyperalgesic activity, which is dependent on cannabinoid receptor and GPR55 activation. Thus, agonists of cannabinoid receptors and GPR55 could be useful therapeutic agents for the management of NRTI-induced painful sensory neuropathy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28373843

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Effects of JWH015 in cytokine secretion in primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts and its suitability for topical/transdermal delivery.

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“JWH015 is a cannabinoid (CB) receptor type 2 agonist that produces immunomodulatory effects. Since skin cells play a key role in inflammatory conditions and tissue repair, we investigated the ability of JWH015 to promote an anti-inflammatory and pro-wound healing phenotype in human primary skin cells.

The expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors (mRNA) and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors enhanced in keratinocytes and fibroblasts following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. JWH015 reduced the concentration of major pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6 and MCP-1) and increased the concentration of a major anti-inflammatory factor (TGF-β) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.

JWH015 induced a faster scratch gap closure. These JWH015’seffects were mainly modulated through both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Topically administered JWH015 was mostly retained in the skin and displayed a sustained and low level of transdermal permeation.

Our findings suggest that targeting keratinocytes and fibroblasts with cannabinoid drugs could represent a therapeutic strategy to resolve peripheral inflammation and promote tissue repair.”

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Cannabinoids for treating inflammatory bowel diseases: where are we and where do we go?

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“Fifty years after the discovery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the psychoactive component of Cannabis, we are assessing the possibility of translating this herb into clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs).

Here, a discussion on the problems associated with a potential treatment is given.

From first surveys and small clinical studies in patients with IBD we have learned that Cannabis is frequently used to alleviate diarrhea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite.

Single ingredients from Cannabis, such as THC and cannabidiol, commonly described as cannabinoids, are responsible for these effects. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are also termed cannabinoids, some of which, like dronabinol and nabilone, are already available with a narcotic prescription.

Recent data on the effects of Cannabis/cannabinoids in experimental models of IBD and in clinical trials with IBD patients have been reviewed using a PubMed database search. A short background on the endocannabinoid system is also provided.

Expert commentary: Cannabinoids could be helpful for certain symptoms of IBD, but there is still a lack of clinical studies to prove efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoid-based medication for IBD patients, leaving medical professionals without evidence and guidelines.”

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Compensatory Activation of Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Inhibition of GABA Release in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla in Inflammatory Pain.

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“The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a relay in the descending pain modulatory system and an important site of endocannabinoid modulation of pain.

Our data provide evidence that CB2 receptor function emerges in the RVM in persistent inflammation and that selective CB2 receptor agonists may be useful for treatment of persistent inflammatory pain.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:

These studies demonstrate that endocannabinoid signaling to CB1 and CB2 receptors in adult rostral ventromedial medulla is altered in persistent inflammation. The emergence of CB2 receptor function in the rostral ventromedial medulla provides additional rationale for the development of CB2 receptor-selective agonists as useful therapeutics for chronic inflammatory pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28100744

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Synergistic attenuation of chronic pain using mu opioid and cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists.

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“The misuse of prescription opiates is on the rise with combination therapies (e.g. acetaminophen or NSAIDs) resulting in severe liver and kidney damage. In recent years, cannabinoid receptors have been identified as potential modulators of pain and rewarding behaviors associated with cocaine, nicotine and ethanol in preclinical models. Yet, few studies have identified whether mu opioid agonists and CB2 agonists act synergistically to inhibit chronic pain while reducing unwanted side effects including reward liability.

We determined if analgesic synergy exists between the mu-opioid agonist morphine and the selective CB2 agonist, JWH015, in rodent models of acute and chronic inflammatory, post-operative, and neuropathic pain using isobolographic analysis. We also investigated if the MOR-CB2 agonist combination decreased morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and slowing of gastrointestinal transit. Co-administration of morphine with JWH015 synergistically inhibited preclinical inflammatory, post-operative and neuropathic-pain in a dose- and time-dependent manner; no synergy was observed for nociceptive pain. Opioid-induced side effects of impaired gastrointestinal transit and CPP were significantly reduced in the presence of JWH015.

Here we show that MOR + CB2 agonism results in a significant synergistic inhibition of preclinical pain while significantly reducing opioid-induced unwanted side effects.

The opioid sparing effect of CB2 receptor agonism strongly supports the advancement of a MOR-CB2 agonist combinatorial pain therapy for clinical trials.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28007501

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The use of cannabinoids (CBs) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN): A retrospective review.

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“CIPN is a common toxicity associated with the use of chemotherapy (CT) agents such as platinums, taxanes and vinca alkaloids. Patients (pts) may suffer from pain that adversely affects their quality of life, regardless of their disease trajectory.

Preclinical research has shown CBs to be effective in preventing CIPN.

CBs can be beneficial for cancer pain, although their specific benefit in pts with CIPN remains unknown.

Treatment with CBs appears to benefit some pts with CIPN.

Further research is needed to explore the optimal use of CBs in pts with CIPN.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27962037

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Compensatory activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptor inhibition of GABA release in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in inflammatory pain.

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“The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a relay in the descending pain modulatory system and an important site of endocannabinoid modulation of pain.

These studies demonstrate that endocannabinoid signaling to CB1- and CB2-receptors in adult RVM is altered in persistent inflammation.

The emergence of CB2 receptor function in the RVM provides additional rationale for the development of CB2 receptor-selective agonists as useful therapeutics for chronic inflammatory pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27940994

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