Chemical Analysis of the Antihyperglycemic, and Pancreatic α-Amylase, Lipase, and Intestinal α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Cannabis sativa L. Seed Extracts

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“Cannabis is considered (Cannabis sativa L.) a sacred herb in many countries and is vastly employed in traditional medicine to remedy numerous diseases, such as diabetes.

This research investigates the chemical composition of the aqueous extracts from Cannabis sativa L. seeds. Furthermore, the impact of these extracts on pancreatic α-amylase and lipase, and intestinal α-glucosidase enzymes is evaluated, as well as their antihyperglycemic effect. Analysis of the chemical composition of the aqueous extract was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD). In contrast, the ethanol, hexanic, dichloromethane, and aqueous extract compositions have been established. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of ethanolic, dichloromethane, and aqueous extracts on pancreatic α-amylase and lipase, and intestinal α-glucosidase activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo.

The results of HPLC analysis indicate that the most abundant phenolic compound in the aqueous cannabis seed extract is 3-hydroxycinnamic acid, followed by 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and rutin acid. Moreover, administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts at a dose of 150 mg/Kg significantly suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia compared to the control group; the ethanolic, dichloromethane, and aqueous extracts significantly inhibit pancreatic α-amylase and lipase, and intestinal α-glucosidase in vitro. The pancreatic α-amylase test exhibited an inhibition with IC50 values of 16.36 ± 1.24 µg/mL, 19.33 ± 1.40 µg/mL, 23.53 ± 1.70 µg/mL, and 17.06 ± 9.91 µg/mL for EAq, EDm, EET, and EHx, respectively. EET has the highest inhibitory capacity for intestinal α-glucosidase activity, with an IC50 of 32.23 ± 3.26 µg/mL. The extracts inhibit porcine pancreatic lipase activity, demonstrating their potential as lipase inhibitors. Specifically, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the highest inhibition rate (77%) was observed for EDm. To confirm these results, the inhibitory effect of these extracts on enzymes was tested in vivo. The oral intake of aqueous extract markedly reduced starch- and sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in healthy rats. Administration of the ethanolic extract at a specific dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced postprandial glycemia compared with the control group.

It is, therefore, undeniable that cannabis extracts represent a promising option as a potentially effective treatment for type 2 diabetes.”

“The cultivation of cannabis seeds in Morocco has sparked interest in exploring their potential applications. Our research has revealed their ability, both in vitro and in vivo, to inhibit the activity of ⍺-amylase, pancreatic lipase, and intestinal ⍺-glucosidase. These enzymes play a crucial role in sugar digestion, and the observed hypoglycemic effects suggest the potential of our hemp seed extract in diabetes prevention. This effect can be explained by the presence of phenolic compounds as well as the notable antioxidant potency of the extracts, as substantiated by our prior investigations.The results of this study show interesting anti-diabetic activity, suggesting its application in the medical field and food industry. “

How Does CBG Administration Affect Sphingolipid Deposition in the Liver of Insulin-Resistant Rats?

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“Background: Cannabigerol (CBG), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa plants, has been the focus of recent studies due to its potential therapeutic properties. We proposed that by focusing on sphingolipid metabolism, which plays a critical role in insulin signaling and the development of insulin resistance, CBG may provide a novel therapeutic approach for metabolic disorders, particularly insulin resistance.

Methods: In a rat model of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHS), we aimed to elucidate the effect of intragastrically administered CBG on hepatic sphingolipid deposition and metabolism. Moreover, we also elucidated the expression of sphingolipid transporters and changes in the sphingolipid concentration in the plasma.

Results: The results, surprisingly, showed a lack of changes in de novo ceramide synthesis pathway enzymes and significant enhancement in the expression of enzymes involved in ceramide catabolism, which was confirmed by changes in hepatic sphingomyelin, sphinganine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and sphinganine-1-phosphate concentrations.

Conclusions: The results suggest that CBG treatment may modulate sphingolipid metabolism in the liver and plasma, potentially protecting the liver against the development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance.”

Inhibitory effects of selected cannabinoids against dipeptidyl peptidase IV, an enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes

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“Ethnopharmacological relevance: In recent times the decriminalisation of cannabis globally has increased its use as an alternative medication. Where it has been used in modern medicinal practises since the 1800s, there is limited scientific investigation to understand the biological activities of this plant.

Aim of the study: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) plays a key role in regulating glucose homeostasis, and inhibition of this enzyme has been used as a therapeutic approach to treat type 2 diabetes. However, some of the synthetic inhibitors for this enzyme available on the market may cause undesirable side effects. Therefore, it is important to identify new inhibitors of DPP-IV and to understand their interaction with this enzyme.

Methods: In this study, four cannabinoids (cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabinol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against recombinant human DPP-IV and their potential inhibition mechanism was explored using both in vitro and in silico approaches.

Results: All four cannabinoids resulted in a dose-dependent response with IC50 values of between 4.0 and 6.9 μg/mL. Kinetic analysis revealed a mixed mode of inhibition. CD spectra indicated that binding of cannabinoids results in structural and conformational changes in the secondary structure of the enzyme. These findings were supported by molecular docking studies which revealed best docking scores at both active and allosteric sites for all tested inhibitors. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations showed that cannabinoids formed a stable complex with DPP-IV protein via hydrogen bonds at an allosteric site, suggesting that cannabinoids act by either inducing conformational changes or blocking the active site of the enzyme.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that cannabinoids may modulate DPP-IV activity and thereby potentially assist in improving glycaemic regulation in type 2 diabetes.”

Impacts of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats: Role of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

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“Despite the current optimal therapy, patients with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury still experience a high mortality rate, especially when diabetes mellitus is present as a comorbidity. Investigating potential treatments aimed at improving the outcomes of myocardial IR injury in diabetic patients is necessary. Our objective was to ascertain the cardioprotective effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) against myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats and examine the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in mediating this effect. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (8-10 weeks old, 200-250 g; n = 60) by a single injection of streptozotocin. The duration of the diabetic period was 10 weeks. During the last 4 weeks of diabetic period, rats were treated with THC (1.5 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally), either alone or in combination with LY294002, and then underwent IR intervention. After 24 h of reperfusion, infarct size, cardiac function, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac-specific isoform of troponin-I (cTn-I) levels, myocardial apoptosis, oxidative stress markers, and expression of PTEN, PI3K, and Akt proteins were evaluated. THC pretreatment resulted in significant improvements in infarct size and cardiac function and decreases in LDH and cTn-I levels (P < 0.05). It also reduced myocardial apoptosis and oxidative stress, accompanied by the downregulation of PTEN expression and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (P < 0.05). LY294002 pretreatment abolished the cardioprotective action of THC. This study revealed the cardioprotective effects of THC against IR-induced myocardial injury in diabetic rats and also suggested that the mechanism may be associated with enhanced activity of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway through the reduction of PTEN phosphorylation.”

“Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and has been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions. THC has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may reduce the inflammation and oxidative stress associated with myocardial IR injury.[ Recent studies have suggested that THC improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and reduces blood glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, and inflammation associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy.”;year=2023;volume=66;issue=6;spage=446;epage=455;aulast=Zhao

The pharmacology and therapeutic role of cannabidiol in diabetes

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“In recent years, cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, has garnered substantial interest in drug development due to its broad pharmacological activity and multi-target effects. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that can damage multiple organs in the body, leading to the development of complications such as abnormal kidney function, vision loss, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease. CBD has demonstrated significant therapeutic potential in treating diabetes mellitus and its complications owing to its various pharmacological effects. This work summarizes the role of CBD in diabetes and its impact on complications such as cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Strategies for discovering molecular targets for CBD in the treatment of diabetes and its complications are also proposed. Moreover, ways to optimize the structure of CBD based on known targets to generate new CBD analogues are explored.”

“CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, which has demonstrated great translational potential. According to the current experimental results, CBD is of great value in the treatment of diabetes and its complications. CBD can improve pancreatic islet function, reduce pancreatic inflammation and improve insulin resistance. For diabetic complications, CBD not only has a preventive effect but also has a therapeutic value for existing diabetic complications and improves the function of target organs.”

Molecular Docking Integrated with Network Pharmacology Explores the Therapeutic Mechanism of Cannabis sativa against Type 2 Diabetes

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“The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rising, and finding new treatments is important. C. sativa is a plant suggested as a potential treatment for T2D, but how it works needs to be clarified. This study explored the pharmacological mechanism of C. sativa in treating T2D. We identified the active compounds in C. sativa and their targets. From there, we examined the genes associated with T2D and found overlapping genes. We conducted an enrichment analysis and created a protein-protein and target-compound interactions network. We confirmed the binding activities of the hub proteins and compounds with molecular docking. We identified thirteen active compounds from C. sativa, which have 150 therapeutic targets in T2D. The enrichment analysis showed that these proteins are involved in the hormone, lipid, and stress responses. They bind transcription factors and metals and participate in the insulin, PI3K/Akt, HIF-1, and FoxO signaling pathways. We found four hub proteins (EGFR, ESR1, HSP90AA1, and SRC) that bind to the thirteen bioactive compounds. This was verified using molecular docking. Our findings suggest that C. sativa‘s antidiabetic action is carried out through the insulin signaling pathway, with the participation of HIF-1 and FoxO.”

β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Phytocannabinoid, Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Activating Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptors

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“Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are considered one of the major health risks globally. Among numerous complications, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by increased accumulation of lipids and reduced glucose utilization following abnormal lipid metabolism in the myocardium along with oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis, and inflammation that eventually result in cardiac dysfunction. The abnormal metabolism of lipids plays a fundamental role in cardiac lipotoxicity following the occurrence and development of DCM. Recently, it has been revealed that cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors, an essential component of the endocannabinoid system, play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity, hyperlipidemia, and DM. Provided the role of CB2R in regulating the glucolipid metabolic dysfunction and its antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities, we carried out the current study to investigate the protective effects of a selective CB2R agonist, β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural dietary cannabinoid in the murine model of DCM and elucidated the underlying pharmacological and molecular mechanisms. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg) to induce the model of DCM. BCP (50 mg/kg body weight) was given orally for 12 weeks. AM630, a CB2R antagonist, was given 30 min before BCP treatment to demonstrate the CB2R-dependent mechanism of BCP. DCM mice exhibited hyperglycemia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, impaired cardiac function, and hypertrophy. In addition, DCM mice showed alternations in serum lipids and increased oxidative stress concomitant to reduced antioxidant defenses and enhanced cardiac lipid accumulation in the diabetic heart. DCM mice also exhibited activation of TLR4/NF-κB/MAPK signaling and triggered the production of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzyme mediators. However, treatment with BCP exerted remarkable protective effects by favorable modulation of the biochemical and molecular parameters, which were altered in DCM mice. Interestingly, pretreatment with AM630 abrogated the protective effects of BCP in DCM mice. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrate that BCP possesses the capability to mitigate the progression of DCM by inhibition of lipotoxicity-mediated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and favorable modulation of TLR4/NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways mediating the CB2R-dependent mechanism.”

Association between cannabis use and risk of diabetes mellitus type 2: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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“Background: Cannabis consumption exerts multiple effects on metabolism via various pathways, including glucose regulation and insulin secretion. Studies concerning the association between cannabis use and diabetes mellitus type 2 are discrepant.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the association between cannabis use and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Search methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Proquest, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library with no time, language or study types restriction until July 1, 2022, using various forms of “cannabis” and “diabetes mellitus” search terms.

Selection criteria: Randomized control trials, cohort, and case-control studies investigating the relationship between cannabis consumption and diabetes mellitus type 2 were included.

Data collection and analysis: The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of studies. We pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random-effects model, generic inverse variance method, DerSimonian and Laird approach.

Main results: A meta-analysis of seven studies, containing 11 surveys and 4 cohorts, revealed that the odds of developing T2DM in individuals exposed to cannabis was 0.48 times (95% CI: 0.39 to 0.59) lower than in those without cannabis exposure.

Conclusions: A protective effect of cannabis consumption on the odds of diabetes mellitus type 2 development has been suggested. Yet given the considerable interstudy heterogeneity, the upward trend of cannabis consumption and cannabis legalization is recommended to conduct studies with higher levels of evidence.”

Cannabidiol ameliorates inflammatory response partly by AGE-RAGE pathway in diabetic mice

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“Cannabidiol (CBD), the most abundant nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa plant, is a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of diabetes and associated comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the potential of CBD to prevent diabetes in mice, the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of CBD alleviating hyperglycemia. The results demonstrated that CBD reduced blood glucose of STZ-induced diabetic mice without causing hypoglycemia. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of CBD effect, RNA-seq analysis was performed on high glucose-induced human mesangial cells (HMCs). By cluster analysis of differential genes, the results showed that advanced glycation end products-receptor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE-RAGE) pathway-related genes CCL2 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) play an important role in the biological of CBD. The expression of CCL2 and IL-1β were significantly increased in HMCs. Whereas, treatment with CBD decreased the expression of CCL2 and IL-1β. In addition, CBD significantly reduced AGE-RAGE levels in high glucose-induced HMCs. Similar results were confirmed in diabetic mice. In conclusion, we discovered for the first time that CBD ameliorates hyperglycemia partly through AGE-RAGE mediated CCL2/IL-1β pathway.”


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“Background: Cannabis (Δ9THC), a non-selective cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonist relieves nausea and pain. Cannabidiol (CBD), a CBR2 inverse agonist with central effects, also reduces gut sensation and inflammation.

Aims: To compare effects of 4 weeks’ treatment with pharmaceutical CBD vs. placebo in patients with idiopathic (IG) or diabetic (DM) gastroparesis.

Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of CBD b.i.d. (Epidiolex® escalated to 20mg/kg/day) in patients with nonsurgical gastroparesis with delayed gastric emptying of solids (GES). Symptoms were assessed by Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index Daily Diary (GCSI-DD). After 4 weeks’ treatment, we measured GES, gastric volumes, and Ensure® satiation test (1kcal/mL, 30mL/min) to assess volume to comfortable fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerance (MTV). Patients underwent specific FAAH and CNR1 genotyping. Statistical analysis compared 2 treatments using ANOVA including baseline measurements and BMI as covariates.

Results: Among 44 patients (32 IG, 6 DM1, and 6 DM2), 5 patients did not tolerate full dose escalation; 3 withdrew before completing 4 weeks’ treatment (2 placebo, 1 CBD); 95% completed 4 weeks’ treatment and diaries. Compared to placebo, CBD reduced total GCSI score (P=0.008), inability to finish a normal-sized meal (P=0.029), number of vomiting episodes/24 hours (P=0.006), and overall symptom severity (P=0.034). Patients treated with CBD had higher VTF and MTV and slower GES. FAAH rs34420 genotype significantly impacted nutrient drink ingestion. The most common adverse events reported were diarrhea (14), fatigue (8), headache (8), and nausea (7).

Conclusions: CBD provides symptom relief in patients with gastroparesis and improves the tolerance of liquid nutrient intake, despite slowing of GES.”