Involvement of endocannabinoid system, inflammation and apoptosis in diabetes induced liver injury: Role of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

International Immunopharmacology“Confident relationships between diabetes and liver damage have previously been established.

This study was designed to evaluate hepaticinflammation, apoptosis, and endocannabinoid system alterations in diabetes with or without tropisetron treatment.

These findings strongly support the idea that diabetes-induced liver abnormality is mediated by inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, and endocannabinoid system, and that these effects can be alleviated by using tropisetron as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31926479

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567576919322684?via%3Dihub

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The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases.

 ijms-logo“Endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. CB2, to a great extent, and CB1, to a lesser extent, are involved in regulating the immune response. They also regulate the inflammatory processes by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator release and immune cell proliferation. This review provides an overview on the role of the endocannabinoid system with a major focus on cannabinoid receptors in the pathogenesis and onset of inflammatory and autoimmune pediatric diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, obesity, neuroinflammatory diseases, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These disorders have a high social impact and represent a burden for the healthcare system, hence the importance of individuating more innovative and effective treatments. The endocannabinoid system could address this need, representing a possible new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31771129

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/5875

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The Expanded Endocannabinoid System/Endocannabinoidome as a Potential Target for Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

 “The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, i.e. the receptors that respond to the psychoactive component of cannabis, their endogenous ligands and the ligand metabolic enzymes, is part of a larger family of lipid signals termed the endocannabinoidome (eCBome). We summarize recent discoveries of the roles that the eCBome plays within peripheral tissues in diabetes, and how it is being targeted, in an effort to develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of this increasingly prevalent disease.

RECENT FINDINGS:

As with the eCB system, many eCBome members regulate several physiological processes, including energy intake and storage, glucose and lipid metabolism and pancreatic health, which contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Preclinical studies increasingly support the notion that targeting the eCBome may beneficially affect T2D. The eCBome is implicated in T2D at several levels and in a variety of tissues, making this complex lipid signaling system a potential source of many potential therapeutics for the treatments for T2D.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31686231

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11892-019-1248-9

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Cannabidiol improves metabolic dysfunction in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Chemico-Biological Interactions“Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound obtained from Cannabis sativa, has wide range of therapeutic properties, including mitigation of diabetes and neurodegeneration.

Cerebral ischemia and consequent learning disabilities are aggravated in elderly diabetic subjects. However, there are no studies showing the effect of CBD treatment in elderly diabetes patients suffering cerebral ischemia.

The present work tested the hypothesis that CBD treatment improves metabolic dysfunctions in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

CBD may be used as therapeutic tool to protect metabolism against injuries from diabetes aggravated by cerebral ischemia.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31499052

“CBD reduced hyperglycemia of middle-aged diabetic rats with CCH. CBD increased insulin secretion and decreased AGEs levels. CBD reduced fructosamine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. CBD presented hepatoprotective effect. CBD could mitigate neurodegeneration caused by DM associated to cerebral ischemia.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S000927971930701X?via%3Dihub

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

European Journal of Pharmacology“The biological effects of endocannabinoid system are mediated by two types of receptors, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2). They play a pivotal role in the management of pain, inflammation, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

CB2 receptor activity downregulation is hallmark of inflammation and oxidative stress. Strong evidence display the relation between activation of CB2 receptors with decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic factors. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been validated to confirm the role of CB2 receptor in the management of obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism.

Activation of CB2 receptor has led to reduction of inflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κβ) and also amelioration of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species playing role in apoptosis. Many studies confirmed the role of CB2 receptors in the insulin secretion via facilitating calcium entry into the pancreatic β-cells. CB2 receptors also displayed improvement in the neuronal and renal functions by decreasing the oxidative stress and downregulating inflammatory cascade.

The present review addresses, potential role of CB2 receptor activation in management of diabetes and its complications. It also includes the role of CB2 receptors as an anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory for the treatment of DM and its complications. Also, an informative summary of CB2 receptor agonist drugs is provided with their potential role in the reduction of glucose levels, increment in the insulin levels, decrease in the hyperglycaemic oxidative stress and inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461639

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299919305801?via%3Dihub

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Lifetime marijuana use in relation to insulin resistance in lean, overweight, and obese US adults.

Journal of Diabetes banner“Obese individuals are more likely to show insulin resistance (IR). However, limited population studies on marijuanause with markers of IR have yielded mixed results.

The aim of this study was to examine the association of marijuana use with IR in US adults with different body mass index (BMI) status.

RESULTS:

Of all 129 509 adults aged 18 to 59 years, 50.3% were women. In current obese marijuana consumers, mean FINS in those with less than four uses per month was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19%-71%) lower than in never users. In former obese consumers with eight or more uses per month and who stopped marijuana use <12 months ago, mean FINS was 47% (95% CI 18%-66%) lower than in never users. Mean FINS in those who quit marijuana 12 to 119 and 120 months and more prior the survey was 36% (95% CI 7%-57%) and 36% (95% CI 10%-54%) lower, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Marijuana use is associated with lower FINS and HOMA-IR in obese but not non-obese adults, even at low frequency of less than four uses per month. Former marijuana consumers with high lifetime use had significantly lower FINS levels that persisted, independent of the duration of time since last use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31152633

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1753-0407.12958

“Cannabis linked to lower insulin levels in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes”   https://www.diabetes.co.uk/News/2019/Jul/cannabis-linked-to-lower-insulin-levels-in-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-99514193.html

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Impact of lifetime marijuana use on fasting plasma insulin levels and HOMA-IR score in obese adults with and without insulin resistance.

 

“To explore the association of marijuana use with mean plasma fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score in obese adults with different HOMA-IR.

RESULTS:

A total of 65,209 obese individuals aged 18 to 59 years were included. In obese individuals who never used marijuana(reference), the mean value (± standard deviation) was 19.0 (± 12.8) μU/mL for plasma fasting insulin and 4.78 (± 3.49) for HOMA-IR. In individuals with HOMA-IR < 2.13 or ≥ 5.72, we found no association of marijuana use with HOMA-IR. In those with HOMA-IR < 5.72, the highest tertile of MLU (i.e., ≥ 1799 times) was associated with 12% decrease (95% confidence intervals, 4-19%) in the fasting insulin and 10% decrease in HOMA-IR (95% CI 1-19%), as compared with their counterparts who never used marijuana. In those with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.13, we found a marked impact of marijuana use only in adults who used marijuana ≥ 1799 times, with 13% decrease (95% CI 5-19%) in fasting insulin and 10% decrease (95% CI 3-18%) in HOMA-IR score.

CONCLUSIONS:

Marijuana use is associated with reduced fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR score in US obese adults with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.13, but not in those with HOMA-IR < 2.13 or ≥ 5.72. The impact of marijuana use is the greatest after long-term exposure and is independent of BMI.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31367991

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00592-019-01390-x

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Overcoming the psychiatric side effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists: Current approaches for therapeutics development.

“The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CBR1) is involved in a variety of physiological pathways and has long been considered a golden target for therapeutic manipulation. A large body of evidence in both animal and human studies suggests that CB1R antagonism is highly effective for the treatment of obesity, metabolic disorders and drug addiction. However, the first-in-class CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, though demonstrating effectiveness for obesity treatment and smoking cessation, displays serious psychiatric side effects, including anxiety, depression and even suicidal ideation, resulting in its eventual withdrawal from the European market. Several strategies are currently being pursued to circumvent the mechanisms leading to these side effects by developing neutral antagonists, peripherally restricted ligands, and allosteric modulators. In this review, we describe the progress in the development of therapeutics targeting the cannabinoid receptor 1 in the last two decades.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31284863

http://www.eurekaselect.com/173316/article

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Diet, endocannabinoids, and health.

Nutrition Research“Healthy aging includes freedom from disease, ability to engage in physical activity, and maintenance of cognitive skills for which diet is a major lifestyle factor. Aging, diet, and health are at the forefront of well-being for the growing population of older adults with the caveat of reducing and controlling pain. Obesity and diabetes risk increase in frequency in adults, and exercise is encouraged to control weight, reduce risk of type II diabetes, and maintain muscle mass and mobility.

One area of research that appears to integrate many aspects of healthy aging is focused on understanding the endocannabinoid system (ECS) because of its role in systemic energy metabolism, inflammation, pain, and brain biology. Physical activity is important for maintaining health throughout the life cycle. The benefits of exercise facilitate macronutrient use, promote organ health, and augment the maintenance of metabolic activity and physiological functions. One outcome of routine exercise is a generalized well-being, and perhaps, this is linked to the ECS.

The purpose of this review is to briefly present the current knowledge of key components of the ECS that contribute to appetite and influence systemic energy metabolism, and dietary factors that alter the responses of ligand binding and activation of cannabinoidreceptors and its role in the brain. Herein, the objectives are to (1) explain the role of the ECS in the body, (2) describe the relationship between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and macronutrient intake and systemic metabolism, and (3) present areas of promising research where exercise induces endocannabinoid production in the brain to benefit well-being. There are many gaps in the knowledge of how the ECS participates in controlling pain through exercise; however, emerging research will reveal key relationships to understand this system in the brain and body.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31280882

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027153171930572X?via%3Dihub

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Lifetime marijuana use in relation to insulin resistance in lean, overweight and obese U.S. adults.

Journal of Diabetes banner“Obese individuals are more likely to show insulin resistance (IR). However, limited population studies on marijuana use with markers of IR yield mixed results.

METHODS:

We abstracted data from the 2009-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated the minimal lifetime marijuana use using the duration of regular exposure and the frequency of use. We used generalized linear models to determine the association of marijuana use with both fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in lean, overweight and obese individuals, separately. We used interview weight years of data to account for the unequal probability of sampling and non-response.

RESULTS:

Of the total of 129,509 adults aged 18 to 59 years, 50.3% were women. In current obese consumers, the mean insulin in those with < 4 uses/months was 52% (95% CI: 19% to 71%) lower than in never users. Former obese consumers with ≥ 8 uses/month and who stopped marijuana use < 12 months showed 47% (95% CI: 18% to 66%) lower insulin. Those with last use of 12-119 months and ≥ 120 months had 36% (95% CI: 7% to 57%) and 36% (95% CI: 10% to 54%) lower insulin, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Marijuana use is associated with lower fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in obese but not in non-obese adults, even at low frequency of < 4 uses per month. Former consumers with high lifetime use had a significant lower insulin levels which persists, independent of the duration of time since last use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31152633

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1753-0407.12958

Study: Cannabis Protective Against Diabetes Among Those Overweight”  https://norml.org/news/2019/06/20/study-cannabis-protective-against-diabetes-among-those-overweight

“Cannabis use could help prevent diabetes”  https://mogreenway.com/2019/06/24/cannabis-use-could-help-prevent-diabetes/

“Cannabis linked to lower insulin levels in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes”  https://www.diabetes.co.uk/news/2019/jul/cannabis-linked-to-lower-insulin-levels-in-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-99514193.html

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