Do Endocannabinoids Regulate Glucose Reabsorption in the Kidney?

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“Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a distinct manifestation of diabetic kidney disease, affects approximately 30% of patients with diabetes. While most attention has been focused on glomerular changes related to DN, there is growing evidence that tubulopathy is a key feature in the pathogenesis of this disease. The renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) are particularly sensitive to the deleterious effect of chronic hyperglycemia. However, the cellular changes that control the dysfunction of the RPTCs are not fully understood.

Controlling glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubules via inhibition of glucose transporters (GLUT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic in ameliorating DN.

Overactivation of the renal endocannabinoid (eCB) system via the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) contributes to the development of DN, and its blockade by globally acting or peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists has been shown to ameliorate renal dysfunction in different murine models for diabetes. Recently, we have utilized various pharmacological and genetic tools to show that the eCB/CB1R system contributes to the development of DN via regulating the expression, translocation, and activity of the facilitative GLUT2 located in the RPTCs.

These findings have the potential to be translated into therapy, and support the rationale for the preclinical development of novel renal-specific CB1R and/or GLUT2 inhibitors for the treatment of DN.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30636250

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/494512

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The effects of cannabinoids on the endocrine system.

“Cannabinoids are the derivatives of the cannabis plant, the most potent bioactive component of which is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The most commonly used drugs containing cannabinoids are marijuana, hashish, and hashish oil.

These compounds exert their effects via interaction with the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Type 1 receptors (CB1) are localised mostly in the central nervous system and in the adipose tissue and many visceral organs, including most endocrine organs. Type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2) are positioned in the peripheral nervous system (peripheral nerve endings) and on the surface of the immune system cells.

Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the role that endogenous ligands play for these receptors, as well as to the role of the receptors themselves. So far, endogenous cannabinoids have been confirmed to participate in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis of the body, and have a significant impact on the endocrine system, including the activity of the pituitary gland, adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, pancreas, and gonads.

Interrelations between the endocannabinoid system and the activity of the endocrine system may be a therapeutic target for a number of drugs that have been proved effective in the treatment of infertility, obesity, diabetes, and even prevention of diseases associated with the cardiovascular system.”

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Blood-brain barrier disturbances in diabetes-associated dementia: Therapeutic potential for cannabinoids.

Pharmacological Research

“Type-2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk of dementia by ˜5-fold, however the mechanisms by which T2D increases dementia risk remain unclear. Evidence suggests that the heightened inflammation and oxidative stress in T2D may lead to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which precedes premature cognitive decline. Studies show that vascular-targeted anti-inflammatory treatments protect the BBB by attenuating neuroinflammation, and in some studies attenuate cognitive decline. Yet, this potential pathway is understudied in T2D-associated cognitive impairment.

In recent years, therapeutic potential of cannabinoids has gained much interest. The two major cannabinoids, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol, exert anti-inflammatory and vascular protective effects, however few studies report their potential for reversing BBB dysfunction, particularly in T2D. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the current findings on the role of BBB dysfunction in T2D-associated dementia and consider the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoids as a protectant of cerebrovascular BBB protection.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30616019

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661818314634?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Antagonism Improves Glycemic Control and Increases Energy Expenditure via Sirt1/mTORC2 and AMPK Signaling.

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“Endocannabinoids promote energy conservation in obesity, whereas cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1 R) blockade reverses body weight gain and insulin resistance and increases energy expenditure.

Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the catabolic effects of CB1 R blockade in the liver.

CONCLUSION: peripheral CB1 R blockade in obese mice improves glycemic control via the hepatic Sirt1/mTORC2/Akt pathway, whereas it increases fatty acid oxidation via LKB1/AMPK signaling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30506571

https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hep.30364

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Cannabinoid receptor type-1 partially mediates metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

Physiology & Behavior

“Cannabinoid receptor type-1 partially mediates metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Despite no significant differences in body weight among groups, chronic exposure to low-level LPS altered hepatic endocannabinoid signaling, increased inflammation, and impaired insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance. CB1 inhibition significantly attenuated LPS signaling, which attenuated LPS-induced metabolic alterations. Therefore, we concluded that CB1 contributes to LPS-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance, suggesting that blocking CB1 signaling may have therapeutic benefits in reducing inflammation-induced metabolic abnormalities.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30502357

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938418304190?via%3Dihub

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Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Through Autophagy Induction.

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“Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been reported to produce a cardio-protective effect in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Here in this study, we investigated the role of CB2 in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and its underlying mechanisms.

In conclusion, we initially demonstrated that activating CB2 produced a cardio-protective effect in DCM as well as cardiomyocytes under HG challenge through inducing the AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling-mediated autophagy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30459625

“Taken together, in this study, we initially showed that activating CB2 produced a cardio-protective effect in DCM as well as cardiomyocytes under HG challenge through the induction of the AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K signaling-mediated autophagy process. We believe that the findings of this study might enhance our knowledge on the understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of DCM and provide a novel insight in the development of therapeutic strategies against DCM.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01292/full

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Beta-caryophyllene alleviates diet-induced neurobehavioral changes in rats: The role of CB2 and PPAR-γ receptors.

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

“Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity predispose diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Beta-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural sesquiterpene, exerts neuroprotective, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects via its selective agonism to cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). BCP was shown to have an anti-diabetic effect, however, the implication of CB2R is yet to be elucidated. A link between CB2R agonism and PPAR-γ activation has been discussed, but the exact mechanism is not well-defined.

This study was designed to examine the role of BCP in improving diet-induced metabolic (insulin resistance), neurobehavioral (anxiety, depression and memory deficit), and neurochemical (oxidative, inflammatory and neurotrophic factor) alterations in the prefrontal cortex of obese rats’ brain. The involvement of CB2R and/or PPAR-γ dependent activity was also investigated.

KEY RESULTS:

Beta-caryophyllene alleviated HFFD-induced IR, oxidative-stress, neuroinflammation and behavioral changes. The anxiolytic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of BCP were mediated by both PPAR-γ and CB2R. The effects of BCP on glycemic parameters seem to be CB2R-dependent with the non-significant role of PPAR-γ. Furthermore, BCP-evoked antidepressant and memory improvement are likely mediated only via CB2R, mainly by upregulation of PGC-1α and BDNF.

CONCLUSION:

This study suggests the potential effect of BCP in treating HFFD-induced metabolic and neurobehavioral alterations. BCP seems to activate PPAR-γ in a ligand-independent manner, via upregulation and activation of PGC-1α. The BCP activation of PPAR–γ seems to be CB2R-dependent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30469079

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332218370033?via%3Dihub

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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Effects of Cannabidiol on Diabetes Outcomes and Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Comorbidities in Middle-Aged Rats.

“Diabetes and aging are risk factors for cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It has beneficial effects on both cerebral ischemic diseases and diabetes.

We have recently reported that diabetes interacted synergistically with aging to increase neuroinflammation and memory deficits in rats subjected to CCH.

The present study investigated whether CBD would alleviate cognitive decline and affect markers of inflammation and neuroplasticity in the hippocampus in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to CCH.

These results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of CBD in middle-aged diabetic rats subjected to CCH are related to a reduction in neuroinflammation. However, they seemed to occur independently of hippocampal neuroplasticity changes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30430393

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12640-018-9972-5

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The protective effects of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol against inflammation and oxidative stress in rat liver with fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia.

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“A large amount of fructose is metabolized in the liver and causes hepatic functional damage. Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as a therapeutic agent for clinical and experimental applications.

 

The study aims to investigate the effects of THC treatment on inflammation, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in rat liver with hyperinsulinemia.

 

According to the result, long-term and low-dose THC administration may reduce hyperinsulinemia and inflammation in rats to some extent.”

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30427077

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jphp.13042

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Beta-caryophyllene protects diet-induced dyslipidemia and vascular inflammation in rats: Involvement of CB2 and PPAR-γ receptors.

Chemico-Biological Interactions

“Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a phytocannabinoid possessing selective agonistic activity to cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB2R) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPAR-α). However, few studies reported the contribution of PPAR-γ receptors in BCP effects.

The aim of this study was to investigate the BCP effects on diet-induced dyslipidemia and vascular inflammation as well as the involvement of CB2R and PPAR-γ receptors.

BCP treatment was superior to pioglitazone in anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic measures. BCP may represent a more potent alternate to pioglitazone avoiding its side effects in the treatment of insulin resistance and vascular inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30343038

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009279718309347?via%3Dihub

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

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