The New Runner’s High? Examining Relationships Between Cannabis Use and Exercise Behavior in States with Legalized Cannabis

“Results indicated that the majority (81.7%) of participants endorsed using cannabis concurrently with exercise. In addition, the majority of participants who endorsed using cannabis shortly before/after exercise reported that doing so enhances their enjoyment of and recovery from exercise, and approximately half reported that it increases their motivation to exercise.” https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00099/abstract
“Cannabis doesn’t make you a lazy pothead, in fact, it might actually motivate you to workout: study. A new study published in the medical journal Frontiers in Public Health has found that consuming cannabis may help motivate users to exercise and improve their workouts.” https://leaderpost.com/cannabis-health/cannabis-doesnt-make-you-a-lazy-pothead-in-fact-it-might-actually-motivate-you-to-workout-study/wcm/bb0beff4-eea0-417a-8812-c5ba10841b34
“Study finds marijuana motivates people to exercise, smashing lazy stoner stereotype. Most people who use marijuana report that consuming before or after exercising improves the experience and aids in recovery, according to a new study. And those who do use cannabis to elevate their workout tend to get a healthier amount of exercise.” https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/marijuana/2019/04/16/study-finds-marijuana-motivates-people-exercise-smashing-lazy-stoner-stereotype/FHHsXxyTrTHrSisso0GC3H/story.html
“A published scientific study claims using weed before workout either “increases motivation” to exercise or “enhances recovery from exercise.”

“Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14625449

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Future Aspects for Cannabinoids in Breast Cancer Therapy.

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“Cannabinoids (CBs) from Cannabis sativa provide relief for tumor-associated symptoms (including nausea, anorexia, and neuropathic pain) in the palliative treatment of cancer patients.

Additionally, they may decelerate tumor progression in breast cancer patients.

Indeed, the psychoactive delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and other CBs inhibited disease progression in breast cancer models.

The effects of CBs on signaling pathways in cancer cells are conferred via G-protein coupled CB-receptors (CB-Rs), CB1-R and CB2-R, but also via other receptors, and in a receptor-independent way.

THC is a partial agonist for CB1-R and CB2-R; CBD is an inverse agonist for both.

In breast cancer, CB1-R expression is moderate, but CB2-R expression is high, which is related to tumor aggressiveness. CBs block cell cycle progression and cell growth and induce cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting constitutive active pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway.

They reduce angiogenesis and tumor metastasis in animal breast cancer models. CBs are not only active against estrogen receptor-positive, but also against estrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cells, blocking protein kinase B- and cyclooxygenase-2 signaling via CB2-R prevents tumor progression and metastasis.

Furthermore, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), including tamoxifen, bind to CB-Rs; this process may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of SERMs in cancer cells lacking the estrogen receptor.

In summary, CBs are already administered to breast cancer patients at advanced stages of the disease, but they might also be effective at earlier stages to decelerate tumor progression.”

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Potential for endocannabinoid system modulation in ocular pain and inflammation: filling the gaps in current pharmacological options

Neuronal Signaling

“Challenges in the management of ocular pain are an underappreciated topic. Currently available therapeutics lack both efficacy and clear guidelines for their use, with many also possessing unacceptable side effects. Promising novel agents would offer analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and possibly neuroprotective actions; have favorable ocular safety profiles; and show potential in managing neuropathic pain.

Growing evidence supports a link between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and a range of physiological and disease processes, notably those involving inflammation and pain. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of cannabinoids and ECS-modifying drugs in chronic pain conditions, including those of neuropathic origin.

The ECS is present ubiquitously through the body, including a range of ocular tissues, and represents a promising target in the treatment of several physiological and pathophysiologic processes in the eye including, but not limited to, pain, inflammation, and neuronal damage. ”

http://www.neuronalsignaling.org/content/2/4/NS20170144

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Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates oxycodone self-administration under extended access conditions.

Neuropharmacology

“Growing nonmedical use of prescription opioids is a global problem, motivating research on ways to reduce use and combat addiction.

Medical cannabis (“medical marijuana”) legalization has been associated epidemiologically with reduced opioid harms and cannabinoids have been shown to modulate effects of opioids in animal models.

This study was conducted to determine if Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances the behavioral effects of oxycodone.

Together these data demonstrate additive effects of THC and oxycodone and suggest the potential use of THC to enhance therapeutic efficacy, and to reduce the abuse, of opioids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30980837

“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone. Vaporized and injected THC reduces oxycodone self-administration. Cannabinoids may reduce opioid use for analgesia. Cannabinoids may reduce nonmedical opioid use.”  

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390819301212?via%3Dihub

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The Potential of Cannabinoid-Based Treatments in Tourette Syndrome.

“Novel pharmacological treatments are needed for Tourette syndrome.

Our goal was to examine the current evidence base and biological rationale for the use of cannabis-derived medications or medications that act on the cannabinoid system in Tourette syndrome.

There is a strong biological rationale regarding how cannabis-derived medications could affect tic severity. Anecdotal case reports and series have noted that many patients report that their tics improve after using cannabis. However, only two small randomized, placebo-controlled trials of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been published; these suggested possible benefits of cannabis-derived agents for the treatment of tics.

Trials examining other agents active on the cannabinoid system for tic disorders are currently ongoing.

Cannabinoid-based treatments are a promising avenue of new research for medications that may help the Tourette syndrome population.”

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AM-1241 CB2 Receptor Agonist Attenuates Inflammation, Apoptosis and Stimulate Progenitor Cells in Bile Duct Ligated Rats.

 “The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays a pleiotropic role in the innate immunity and is considered a crucial mediator of liver disease.

Cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation has been reported to attenuate liver fibrosis in CCl4 exposed mice and also plays a potential role in liver regeneration in a mouse model of I/R and protection against alcohol-induced liver injury.

AIM:

In this study, we investigated the impact of CB2 receptors on the antifibrotic and regenerative process associated with cholestatic liver injury.

RESULTS:

Following bile duct ligation (BDL) for 3 weeks, there was increased aminotransferase levels, marked inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis with induced oxidative stress, as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation. Conversely, following treatment with the CB2 agonist, AM-1241, BDL rats displayed a reduction in liver injury and attenuation of fibrosis as reflected by expression of hydroxyproline and α-smooth muscle actin. AM1241 treatment also significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation end-products, p53-dependent apoptosis and also attenuated inflammatory process by stimulating IL-10 production. Moreover, AM1241 treated rats were associated with significant expression of hepatic progenitor/oval cell markers.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, this study points out that CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration via distinct mechanisms including IL-10 dependent inhibition of inflammation, reduction of p53-reliant apoptosis and through stimulation of oval/progenitor cells. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoregenrative properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30976335

https://www.id-press.eu/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2019.194

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The onus of cannabinoids in interrupting the molecular odyssey of breast cancer: A critical perspective on UPRER and beyond.

Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal

“Cannabinoids, commonly used for medicinal and recreational purposes, consist of various complex hydrophobic molecules obtained from Cannabis sativa L. Acting as an inhibitory molecule; they have been investigated for their antineoplastic effect in various breast tumor models. Lately, it was found that cannabinoid treatment not only stimulates autophagy-mediated apoptotic death of tumor cells through unfolded protein response (UPRER) activated downstream effectors, but also imposes cell cycle arrest. The exploitation of UPRER tumors as such is believed to be a major molecular event and is therefore employed in understanding the development and progression of breast tumor. Simultaneously, the data on clinical trials following administration of cannabinoid is currently being explored to find its role not only in palliation but also in the treatment of breast cancer. The present study summarizes new achievements in understanding the extent of therapeutic progress and highlights recent developments in cannabinoid biology towards achieving a better cure of breast cancer through the exploitation of different cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30976189

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319016419300064?via%3Dihub

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Ketamine-induced antidepressant like effects in mice: A possible involvement of cannabinoid system.

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

“The purpose of this study was to explore the possible interaction between ketamine and cannabinoid system in the modulation of depression-related responses.

It seems that possible interaction between ketamine and cannabinoid system may modulate depression-related behavior.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30970516

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332218375309?via%3Dihub

“Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866040/
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Psychopathological symptoms associated with synthetic cannabinoid use: a comparison with natural cannabis.

 

“Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a class of new psychoactive substances that have been rapidly evolving around the world throughout recent years. Many different synthetic cannabinoid analogues are on the consumer market and sold under misleading names, like “spice” or “incense.”

A limited number of studies have reported serious health effects associated with SC use. In this study, we compared clinical and subclinical psychopathological symptoms associated with SC use and natural cannabis (NC) use.

SC users scored higher than NC users on all used psychometric measures, indicating a higher likelihood of drug abuse, sleep problems, (hypo)manic symptoms, and the nine dimensions comprising the BSI, somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism.

This study shows that SC use is associated with increased mental health symptomatology compared to NC use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30968175

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-019-05238-8

“While cannabis use usually induces psychotropic effects such as euphoria, relaxation, and a general pleasant feeling, the use of Synthetic Cannabinoid drugs is associated with more undesired effects including; agitation, irritability, confusion, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis, and death.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5999798/
“These side effects (including psychosis, tachyarrhythmia, and seizures) are not typically seen with marijuana (Cannabis sativa) use.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3726077/

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Prescription of a THC/CBD-Based Medication to Patients with Dementia: A Pilot Study in Geneva

 

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“Dementia is increasing worldwide. No effective medication is currently available for the treatment of the underlying disease and accompanying behavioral symptoms. Cannabinoids might have a beneficial effect, but clinical studies with (low-dose) synthetic THC have not been conclusive.

Objective: To test the acceptability, practical aspects, and clinical outcomes of the introduction of a THC/CBD-based oral medication in severely demented patients in a specialized nursing home in Geneva.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study.

Results: Ten female demented patients with severe behavior problems received oral medication with on average 7.6 mg THC/13.2 mg CBD daily after 2 weeks, 8.8 mg THC/17.6 mg CBD after 1 month, and 9.0 mg THC/18.0 mg CBD after 2 months. The THC/CBD-based oil was preferred. Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory score, and a behavior problem visual analog scale decreased by 40% after 2 months, rigidity score by 50%. Half of the patients decreased or stopped other psychotropic medications. The staff appreciated the decrease in rigidity, making daily care and transfers easier, the improved direct contact with the patients, the improvement in behavior, and the decrease in constipation with less opioids. There was no withholding of the medication for reasons of side effects, and the effects persisted after 2 months.

Conclusions: An oral cannabis extract with THC/CBD, in higher dosages than in other studies, was well tolerated and greatly improved behavior problems, rigidity, and daily care in severely demented patients.”

https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/498924

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