Cannabinoids prevent depressive-like symptoms and alterations in BDNF expression in a rat model of PTSD.

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“Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition highly comorbid with depression. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are suggestively involved in both disorders.

We examined whether cannabinoids can prevent the long-term depressive-like symptoms induced by exposure to the shock and situational reminders (SRs) model of PTSD. The CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.), the fatty acid hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were administered 2 h after severe shock.

Cannabinoids prevented the shock/SRs-induced alterations in social recognition memory, locomotion, passive coping, anxiety-like behavior, anhedonia, fear retrieval, fear extinction and startle response as well as the decrease in BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between depressive-like behaviors and BDNF levels in the brain.

The findings suggest that cannabinoids may prevent both depressive- and PTSD-like symptoms following exposure to severe stress and that alterations in BDNF levels in the brains’ fear circuit are involved in these effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29458190

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027858461731000X

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Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Neurobiology of Suicide

Cover of The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

“In the past decade, remarkable advances have been made in cannabinoid (CB) research. The brain endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulates several neurobiological processes and its dysfunction is suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of mood and drug use disorders.

The CB1 receptor–mediated signaling, in particular, has been shown to play a critical role in the neural circuitry that mediates mood, motivation, and emotional behaviors. This chapter presents the data pertaining to the involvement of the eCB system in depression, suicide, and alcohol addiction.

It appears that the eCB system might have a critical role in the regulation of mood and emotional responses that are impaired in patients with depression and suicidal behavior.

The data provided in this chapter support the notion that the eCB system might be an additional target for the development of a drug against alcohol use, depression, and suicidal behavior.

Among therapeutic agents, antidepressants are the most widely used drugs for the treatment of depression-related disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23035286

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK107200/

“Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from cannabis sativa L. The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. Results of this study show that Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids exert anti-depressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866040/

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High on Life? Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicide

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“Our research examines the relationship between medical marijuana laws (hereafter MMLs) and suicides.

Our results suggest that the passage of a MML is associated with an almost 5 percent reduction in the total suicide rate.

We conclude that the legalization of medical marijuana leads to fewer suicides among young adult males.”

https://www.cato.org/publications/research-briefs-economic-policy/high-life-medical-marijuana-laws-suicide

Study: Medical Marijuana Legalization leads to decrease in suicide rates”   https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2012/2/26/1068413/-Study-Medical-Marijuana-Legalization-leads-to-decrease-in-suicide-rates

“Legal Weed Appears to Cause a Sharp Reduction in Suicides”  https://www.eastbayexpress.com/LegalizationNation/archives/2012/02/07/legal-weed-appears-to-cause-a-sharp-reduction-in-suicides-discuss

“Marijuana Can Help Prevent Suicide, Study Suggests”  http://www.laweekly.com/news/marijuana-can-help-prevent-suicide-study-suggests-2389148

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Cannabis as an anticonvulsant

BMJ Journals“There are records of the cannabis plant being used for medicinal purposes in ancient times, and in the 19th century it was used as an effective anti-epileptic drug (AED) in children.

However, because of its abuse potential, most countries imposed laws restricting its cultivation and use, and this has greatly inhibited research into possible therapeutic uses.

Things are now changing, and cannabis derivatives are now used legally to treat, for example, pain, nausea and spasticity.

The plant contains over 100 biologically active compounds, and recently it has been possible to isolate these and identify the neurochemical mechanisms by which some of them operate: one in particular, cannabidiol”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29449212

http://adc.bmj.com/content/early/2018/02/15/archdischild-2018-314921

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Systematic review of systematic reviews for medical cannabinoids: Pain, nausea and vomiting, spasticity, and harms.

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“To determine the effects of medical cannabinoids on pain, spasticity, and nausea and vomiting, and to identify adverse events.

Systematic reviews with 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focused on medical cannabinoids for pain, spasticity, or nausea and vomiting were included.

 

There is reasonable evidence that cannabinoids improve nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy.

They might improve spasticity (primarily in multiple sclerosis).

There is some uncertainty about whether cannabinoids improve pain, but if they do, it is neuropathic pain”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29449262

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The Cannabinoids Δ8THC, CBD, and HU-308 Act via Distinct Receptors to Reduce Corneal Pain and Inflammation

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

“Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization.

Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB1R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia.

Topical cannabinoids reduce corneal hyperalgesia and inflammation.

The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Δ8THC are mediated primarily via CB1R, whereas that of the cannabinoids CBD and HU-308, involve activation of 5-HT1A receptors and CB2Rs, respectively.

Cannabinoids could be a novel clinical therapy for corneal pain and inflammation resulting from ocular surface injury.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29450258

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/can.2017.0041

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Cannabis for paediatric epilepsy: challenges and conundrums.

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“Research is expanding for the use of cannabidiol as an anticonvulsant drug. The mechanism of cannabidiol in paediatric epilepsy is unclear but is thought to play a role in modulation of synaptic transmission. Evidence for its efficacy in treating epilepsy is limited but growing, with a single pharmaceutical company-funded randomised double-blind controlled trial in children with Dravet syndrome. Progress towards the use of medicinal cannabinoids incorporates a complex interplay of social influences and political and legal reform. Access to unregistered but available cannabidiol in Australia outside of clinical trials and compassionate access schemes is state dependent and will require Therapeutic Goods Administration approval, although the cost may be prohibitive. Further clinical trials are needed to clearly define efficacy and safety, particularly long term.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29438649

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Exploration of Potentially Bioactive Peptides Generated from the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hempseed Proteins.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

“The seed of industrial hemp is an underexploited protein source. In view of a possible use in functional foods, a hempseed protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin, or a mixture of these enzymes. A detailed peptidomic analysis using data-dependent acquisition showed that the numbers of peptides identified ranged from 90 belonging to 33 parent proteins in the peptic hydrolysate to 9 belonging to 6 proteins in the pancreatin digest. The peptic and tryptic hydrolysates resulted to be the most efficient inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-coenzyme A reductase activity when tested on the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Using the open access tools PeptideRanker and BIOPEP, a list of potentially bioactive peptides was generated: the alleged activities included the antioxidant property, the glucose uptake stimulating activity, the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and angiotensin-converting enzyme I.”

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Effects of Hemp seed soft capsule on colonic ion transport in rats.

“To investigate the effect of Hemp seed soft capsule (HSCC) on colonic ion transport and its related mechanisms in constipation rats.

CONCLUSION:

HSSC ameliorates constipation by increasing colonic secretion, which is mediated via the coaction of cAMP-dependent and Ca2+-dependent Cl channels, NKCC, Na+-HCO3 cotransporter or Cl/HCO3 exchanger.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29204056

https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v23/i42/7563.htm

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