Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis on Sleep Disorders and Related Conditions.

 Related image“Marijuana generally refers to the dried mixture of leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant, and the term cannabis is a commonly used to refer to products derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant. There has been an increasing interest in the potential medicinal use of cannabis to treat a variety of diseases and conditions. This review will provide the latest evidence regarding the medical risks and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis in managing patients with sleep disorders or those with other medical conditions who commonly suffer with sleep disturbance as an associated comorbidity. Published data regarding the effects of cannabis compounds on sleep in the general population, as well as in patients with insomnia, chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other neurological conditions, will be presented. Current trends for marijuana use and its effects on the economy and the implications that those trends and effects have on future research into medical cannabis are also presented.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31895189

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004691-202001000-00007

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Sleep and Neurochemical Modulation by Cannabidiolic Acid Methyl Ester in Rats.

Brain Research Bulletin“Cannabidiolic acid methyl ester (HU-580) is a more stable compound than cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) which has been shown to be effective in reducing nausea, anxiety, depression behaviors in animal models.

Here we extend the investigation of this compound to determine its effect on the sleep-wake cycle in male Wistar rats.

HU-580 dose-dependently (0.1, 1.0 or 100 µg/Kg, i.p.) prolonged wakefulness (W) and decreased slow wave sleep (SWS) duration whereas rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) showed no statistical change. In addition, the brain microdialysis probes either placed at nucleus accumbens (NAc) or into the basal forebrain in freely moving animals were used to evaluate the effects of HU-580 treatment on neurotransmitters related to the sleep-wake cycle modulation. HU-580 enhanced extracellular levels of dopamine, serotonin collected from NAc while adenosine and acetylcholine were increased in basal forebrain.

In summary, HU-580 seems to possess wake-promoting pharmacological properties and enhances the levels of wake-related neurochemicals. This is the first report of effects of HU-580 on sleep modulation expanding the very limited existent data on the neurobiological effects of HU-580 on rats.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31838151

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361923019306306?via%3Dihub

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Perceived Efficacy of Medical Cannabis in the Treatment of Co-Occurring Health-Related Quality of Life Symptoms.

 Publication Cover“For persons living with chronic conditions, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) symptoms, such as pain, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, often interact and mutually reinforce one another.

There is evidence that medical cannabis (MC) may be efficacious in ameliorating such symptoms and improving HRQoL.

As many of these HRQoL symptoms may mutually reinforce one another, we conducted an exploratory study to investigate how MC users perceive the efficacy of MC in addressing co-occurring HRQoL symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of persons with a state medical marijuana card in Illinois (N = 367) recruited from licensed MC dispensaries across the state. We conducted tests of ANOVA to measure how perceived MC efficacy for each HRQoL symptom varied by total number of treated symptoms reported by participants.

Pain was the most frequently reported HRQoL treated by MC, followed by anxiety, insomnia, and depression. A large majority of our sample (75%) reported treating two or more HRQoL symptoms. In general, perceived efficacy of MC in relieving each HRQoL symptom category increased with the number of co-occurring symptoms also treated with MC. Perceived efficacy of MC in relieving pain, anxiety, and depression varied significantly by number of total symptoms experienced.

This exploratory study contributes to our understanding of how persons living with chronic conditions perceive the efficacy of MC in treating co-occurring HRQoL symptoms. Our results suggest that co-occurring pain, anxiety, and depression may be particularly amenable to treatment with MC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31693457

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08964289.2019.1683712?journalCode=vbmd20

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Medical Cannabis for Older Patients-Treatment Protocol and Initial Results.

jcm-logo“Older adults may benefit from cannabis treatment for various symptoms such as chronic pain, sleep difficulties, and others, that are not adequately controlled with evidence-based therapies. However, currently, there is a dearth of evidence about the efficacy and safety of cannabis treatment for these patients.

This article aims to present a pragmatic treatment protocol for medical cannabis in older adults. We followed consecutive patients above 65 years of age prospectively who were treated with medical cannabis from April 2017 to October 2018. The outcomes included treatment adherence, global assessment of efficacy and adverse events after six months of treatment. During the study period, 184 patients began cannabis treatment, 63.6% were female, and the mean age was 81.2 ± 7.5 years (median age-82). After six months of treatment, 58.1% were still using cannabis.

Of these patients, 33.6% reported adverse events, the most common of which were dizziness (12.1%) and sleepiness and fatigue (11.2%). Of the respondents, 84.8% reported some degree of improvement in their general condition. Special caution is warranted in older adults due to polypharmacy, pharmacokinetic changes, nervous system impairment, and increased cardiovascular risk.

Medical cannabis should still be considered carefully and individually for each patient after a risk-benefit analysis and followed by frequent monitoring for efficacy and adverse events.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31683817

https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/8/11/1819

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The Endocannabinoid System May Modulate Sleep Disorders In Aging.

“Aging is an inevitable process that involves changes along life in multiple neurochemical, neuroanatomical, hormonal systems, and many others. In addition, these biological modifications lead to an increase in age-related sickness such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and sleep disturbances, among others that affect activities of daily life. Demographic projections have demonstrated that aging will increase its worldwide rate in the coming years. The research on chronic diseases of the elderly is important to gain insights into this growing global burden.

Novel therapeutic approaches aimed for treatment of age-related pathologies have included the endocannabinoid system as an effective tools since this biological system shows beneficial effects in preclinical models. However, and despite these advances, little has been addressed in the arena of the endocannabinoid system as option for treating sleep disorders in aging since experimental evidence suggests that some elements of the endocannabinoid system modulate the sleep-wake cycle.

This article addresses this less-studied field, focusing on the likely perspective of the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of sleep problems reported in aged. We conclude that beneficial effects regarding the putative efficacy of the endocannabinoid system as therapeutic tools in aging is either inconclusive or still missing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31368874

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174043/article

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Cannabis Expectancies for Sleep.

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“Up to 35% of adults in the United States suffer from sleep disturbances, which covary with a host of negative mental and physical health outcomes.

Previous research suggests that cannabis‘ sedative effects may be associated with improved sleep. The present study examined the self-reported effect of cannabis use on individual’s sleep-related problems.

Participants included 311 individuals recruited online, who reported both sleep-related problems and cannabis use. Analyses revealed that participants expected cannabis to decrease the incidence of sleep-related problems, including allowing participants to have an earlier bedtime, to fall asleep more quickly, and to have a longer night’s sleep. Moreover, expectancies about the influence of cannabis on sleep negatively covaried with cannabis-related problems.

These findings suggest that individuals believe using cannabis might positively influence their sleep quality and believing so may be protective against cannabis problems. Randomized control trials of cannabis for insomnia appear justified.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31319769

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.2019.1643053?journalCode=ujpd20

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Use of Cannabis to Relieve Pain and Promote Sleep by Customers at an Adult Use Dispensary

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“Cannabis has been used for pain relief and to promote sleep for thousands of years. Over the past several decades in the United States (U.S.), a therapeutic role for cannabis in mainstream medicine has increasingly emerged. Medical cannabis patients consistently report using cannabis as a substitute for prescription medications. Both pain relief and sleep promotion are common reasons for cannabis use, and the majority of respondents who reported using cannabis for these reasons also reported decreasing or stopping their use of prescription or over-the-counter analgesics and sleep aids. While adult-use laws are frequently called “recreational,” implying that cannabis obtained through the adult use system is only for pleasure or experience-seeking, our findings suggest that many customers use cannabis for symptom relief.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31264536

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02791072.2019.1626953

“Cannabis Is An Effective Treatment Option For Pain Relief And Insomnia, Study Finds” https://www.inquisitr.com/5509672/cannabis-pain-medications-sleep/

“Marijuana Could Be The Alternative Pain Reliever Replacing Opioids”  https://www.medicaldaily.com/marijuana-alternative-pain-reliever-replacing-opioids-437974

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The use of cannabinoids for sleep: A critical review on clinical trials.

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“Cannabis and its pharmacologically active constituents, phytocannabinoids, have long been reported to have multiple medicinal benefits.

One association often reported by users is sedation and subjective improvements in sleep.

Many of the reviewed studies suggested that cannabinoids could improve sleep quality, decrease sleep disturbances, and decrease sleep onset latency.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31120284

https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037/pha0000285

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Acute effect of vaporized Cannabis on sleep and electrocortical activity.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

“The use of Cannabis for medical purposes is rapidly expanding and is usually employed as a self-medication for the treatment of insomnia disorder.

However, the effect on sleep seems to depend on multiple factors such as composition of the Cannabis, dosage and route of administration. Vaporization is the recommended route for the administration of Cannabis for medical purposes; however, there is no published research about the effects of vaporized Cannabis on sleep, neither in laboratory animals, nor in humans.

Because previous reports suggested that low doses of THC have sedating effects, the aim of the present study was to characterize in rats, the acute effects on sleep induced by the administration of low doses of THC by means of vaporization of a specific type of Cannabis (THC 11.5% and negligible amounts of other cannabinoids).

For this purpose, polysomnographic recordings in chronically prepared rats were performed during 6 h in the light and dark phases. Animals were treated with 0 (control), 40, 80 and 200 mg of Cannabis immediately before the beginning of recordings; the THC plasma concentrations with these doses were low (up to 6.7 ng/mL with 200 mg). A quantitative EEG analyses by means of the spectral power and coherence estimations was also performed for the highest Cannabis dose.

Compared to control, 200 mg of Cannabis increased NREM sleep time during the light phase, but only during the first hour of recording. Interestingly, no changes on sleep were observed during the dark (active) phase or with lower doses of Cannabis. Cannabis 200 mg also produced EEG power reductions in different cortices, mainly for high frequency bands during W and REM sleep, but only during the light phase. On the contrary, a reduction in the sleep spindles intra-hemispheric coherence was observed during NREM sleep, but only during the dark phase.

In conclusion, administration of low doses of THC by vaporization of a specific type of Cannabis produced a small increment of NREM sleep, but only during the light (resting) phase. This was accompanied by subtle modifications of high frequency bands power (during the light phase) and spindle coherence (during the dark phase), which are associated with cognitive processing.

Our results reassure the importance of exploring the sleep-promoting properties of Cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30822492

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305718304714?via%3Dihub

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Spontaneous, anecdotal, retrospective, open-label study on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan).

International Journal of Pharmacy Practice banner

“Our main aim was to investigate the short-term therapeutic effects, safety/tolerability and potential side effects of the cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan) in patients with a range of chronic conditions unresponsive to other treatments.

METHODS:

In this retrospective, ‘compassionate use’, observational, open-label study, 20 patients (age 18-80 years) who had appealed to our ‘Second Opinion Medical Consulting Network’ (Modena, Italy), were instructed to take sublingually the galenical oil twice a day for 3 months of treatment. The usual starting dose was low (0.5 ml/day) and gradually titrated upward to the highest recommended dose (1 ml/day). Tolerability and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and monthly thereafter during the treatment period through direct contact (email or telephone) or visit if required. Patients’ quality of life was evaluated at baseline and 3 months using the medical outcome short-form health survey questionnaire (SF-36).

KEY FINDINGS:

From baseline to 6 months post-treatment, SF-36 scores showed: reductions in total pain (P < 0.03); improvements in the physical component (P < 0.02); vitality (P < 0.03); social role functioning (P < 0.02); and general health state (P < 0.02). No changes in role limitations (P = 0.02) due to emotional state (e.g. panic, depression, mood alteration) were reported. Monthly reports of psychoactive adverse effects showed significant insomnia reduction (P < 0.03) and improvement in mood (P < 0.03) and concentration (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that a cannabis galenical preparation may be therapeutically effective and safe for the symptomatic treatment of some chronic diseases. Further studies on the efficacy of cannabis as well as cannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology are warranted.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30768819

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ijpp.12514

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