The Endocannabinoid System May Modulate Sleep Disorders In Aging.

“Aging is an inevitable process that involves changes along life in multiple neurochemical, neuroanatomical, hormonal systems, and many others. In addition, these biological modifications lead to an increase in age-related sickness such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and sleep disturbances, among others that affect activities of daily life. Demographic projections have demonstrated that aging will increase its worldwide rate in the coming years. The research on chronic diseases of the elderly is important to gain insights into this growing global burden.

Novel therapeutic approaches aimed for treatment of age-related pathologies have included the endocannabinoid system as an effective tools since this biological system shows beneficial effects in preclinical models. However, and despite these advances, little has been addressed in the arena of the endocannabinoid system as option for treating sleep disorders in aging since experimental evidence suggests that some elements of the endocannabinoid system modulate the sleep-wake cycle.

This article addresses this less-studied field, focusing on the likely perspective of the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of sleep problems reported in aged. We conclude that beneficial effects regarding the putative efficacy of the endocannabinoid system as therapeutic tools in aging is either inconclusive or still missing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31368874

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174043/article

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Cannabis Expectancies for Sleep.

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“Up to 35% of adults in the United States suffer from sleep disturbances, which covary with a host of negative mental and physical health outcomes.

Previous research suggests that cannabis‘ sedative effects may be associated with improved sleep. The present study examined the self-reported effect of cannabis use on individual’s sleep-related problems.

Participants included 311 individuals recruited online, who reported both sleep-related problems and cannabis use. Analyses revealed that participants expected cannabis to decrease the incidence of sleep-related problems, including allowing participants to have an earlier bedtime, to fall asleep more quickly, and to have a longer night’s sleep. Moreover, expectancies about the influence of cannabis on sleep negatively covaried with cannabis-related problems.

These findings suggest that individuals believe using cannabis might positively influence their sleep quality and believing so may be protective against cannabis problems. Randomized control trials of cannabis for insomnia appear justified.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31319769

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.2019.1643053?journalCode=ujpd20

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Use of Cannabis to Relieve Pain and Promote Sleep by Customers at an Adult Use Dispensary

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“Cannabis has been used for pain relief and to promote sleep for thousands of years. Over the past several decades in the United States (U.S.), a therapeutic role for cannabis in mainstream medicine has increasingly emerged. Medical cannabis patients consistently report using cannabis as a substitute for prescription medications. Both pain relief and sleep promotion are common reasons for cannabis use, and the majority of respondents who reported using cannabis for these reasons also reported decreasing or stopping their use of prescription or over-the-counter analgesics and sleep aids. While adult-use laws are frequently called “recreational,” implying that cannabis obtained through the adult use system is only for pleasure or experience-seeking, our findings suggest that many customers use cannabis for symptom relief.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31264536

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02791072.2019.1626953

“Cannabis Is An Effective Treatment Option For Pain Relief And Insomnia, Study Finds” https://www.inquisitr.com/5509672/cannabis-pain-medications-sleep/

“Marijuana Could Be The Alternative Pain Reliever Replacing Opioids”  https://www.medicaldaily.com/marijuana-alternative-pain-reliever-replacing-opioids-437974

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The use of cannabinoids for sleep: A critical review on clinical trials.

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“Cannabis and its pharmacologically active constituents, phytocannabinoids, have long been reported to have multiple medicinal benefits.

One association often reported by users is sedation and subjective improvements in sleep.

Many of the reviewed studies suggested that cannabinoids could improve sleep quality, decrease sleep disturbances, and decrease sleep onset latency.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31120284

https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037/pha0000285

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Acute effect of vaporized Cannabis on sleep and electrocortical activity.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior

“The use of Cannabis for medical purposes is rapidly expanding and is usually employed as a self-medication for the treatment of insomnia disorder.

However, the effect on sleep seems to depend on multiple factors such as composition of the Cannabis, dosage and route of administration. Vaporization is the recommended route for the administration of Cannabis for medical purposes; however, there is no published research about the effects of vaporized Cannabis on sleep, neither in laboratory animals, nor in humans.

Because previous reports suggested that low doses of THC have sedating effects, the aim of the present study was to characterize in rats, the acute effects on sleep induced by the administration of low doses of THC by means of vaporization of a specific type of Cannabis (THC 11.5% and negligible amounts of other cannabinoids).

For this purpose, polysomnographic recordings in chronically prepared rats were performed during 6 h in the light and dark phases. Animals were treated with 0 (control), 40, 80 and 200 mg of Cannabis immediately before the beginning of recordings; the THC plasma concentrations with these doses were low (up to 6.7 ng/mL with 200 mg). A quantitative EEG analyses by means of the spectral power and coherence estimations was also performed for the highest Cannabis dose.

Compared to control, 200 mg of Cannabis increased NREM sleep time during the light phase, but only during the first hour of recording. Interestingly, no changes on sleep were observed during the dark (active) phase or with lower doses of Cannabis. Cannabis 200 mg also produced EEG power reductions in different cortices, mainly for high frequency bands during W and REM sleep, but only during the light phase. On the contrary, a reduction in the sleep spindles intra-hemispheric coherence was observed during NREM sleep, but only during the dark phase.

In conclusion, administration of low doses of THC by vaporization of a specific type of Cannabis produced a small increment of NREM sleep, but only during the light (resting) phase. This was accompanied by subtle modifications of high frequency bands power (during the light phase) and spindle coherence (during the dark phase), which are associated with cognitive processing.

Our results reassure the importance of exploring the sleep-promoting properties of Cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30822492

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305718304714?via%3Dihub

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Spontaneous, anecdotal, retrospective, open-label study on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan).

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“Our main aim was to investigate the short-term therapeutic effects, safety/tolerability and potential side effects of the cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan) in patients with a range of chronic conditions unresponsive to other treatments.

METHODS:

In this retrospective, ‘compassionate use’, observational, open-label study, 20 patients (age 18-80 years) who had appealed to our ‘Second Opinion Medical Consulting Network’ (Modena, Italy), were instructed to take sublingually the galenical oil twice a day for 3 months of treatment. The usual starting dose was low (0.5 ml/day) and gradually titrated upward to the highest recommended dose (1 ml/day). Tolerability and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and monthly thereafter during the treatment period through direct contact (email or telephone) or visit if required. Patients’ quality of life was evaluated at baseline and 3 months using the medical outcome short-form health survey questionnaire (SF-36).

KEY FINDINGS:

From baseline to 6 months post-treatment, SF-36 scores showed: reductions in total pain (P < 0.03); improvements in the physical component (P < 0.02); vitality (P < 0.03); social role functioning (P < 0.02); and general health state (P < 0.02). No changes in role limitations (P = 0.02) due to emotional state (e.g. panic, depression, mood alteration) were reported. Monthly reports of psychoactive adverse effects showed significant insomnia reduction (P < 0.03) and improvement in mood (P < 0.03) and concentration (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that a cannabis galenical preparation may be therapeutically effective and safe for the symptomatic treatment of some chronic diseases. Further studies on the efficacy of cannabis as well as cannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology are warranted.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30768819

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ijpp.12514

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Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of many cannabinoid compounds found in cannabis. It does not appear to alter consciousness or trigger a “high.”

A recent surge in scientific publications has found preclinical and clinical evidence documenting value for CBD in some neuropsychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Evidence points toward a calming effect for CBD in the central nervous system. Interest in CBD as a treatment of a wide range of disorders has exploded, yet few clinical studies of CBD exist in the psychiatric literature.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether CBD helps improve sleep and/or anxiety in a clinical population.

DESIGN:

A large retrospective case series at a psychiatric clinic involving clinical application of CBD for anxiety and sleep complaints as an adjunct to usual treatment. The retrospective chart review included monthly documentation of anxiety and sleep quality in 103 adult patients.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Sleep and anxiety scores, using validated instruments, at baseline and after CBD treatment.

RESULTS:

The final sample consisted of 72 adults presenting with primary concerns of anxiety (n = 47) or poor sleep (n = 25). Anxiety scores decreased within the first month in 57 patients (79.2%) and remained decreased during the study duration. Sleep scores improved within the first month in 48 patients (66.7%) but fluctuated over time. In this chart review, CBD was well tolerated in all but 3 patients.

CONCLUSION:

Cannabidiol may hold benefit for anxiety-related disorders. Controlled clinical studies are needed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30624194

http://www.thepermanentejournal.org/issues/2019/winter/6960-cannabis.html

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Medical Cannabis for Older Patients.

“Interest in the medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids is mounting worldwide. Fueled by enthusiastic media coverage, patients perceive cannabinoids as a natural remedy for many symptoms. Cannabinoid use is of particular interest for older individuals who may experience symptoms such as chronic pain, sleep disturbance, cancer-related symptoms and mood disorders, all of which are often poorly controlled by current drug treatments that may also incur medication-induced side effects. This review provides a summary of the evidence for use of cannabinoids, and medical cannabis in particular, for this age group, with attention to efficacy and harms. Evidence of efficacy for relief of an array of symptoms is overall scanty, and almost all study participants are aged < 60 years. The risk of known and potential adverse effects is considerable, with concerns for cognitive, cardiovascular and gait and stability effects in older adults. Finally, in light of the paucity of clinical evidence and increasing patient requests for information or use, we propose a pragmatic clinical approach to a rational dialogue with older patients, highlighting the importance of individual benefit-risk assessment and shared patient-clinician decision making.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30488174

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40266-018-0616-5

“Our study finds that the therapeutic use of cannabis is safe and efficacious in the elderly population. Cannabis use may decrease the use of other prescription medicines, including opioids.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29398248

“Medical cannabis significantly safer for elderly with chronic pain than opioids: study” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-02-medical-cannabis-significantly-safer-elderly.html
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Cannabidiol affects circadian clock core complex and its regulation in microglia cells.

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“Cannabis is often used by consumers for sleep disorders.

Our study suggests that circadian rhythm in microglial cells is deregulated by CBD but not by THC.

It is consistent with clinical observations of the use of therapeutic cannabis to treat insomnia.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30307084

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/adb.12660

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Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age.

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“Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana.

The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry.

CBD was shown to have anxiolytic, antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties. In addition, basic and clinical investigations on the effects of CBD have been carried out in the context of many other health conditions, including its potential use in epilepsy, substance abuse and dependence, schizophrenia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and Parkinson.

CBD is an useful and promising molecule that may help patients with a number of clinical conditions. Controlled clinical trials with different neuropsychiatric populations that are currently under investigation should bring important answers in the near future and support the translation of research findings to clinical settings.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30298064

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009/full

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