Cannabinoid derivatives exert a potent anti-myeloma activity both in vitro and in vivo.

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“Although hematopoietic and immune system show high levels of the cannabinoid receptor CB2, the potential effect of cannabinoids on hematologic malignancies has been poorly determined.

Here we have investigated their anti-tumor effect in multiple myeloma (MM).

We demonstrate that cannabinoids induce a selective apoptosis in MM cell lines and in primary plasma cells of MM patients, while sparing normal cells from healthy donors, including hematopoietic stem cells.

Remarkably, blockage of the CB2 receptor also inhibited cannabinoid-induced apoptosis.

Cannabinoid derivative WIN-55 enhanced the anti-myeloma activity of dexamethasone and melphalan overcoming resistance to melphalan in vitro. Finally, administration of cannabinoid WIN-55 to plasmacytoma-bearing mice significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo.

Together, our data suggest that cannabinoids may be considered as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of MM.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27778331

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/multiple-myeloma/

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Targeting cannabinoid receptor-2 pathway by phenylacetylamide suppresses the proliferation of human myeloma cells through mitotic dysregulation and cytoskeleton disruption.

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“Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) is expressed dominantly in the immune system, especially on plasma cells.

Cannabinergic ligands with CB2 selectivity emerge as a class of promising agents to treat CB2-expressing malignancies without psychotropic concerns.

In this study, we found that CB2 but not CB1 was highly expressed in human multiple myeloma (MM) and primary CD138+ cells.

Thus, targeting CB2 may represent an attractive approach to treat cancers of immune origin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640641

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The effects of cannabidiol and its synergism with bortezomib in multiple myeloma cell lines. A role for transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2.

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“Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell (PC) malignancy characterised by the accumulation of a monoclonal PC population in the bone marrow (BM).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid with antitumoural activities, and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2 (TRPV2) channel has been reported as a potential CBD receptor.

TRPV2 activation by CBD decreases proliferation and increases susceptibility to drug-induced cell death in human cancer cells.

However, no functional role has been ascribed to CBD and TRPV2 in MM. In this study, we identified the presence of heterogeneous CD138+TRPV2+ and CD138+TRPV2- PC populations in MM patients, whereas only the CD138+ TRPV2- population was present in RPMI8226 and U266 MM cell lines.

Because bortezomib (BORT) is commonly used in MM treatment, we investigated the effects of CBD and BORT in CD138+TRPV2- MM cells and in MM cell lines transfected with TRPV2 (CD138+TRPV2+).

These results showed that CBD by itself or in synergy with BORT strongly inhibited growth, arrested cell cycle progression and induced MM cells death by regulating the ERK, AKT and NF-κB pathways with major effects in TRPV2+ cells.

These data provide a rationale for using CBD to increase the activity of proteasome inhibitors in MM.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293211

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Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration.

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“Several studies showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation, chemo-resistance and migration.

Cannabidiol (CBD) was previously noted in multiple myeloma (MM), both alone and in synergy with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, to induce cell death.

In other type of human cancers, the combination of CBD with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was found to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting their use in combination therapy.

In the current study, we evaluated the effects of THC alone and in combination with CBD in MM cell lines.

We found that CBD and THC, mainly in combination, were able to reduce cell viability by inducing autophagic-dependent necrosis.

Moreover, we showed that the CBD-THC combination was able to reduce MM cells migration by down-regulating expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and of the CD147 plasma membrane glycoprotein.

Furthermore, since the immuno-proteasome is considered a new target in MM and also since carfilzomib (CFZ) is a new promising immuno-proteasome inhibitor that creates irreversible adducts with the β5i subunit of immuno-proteasome, we evaluated the effect of CBD and THC in regulating the expression of the β5i subunit and their effect in combination with CFZ.

Herein, we also found that the CBD and THC combination is able to reduce expression of the β5i subunit as well as to act in synergy with CFZ to increase MM cell death and inhibits cell migration.

In summary, these results proved that this combination exerts strong anti-myeloma activities.”

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ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A multi-facet therapeutic target.

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“Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It is being cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes from many centuries.

Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries.

The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and down in recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve “protective role” in many medical conditions.

Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.

Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008.

Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite of some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that acts selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted.

Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids.

In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as “protective” and “disease inducing substance”, time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086601

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The endocannabinoid signaling system in cancer.

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“The endocannabinoid system, comprising lipid-derived endocannabinoids, their G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the enzymes for their metabolism, is emerging as a promising therapeutic target in cancer.

This report highlights the main signaling pathways for the antitumor effects of the endocannabinoid system in cancer and its basic role in cancerpathogenesis, and discusses the alternative view of cannabinoid receptors as tumor promoters.

We focus on new players in the antitumor action of the endocannabinoid system and on emerging crosstalk among cannabinoid receptors and other membrane or nuclear receptors involved in cancer.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23602129

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Cannabis Extracts for Treating Cancer

“Cannabis Extract Medicine and Disease. Cannabis extract medicine, also known as “hemp oil” when referring to the type pioneered by Rick Simpson, is a concentrated formulation of cannabis that is ingested orally. By eating large quantities of the oil over a three to six month period, nearly any disease you can imagine can either be cured or completely controlled. This is possible because cannabis medicine works fundamentally through the endocannabinoid system, the superregulatory system of our bodies that maintains homeostasis in the other systems.

You can see the reality of cannabis medicine’s effectiveness in all the things that smoking it is good for. It is widely known and observable that people with cancer, chronic pain, inflammatory conditions, and other conditions smoke cannabis with remarkable efficacy. When you think about that, it’s pretty crazy that setting something on fire and inhaling the resulting smoke (thus getting the cannabinoids in a low-concentration form through the lungs, which are not meant to ingest things) works better than many expensive pharmaceuticals. But with cannabis extract oil, there are two primary differences. First, the cannabinoids are much more concentrated than with smoking, so it has a more powerful effect on your system. Second, the oil is ingested, not smoked, meaning it is digested through the system that is meant to absorb nutrients. Essentially, you are feeding your body the pure molecules that enable it to stay balanced, and since all disease is an imbalance of some kind, this medicine is effective against nearly anything. At least, that’s what the bulk of science and real experience show.

The prohibition of cannabis medicine is a crime against humanity, and as more human trials are conducted into the efficacy of cannabis extracts, the truth will be revealed.

The THC Molecule

Scientific Evidence

There are literally hundreds upon hundreds of scientific studies showing that cannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as whole plant formulations, are effective against nearly any disease you can think of. LetFreedomGrow hosts an incredibly extensive list of peer-reviewed scientific studies and news reports about cannabis medicine. Here are just a few conditions that science has proven cannabinoids are therapeutically active against:

  • Arthritis
  • Cancer
  • Crohn’s
  • Diabetes
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s”

More: https://hubpages.com/health/Hemp-Oil-Cancer-Cure

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[The endocannabinoid system as a target for the development of new drugs for cancer therapy].

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“Studies on the main bioactive components of Cannabis sativa, the cannabinoids, and particularly delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), led to the discovery of a new endogenous signalling system that controls several physiological and pathological conditions: the endocannabinoid system. This comprises the cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous agonists–the endocannabinoids–and proteins for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and inactivation.

Recently, evidence has accumulated indicating that stimulation of cannabinoid receptors by either THC or the endocannabinoids influence the intracellular events controlling the proliferation and apoptosis of numerous types of cancer cells, thereby leading to anti-tumour effects both in vitro and in vivo.

This evidence is reviewed here and suggests that future anti-cancer therapy might be developed from our knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system controls the growth and metastasis of malignant cells.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12723496

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Endocannabinoid system modulation in cancer biology and therapy.

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“The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and the recognition of its potential impact in a plethora of pathological conditions, led to the development of therapeutic agents related to either the stimulation or antagonism of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, the majority of which are actually tested in preclinical studies for the pharmacotherapy of several diseases. Endocannabinoid-related agents have been reported to affect multiple signaling pathways and biological processes involved in the development of cancer, displaying an interesting anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activity both in vitro and in vivo in several models of cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors, which share the useful property to discern between tumor cells and their non-transformed counterparts, could represent novel tumor-selective tools to treat cancer in addition to their already exploited use as palliative drugs to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea, pain and anorexia/weight loss in cancer patients. The aim of this review is to evidence and update the recent emerging knowledge about the role of the endocannabinoid system in cancer biology and the potentiality of its modulation in cancer therapy.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19559362

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043661809000863

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Changes in the Endocannabinoid System May Give Insight into new and Effective Treatments for Cancer

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“The endocannabinoid system comprises specific cannabinoid receptors such as Cb1 and Cb2, the endogenous ligands (anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol among others) and the proteins responsible for their synthesis and degradation. This system has become the focus of research in recent years because of its potential therapeutic value several disease states. The following review describes our current knowledge of the changes that occur in the endocannabinoid system during carcinogenesis and then focuses on the effects of anandamide on various aspects of the carcinogenic process such as growth, migration, and angiogenesis in tumors from various origins.

Marijuana and its derivatives have been used in medicine for centuries, however, it was not until the isolation of the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; Δ9-THC) and the subsequent discovery of the endogenous cannabinoid signaling system that research into the therapeutic value of this system reemerged. Ongoing research is determining that regulation of the endocannabinoid system may be effective in the treatment of pain (Calignano et al., 1998; Manzanares et al., 1999), glaucoma (Voth and Schwartz, 1997), and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (Piomelli et al., 2000) and multiple sclerosis (Baker et al., 2000). In addition, cannabinoids might be effective anti-tumoral agents because of their ability to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cell lines in culture (De Petrocellis et al., 1998; Ruiz et al., 1999; Sanchez et al., 1998, 2001) and in laboratory animals (Galve-Roperh et al., 2000).

In conclusion, the endocannabinoid system exerts a myriad of effects on tumor cell growth, progression, angiogenesis, and migration. With a notable few exceptions, targeting the endocannabinoid system with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or increase the endogenous levels of AEA may prove to have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of various cancers. Further studies into the downstream consequences of AEA treatment are required and may illuminate other potential therapeutic targets.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2791688/

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