Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals.

Issue Cover“Heavy cannabis users had decreased frequencies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR+CD38+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequencies, compared to frequencies of these cells in non-cannabis-using individuals.

Heavy cannabis users had decreased frequencies of intermediate and nonclassical monocyte subsets, as well as decreased frequencies of interleukin 23- and tumor necrosis factor-α-producing antigen-presenting cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

While the clinical implications are unclear, our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with a potentially beneficial reduction in systemic inflammation and immune activation in the context of antiretroviral-treated HIV infection.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29471387

“We found that heavy cannabis use was associated with decreased frequencies of activated T cells and inflammatory antigen-presenting cell (APC) subsets, suggesting a potential immunologic benefit of cannabinoids through decreased immune activation in HIV-infected individuals.

In summary, our work demonstrates that heavy cannabis use is associated with lower markers of inflammation and immune activation in HIV-infected, ART-treated individuals.

These findings have clinical implications, as cannabinoids may have an immunological benefit and nonpsychoactive cannabis derivatives could be investigated as novel therapeutics to be used in conjunction with ART to aid in reduction of persistent inflammation.”

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/66/12/1872/4869752

“Cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammation.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17520866

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoids and inflammation: Implications for People Living with HIV.

Image result for wolters kluwer “Thanks to the success of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) have life expectancies which approach that of persons in the general population. However, despite the ability of ART to suppress viral replication, PLWH have high levels of chronic systemic inflammation which drives the development of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-AIDS associated malignancies.

Historically, cannabis has played an important role in alleviating many symptoms experienced by persons with advanced HIV infection in the pre-ART era and continues to be used by many PLWH in the ART era, though for different reasons.

Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the phytocannabinoids which have received most attention for their medicinal properties. Due to their ability to suppress lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production, there is interest in examining their therapeutic potential as immunomodulators.

CB2 receptor activation has been shown in vitro to reduce CD4 T-cell infection by CXCR4-tropic HIV and to reduce HIV replication.

Studies involving SIV-infected macaques have shown that Δ-THC can reduce morbidity and mortality and has favourable effects on the gut mucosal immunity. Furthermore, ΔTHC administration was associated with reduced lymph node fibrosis and diminished levels of SIV proviral DNA in spleens of rhesus macaques compared with placebo-treated macaques.

In humans, cannabis use does not induce a reduction in peripheral CD4 T-cell count or loss of HIV virological control in cross-sectional studies. Rather, cannabis use in ART-treated PLWH was associated with decreased levels of T-cell activation, inflammatory monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, all of which are related to HIV disease progression and co-morbidities.

Randomized clinical trials should provide further insights into the ability of cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines to attenuate HIV-associated inflammation. In turn, these findings may provide a novel means to reduce morbidity and mortality in PLWH as adjunctive agents to ART.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31408029

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00002030-900000000-96855

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Flavonoid Derivative of Cannabis Demonstrates Therapeutic Potential in Preclinical Models of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer.

Image result for frontiers oncology“Pancreatic cancer is particularly refractory to modern therapies, with a 5-year survival rate for patients at a dismal 8%.

One of the significant barriers to effective treatment is the immunosuppressive pancreatic tumor microenvironment and development of resistance to treatment. New treatment options to increase both the survival and quality of life of patients are urgently needed.

This study reports on a new non-cannabinoid, non-psychoactive derivative of cannabis, termed FBL-03G, with the potential to treat pancreatic cancer.

In vitro results show major increase in apoptosis and consequential decrease in survival for two pancreatic cancer models- Panc-02 and KPC pancreatic cancer cells treated with varying concentrations of FBL-03G and radiotherapy.

Meanwhile, in vivo results demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in delaying both local and metastatic tumor progression in animal models with pancreatic cancer when using FBL-03G sustainably delivered from smart radiotherapy biomaterials.

Repeated experiments also showed significant (P < 0.0001) increase in survival for animals with pancreatic cancer compared to control cohorts.

The findings demonstrate the potential for this new cannabis derivative in the treatment of both localized and advanced pancreatic cancer, providing impetus for further studies toward clinical translation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31396485

“In this study, a flavonoid derivative of cannabis demonstrates significant therapy potential in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, including radio-sensitizing and cancer metastasis treatment potential. The results justify further studies to optimize therapy outcomes toward clinical translation.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2019.00660/full

“Flavonoids as anticancer agents: structure-activity relationship study.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12678721

“The antitumor activities of flavonoids.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16097445

“Anticancer properties of flavonoids: roles in various stages of carcinogenesis.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21644918

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Bones and Joints: The Effects of Cannabinoids on the Skeleton.

Image result for j clin endocrinol metab“This paper reviews the endocannabinoid system and focuses on the role of endocannabinoids in bone metabolism and their potential use in the management of conditions associated with bone loss.

CONTEXT:

The endocannabinoid system uses tissue-specific lipid ligands and G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors to regulate neurological, metabolic, and immune responses. Recent studies demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system influences bone metabolism. With the increasing use of endocannabinoid mimetics, e.g. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), endocannabinoids’ involvement in bone growth and remodeling has become clinically relevant.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:

This literature review is based upon a search of Pubmed and Google Scholar databases, as of June 2019, for all English-language publications relating to cannabinoids and bone. We evaluated retrieved articles for relevance, experimental design, data acquisition, statistical analysis, and conclusions.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:

Preclinical studies establish a role for endocannabinoids in bone metabolism. These studies yield complex and often contradictory results attributed to differences in the specific experimental model examined. Studies using human cells or subjects are limited.

CONCLUSIONS:

In vitro and animal models document that endocannabinoids participate in bone biology. The relevance of these observations to humans is not clear. The increasing chronic use of medical and recreational cannabis underscores the need to better understand the role of endocannabinoids in human bone metabolism. Moreover, it is important to evaluate the role of endocannabinoids as a therapeutic target to prevent and treat disorders associated with bone loss.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31393556

“[The endocannabinoid system and bone].”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27734700

“Joint problems arising from lack of repair mechanisms: can cannabinoids help?”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29574720

“Cannabinoids and bone regeneration.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30702341

“Cannabinoids and the skeleton: from marijuana to reversal of bone loss.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19634029

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Is Cannabis of Potential Value as a Therapeutic for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

“Cannabis is commonly used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to ameliorate their symptoms.

Patients claim that cannabis reduces pain, increases appetite, and reduces the need for other medications.

In conclusion, considering the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids and the accumulating evidence of their anti-inflammatory effects in experimental and in vitro studies, it is reasonable to assume that cannabis can be of benefit in the treatment of IBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31388856

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10620-019-05763-8

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Modulation by the Transcription Factor NRF2 is Specific in Microglial Cells.

 “Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a pleiotropic transcription factor that has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, regulating more than 250 genes. As NRF2, cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is also implicated in the preservation of neurons against glia-driven inflammation. To this concern, little is known about the regulation pathways implicated in CB2 receptor expression. In this study, we analyze whether NRF2 could modulate the transcription of CB2 in neuronal and microglial cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed an antioxidant response element in the promoter sequence of the CB2 receptor gene. Further analysis by chemical and genetic manipulations of this transcription factor demonstrated that NRF2 is not able to modulate the expression of CB2 in neurons. On the other hand, at the level of microglia, the expression of CB2 is NRF2-dependent. These results are related to the differential levels of expression of both genes regarding the brain cell type. Since modulation of CB2 receptor signaling may represent a promising therapeutic target with minimal psychotropic effects that can be used to modulate endocannabinoid-based therapeutic approaches and to reduce neurodegeneration, our findings will contribute to disclose the potential of CB2 as a novel target for treating different pathologies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31385133

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10571-019-00719-y

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Pharmacological and Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol for Epilepsy.

 “Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major active component of the Cannabis plant, which, unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is devoid of euphoria-inducing properties.

During the last 10 years, there has been increasing interest in the use of CBD-enriched products for the treatment of epilepsy.

In 2018, an oil-based highly purified liquid formulation of CBD (Epidiolex) derived from Cannabis sativa was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of seizures associated with Dravet syndrome (DS) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS).

The mechanisms underlying the antiseizure effects of CBD are unclear but may involve, among others, antagonism of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), desensitization of transient receptor potential of vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels, and inhibition of adenosine reuptake. CBD has complex and variable pharmacokinetics, with a prominent first-pass effect and a low oral bioavailability that increases fourfold when CBD is taken with a high-fat/high-calorie meal.

In four randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, adjunctive-therapy trials, CBD given at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day administered in two divided administrations was found to be superior to placebo in reducing the frequency of drop seizures in patients with LGS and convulsive seizures in patients with DS.

Preliminary results from a recently completed controlled trial indicate that efficacy also extends to the treatment of seizures associated with the tuberous sclerosis complex.

The most common adverse events that differentiated CBD from placebo in controlled trials included somnolence/sedation, decreased appetite, increases in transaminases, and diarrhea, behavioral changes, skin rashes, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.

About one-half of the patients included in the DS and LGS trials were receiving concomitant therapy with clobazam, and in these patients a CBD-induced increase in serum levels of the active metabolite norclobazam may have contributed to improved seizure outcomes and to precipitation of some adverse effects, particularly somnolence.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31372958

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40265-019-01171-4

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

β-Caryophyllene Mitigates Collagen Antibody Induced Arthritis (CAIA) in Mice Through a Cross-Talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ Receptors.

biomolecules-logo “β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist that tempers inflammation.

An interaction between the CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been suggested and PPAR-γ activation exerts anti-arthritic effects.

The aim of this study was to characterize the therapeutic activity of BCP and to investigate PPAR-γ involvement in a collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) experimental model.

BCP significantly hampered the severity of the disease, reduced relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. BCP also decreased joint expression of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9. Arthritic joints showed increased COX2 and NF-ĸB mRNA expression and reduced expression of the PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha, PGC-1α, and PPAR-γ. These conditions were reverted following BCP treatment.

Finally, BCP reduced NF-ĸB activation and increased PGC-1α and PPAR-γ expression in human articular chondrocytes stimulated with LPS. These effects were reverted by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist.

These results suggest that BCP ameliorates arthritis through a cross-talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31370242

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/9/8/326

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Central Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Implications for the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research banner“High rates of relapse are a chronic and debilitating obstacle to effective treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, no effective treatments are available to treat symptoms induced by protracted abstinence.

In the first part of this two-part review series, we examine the literature supporting the effects of alcohol exposure within the extended amygdala (EA) neural circuitry.

In part two, we focus in on a potential way to combat negative affect associated with AUD, by exploring the therapeutic potential of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system.

The eCB system is a potent modulator of neural activity in the brain, and its ability to mitigate stress and negative affect has long been an area of interest for developing novel therapeutics.

This review details the recent advances in our understanding of eCB signaling in two key regions of the EA, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and their role in regulating negative affect.

Despite an established role for EA eCB signaling in reducing negative affect, few studies have examined the potential for eCB-based therapies to treat AUD-associated negative affect.

In this review, we present an overview of studies focusing on eCB signaling in EA and cannabinoid modulation on EA synaptic activity. We further discuss studies suggesting dysregulation of eCB signaling in models of AUD and propose that pharmacological augmentation of eCB could be a novel approach to treat aspects of AUD.

Lastly, future directions are proposed to advance our understanding of the relationship between AUD-associated negative affect and the EA eCB system that could yield new pharmacotherapies targeting negative affective symptoms associated with AUD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31373708

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14159

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The curative effect of cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Fundamental &amp; Clinical Pharmacology banner“Ischemia and reperfusion of intestinal tissue (intestinal I/R) induces disruption of ileal contractility and chain responses of inflammatory.

The aim of this study was to reveal whether therapeutic value of cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor activity in the intestinal I/R, via to the exogenous administration of CB2 agonist (AM-1241).

Intestinal I/R injury were performed through 30 min ischemia and 150 min reperfusion of mesenteric artery in Wistar rats. The pre-administered doses of 0.1, 1, and 5 mg/kg of CB2 agonist were studied to inhibit inflammation of intestinal I/R injury including ileum smooth muscle contractility, polymorphonuclear cell migration, oxidant/antioxidant defence system, and provocative cytokines.

Pre-administration with CB2 receptor agonist ensured to considerable improving the disrupted contractile responses in ileum smooth muscle along with decreased the formation of MDA that production of lipid peroxidation, reversed the depleted glutathione, inhibited the expression of TNF-α and of IL-1β in the intestinal I/R of rats.

Taken together results of this research, the agonistic activity of CB2 receptor for healing of intestinal I/R injury is ensuring associated with anti-inflammatory mechanisms such as the inhibiting of migration of inflammatory polymorphonuclear cells that origin of acute and initial responses of inflammation, the inhibiting of production of provocative and pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-1β, the rebalancing of oxidant/antioxidant redox system disrupted in injury of reperfusion period, and the supporting of physiologic defensive systems in endothelial and inducible inflammatory cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31373049

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fcp.12502

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous