Evaluation of the effects of cannabinoids CBD and CBG on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro

University of Huddersfield“Ovarian cancer, with over a 90% reoccurrence within 18 months of treatment, and approximately a 30% mortality rate after 5 years, is the leading cause of death in cases of gynaecological malignancies. Acquired resistance, and toxic side effects by clinically used agents are major challenges associated with current treatments, indicating the need for new approaches in ovarian cancer treatment.

Increased tumour cell proliferation associated with upregulation of cannabinoid (CB) receptors has been observed in ovarian cancer. As cannabinoids reported to bind to CB receptors, and can potentially modulate their downstream signalling, this raises the possibility of cannabinoids as potential anticancer drugs for ovarian cancer treatment.

Amongst the cannabinoids, non-psychoactive CBD and CBG have been shown to have anticancer activities towards prostate and colon cancer cells through multiple mechanisms of action. However, CBD and CBG have yet to be investigated in relation to ovarian cancer therapy either in vitro or in vivo.

Aim:

The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of CBD and CBG in human ovarian cancer cells, their ability to potentiate existing clinically used agents for ovarian cancer, and to perform initial mode of action studies in vitro.

Conclusions:

Both CBD and CBG showed preferential cytotoxicity against the ovarian cancer cells analysed compared to the non-cancer cells; however, this was less than for carboplatin. Importantly, in contrast to carboplatin, CBD and CBG showed similar activity towards cisplatin sensitive and cisplatin resistant cells indicating distinctive mechanisms of action to platinum drugs.

Preferential cytotoxicity towards cancer cells in vitro and ability to potentiate carboplatin and overcome cisplatin resistance identify CBD and CBG as promising candidates that warrant further investigation, both in terms of detailed mechanism of action studies and also in vivo studies to assess whether this promising activity translates into an in vivo setting and their potential for further progression towards the clinic.”

http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/id/eprint/34866/

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Development of An Oral Treatment with the PPAR-γ-Acting Cannabinoid VCE-003.2 Against the Inflammation-Driven Neuronal Deterioration in Experimental Parkinson’s Disease.

molecules-logo “In a recent study, we described the neuroprotective properties of VCE-003.2-an aminoquinone derivative of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG)-administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in an inflammatory model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We also demonstrated that these properties derive from its activity on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, in particular at a regulatory site within this receptor type.

In the present study, we wanted to further confirm this neuroprotective potential using an oral lipid formulation of VCE-003.2, developed to facilitate the clinical development of this phytocannabinoid derivative.

To this end, we evaluated VCE-003.2, administered orally at two doses (10 and 20 mg/kg), to mice subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classic model of inflammation-driven neuronal deterioration that recapitulates characteristics of PD.

In summary, our data confirm the neuroprotective potential of an oral formulation of VCE-003.2 against neuronal injury in an in vivo model of PD based on neuroinflammation, and this study opens the possibility to further the development of oral VCE-003.2 in the clinic.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31349553

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/15/2702

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“Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria”

1957: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa); antibiotic drug. I. Hemp in the old & popular medicine].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13484424
1958: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)–antibiotic drugs. II. Method & results of bacteriological experiments & preliminary clinical experience].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13553773
1959: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)-an antibiotic drug. 3. Isolation and constitution of two acids from Cannabis sativa].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14411912
1962: “Antibiotic activity of various types of cannabis resin.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14489783
2008: “Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481
“Cannabis plant extracts can effectively fight drug-resistant bacteria.” http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=5787866
“According to research, the five most common cannabinoid compounds in weed—tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabinol and cannabichromene—can kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria.” https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/whoa-the-stuff-in-pot-kills-germs-2008-08-27/
“All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA” http://arstechnica.com/science/2008/08/killing-bacteria-with-cannabis/
2014: “Better than antibiotics, cannabinoids kill antibiotic-resistant MRSA bacteria” http://usahealthresource.blogspot.com/2014/02/marijuana-extracts-and-compounds-kill.html
2019: “Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria” https://www.courthousenews.com/cannabis-found-effective-in-fighting-drug-resistant-bacteria/
“Cannabis oil kills bacteria better than established antibiotics… providing a possible new weapon in the war on superbugs, according to new research. It offers hope of curing killer infections – including MRSA and pneumonia, say scientists.” https://www.thelondoneconomic.com/lifestyle/cannabis-oil-kills-bacteria-better-than-established-antibiotics/24/06/ 
“CANNABIS COMPOUND COULD BE LATEST WEAPON IN WAR AGAINST SUPERBUGS”
“Marijuana skin cream kills superbugs, says Botanix” https://stockhead.com.au/health/marijuana-skin-cream-kills-superbugs-says-botanix/
“Botanix’s CBD-based product destroys superbug skin infections in another ‘world first’” https://smallcaps.com.au/botanix-cbd-based-product-destroys-skin-superbug-infections/
“Compound in cannabis found to be ‘promising’ new antibiotic that does not lose its effectiveness with use” https://www.kelownanow.com/watercooler/news/news/Cannabis/Compound_in_cannabis_found_to_be_promising_new_antibiotic_that_does_not_lose_its_effectiveness_with_use/
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Chemotherapy-induced cachexia dysregulates hypothalamic and systemic lipoamines and is attenuated by cannabigerol.

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“Muscle wasting, anorexia, and metabolic dysregulation are common side-effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy, having a dose-limiting effect on treatment efficacy, and compromising quality of life and mortality.

Extracts of Cannabis sativa, and analogues of the major phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, have been used to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced appetite loss and nausea for decades. However, psychoactive side-effects limit their clinical utility, and they have little efficacy against weight loss.

We recently established that the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid (CBG) stimulates appetite in healthy rats, without neuromotor side-effects. The present study assessed whether CBG attenuates anorexia and/or other cachectic effects induced by the broad-spectrum chemotherapy agent cisplatin.

RESULTS:

CBG (120 mg/kg) modestly increased food intake, predominantly at 36-60hrs (p<0.05), and robustly attenuated cisplatin-induced weight loss from 6.3% to 2.6% at 72hrs (p<0.01). Cisplatin-induced skeletal muscle atrophy was associated with elevated plasma corticosterone (3.7 vs 13.1ng/ml, p<0.01), observed selectively in MHC type IIx (p<0.05) and IIb (p<0.0005) fibres, and was reversed by pharmacological rescue of dysregulated Akt/S6-mediated protein synthesis and autophagy processes. Plasma metabonomic analysis revealed cisplatin administration produced a wide-ranging aberrant metabolic phenotype (Q2Ŷ=0.5380, p=0.001), involving alterations to glucose, amino acid, choline and lipid metabolism, citrate cycle, gut microbiome function, and nephrotoxicity, which were partially normalized by CBG treatment (Q2Ŷ=0.2345, p=0.01). Lipidomic analysis of hypothalami and plasma revealed extensive cisplatin-induced dysregulation of central and peripheral lipoamines (29/79 and 11/26 screened, respectively), including reversible elevations in systemic N-acyl glycine concentrations which were negatively associated with the anti-cachectic effects of CBG treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

Endocannabinoid-like lipoamines may have hitherto unrecognized roles in the metabolic side-effects associated with chemotherapy, with the N-acyl glycine subfamily in particular identified as a potential therapeutic target and/or biomarker of anabolic interventions. CBG-based treatments may represent a novel therapeutic option for chemotherapy-induced cachexia, warranting investigation in tumour-bearing cachexia models.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31035309

Cannabigerol (CBG) is one of the major phytocannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa L. that is attracting pharmacological interest because it is non-psychotropic and is abundant in some industrial hemp varieties. The results indicate that CBG is indeed effective as regulator of endocannabinoid signaling.”
“Cannabigerol displayed significant antitumor activity.” https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02976895
Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. Cannabigerol exhibited the highest growth-inhibitory activity against the cancer cell lines.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9875457
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Oral administration of the cannabigerol derivative VCE-003.2 promotes subventricular zone neurogenesis and protects against mutant huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration.

 “The administration of certain cannabinoids provides neuroprotection in models of neurodegenerative diseases by acting through various cellular and molecular mechanisms. Many cannabinoid actions in the nervous system are mediated by CB1receptors, which can elicit psychotropic effects, but other targets devoid of psychotropic activity, including CB2 and nuclear PPARγ receptors, can also be the target of specific cannabinoids.

METHODS:

We investigated the pro-neurogenic potential of the synthetic cannabigerol derivative, VCE-003.2, in striatal neurodegeneration by using adeno-associated viral expression of mutant huntingtin in vivo and mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro.

RESULTS:

Oral administration of VCE-003.2 protected striatal medium spiny neurons from mutant huntingtin-induced damage, attenuated neuroinflammation and improved motor performance. VCE-003.2 bioavailability was characterized and the potential undesired side effects were evaluated by analyzing hepatotoxicity after chronic treatment. VCE-003.2 promoted subventricular zone progenitor mobilization, increased doublecortin-positive migrating neuroblasts towards the injured area, and enhanced effective neurogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrated the proneurogenic activity of VCE-003.2 in embryonic stem cells. VCE-003.2 was able to increase neuroblast formation and striatal-like CTIP2-mediated neurogenesis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The cannabigerol derivative VCE-003.2 improves subventricular zone-derived neurogenesis in response to mutant huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration, and is neuroprotective by oral administration.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30899454

https://translationalneurodegeneration.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40035-019-0148-x

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Cannabigerol Action at Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors and at CB1-CB2 Heteroreceptor Complexes.

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“Cannabigerol (CBG) is one of the major phytocannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa L. that is attracting pharmacological interest because it is non-psychotropic and is abundant in some industrial hemp varieties.

The aim of this work was to investigate in parallel the binding properties of CBG to cannabinoid CB1 (CB1R) and CB2 (CB2R) receptors and the effects of the compound on agonist activation of those receptors and of CB1-CB2 heteroreceptor complexes.

The results indicate that CBG is indeed effective as regulator of endocannabinoid signaling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29977202

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00632/full

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Neuroprotective effects of the cannabigerol quinone derivative VCE-003.2 in SOD1G93A transgenic mice, an experimental model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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“Antioxidant phytocannabinoids, synthetic compounds targeting the CB2 receptor, and inhibitors of the endocannabinoid inactivation afforded neuroprotection in SOD1G93A mutant mice, a model of ALS. These effects may involve the activation of PPAR-γ too.

Here, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects in SOD1G93A mutant mice of the cannabigerol derivative VCE-003.2, which works as by activating PPAR-γ.

As expected, SOD1G93Atransgenic mice experienced a progressive weight loss and neurological deterioration, which was associated with a marked loss of spinal cholinergic motor neurons, glial reactivity, and elevations in several biochemical markers (cytokines, glutamate transporters) that indirectly reflect the glial proliferation and activation in the spinal cord. The treatment with VCE-003.2 improved most of these neuropathological signs.

It attenuated the weight loss and the anomalies in neurological parameters, preserved spinal cholinergic motor neurons, and reduced astroglial reactivity. VCE-003.2 also reduced the elevations in IL-1β and glial glutamate transporters. Lastly, VCE-003.2 attenuated the LPS-induced generation of TNF-α and IL-1β in cultured astrocytes obtained from SOD1G93Atransgenic newborns, an effect also produced by rosiglitazone, then indicating a probable PPAR-γ activation as responsible of its neuroprotective effects.

In summary, our results showed benefits with VCE-003.2 in SOD1G93A transgenic mice supporting PPAR-γ as an additional neuroprotective target available for cannabinoids in ALS. Such benefits would need to be validated in other ALS models prior to be translated to the clinical level.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30076846

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295218303198

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In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid.

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“Inflammation and oxidative stress play main roles in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, different natural compounds may be able to exert neuroprotective actions against inflammation and oxidative stress, protecting from neuronal cell loss.

Among these natural sources, Cannabis sativa represents a reservoir of compounds exerting beneficial properties, including cannabigerol (CBG), whose antioxidant properties have already been demonstrated in macrophages.

Here, we aimed to evaluate the ability of CBG to protect NSC-34 motor neurons against the toxicity induced from the medium of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

All together, these results indicated the neuroprotective effects of CBG, that may be a potential treatment against neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29986533

http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/7/1992

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Cannabigerol Action at Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors and at CB1–CB2 Heteroreceptor Complexes

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology

“Cannabigerol (CBG) is one of the major phytocannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa L. that is attracting pharmacological interest because it is non-psychotropic and is abundant in some industrial hemp varieties.

The aim of this work was to investigate in parallel the binding properties of CBG to cannabinoid CB1 (CB1R) and CB2 (CB2R) receptors and the effects of the compound on agonist activation of those receptors and of CB1–CB2 heteroreceptor complexes.

The results indicate that CBG is indeed effective as regulator of endocannabinoid signaling.

In conclusion, the results presented in this study reveal that the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid, CBG, may exert beneficial actions with therapeutic potential via cannabinoid receptors.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00632/full

“International Multi-Centre Collaboration Reveals that Cannabigerol Acts Directly on Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2” https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/international-multi-centre-collaboration-reveals-that-cannabigerol-acts-directly-on-cannabinoid-receptors-cb1-and-cb2-300671024.html

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Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.

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“Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important.

The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications.

Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes.

Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes with high content of cannabidiol (CBD)/cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG)/cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), respectively, on human recombinant and pig kidney aldose reductase activity in vitro.

A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The extracts showed significant dose-dependent aldose reductase inhibitory activity (>70%) and higher than fractions.

The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors.

The extracts of Cannabis with high content of non-psychotropic cannabinoids CBD/CBDA or CBG/CBGA significantly inhibit aldose reductase activity.

These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. sativa chemotypes based preparations as aldose reductase inhibitors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29427593

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367326X17317598

“Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114390

“Edible vegetables as a source of aldose reductase differential inhibitors.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28159579

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