Cannabinoids and their derivatives in struggle against melanoma

SpringerLink“Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignances in human. Recently developed therapies improved overall survival rate, however, the treatment of melanoma still remains a challenging issue.

This review attempts to summarize recent advances in studies on cannabinoids used in the setting of melanoma treatment.

Conclusions after analysis of available data suggest that cannabinoids limit number of metastasis, and reduce growth of melanoma. The findings indicate that cannabinoids induce apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest and exert significant interactions with tumor microenvironment.

Cannabinoids should be rather considered as a part of multi-targeted anti-tumor therapy instead of being standalone agent. Moreover, cannabinoids are likely to improve quality of life in patients with cancer, due to different supportive effects, like analgesia and/or anti-emetic effects.

In this review, it was pointed out that cannabinoids may be potentially useful in the melanoma therapy. Nevertheless, due to limited amount of data, great variety of cannabinoids available and lack of clinical trials, further studies are required to determine an exact role of cannabinoids in the treatment of melanoma.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34264513/

“The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in numerous pathological conditions, including malignancies. Recently, cannabinoids have received increasing amount of interest in the setting of treatment of various cancers.  Cannabinoids seem to be promising agents in the setting of melanoma treatment. In the case of melanoma, most important actions of cannabinoids described so far are decrease of cells viability by increase of apoptosis, necrosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, cannabinoids slow down disease progress by reduction of metastasis and tumor vascularization. Due to large variety of cannabinoids, there are many potential derivatives, which may be found useful in the therapy of melanoma.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs43440-021-00308-1

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid Receptor Type-2 in B Cells Is Associated with Tumor Immunity in Melanoma

cancers-logo“Agents targeting the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have gained attention as potential cancer treatments. Given recent evidence that cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) regulates lymphocyte development and inflammation, we performed studies on CB2R in the immune response against melanoma. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data revealed a strong positive correlation between CB2R expression and survival, as well as B cell infiltration in human melanoma. In a murine melanoma model, CB2R expression reduced the growth of melanoma as well as the B cell frequencies in the tumor microenvironment (TME), compared to CB2R-deficient mice. In depth analysis of tumor-infiltrating B cells using single-cell RNA sequencing suggested a less differentiated phenotype in tumors from Cb2r-/- mice. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate for the first time a protective, B cell-mediated role of CB2R in melanoma. This gained insight might assist in the development of novel, CB2R-targeted cancer therapies.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33923757/

“In this study we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) on immune cells in melanoma and found significantly improved overall survival in patients with high intra-tumoral CB2R gene expression. In human melanoma, CB2R is predominantly expressed in B cells, as shown using a previously published single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset and by performing RNAscope. In a murine melanoma model, tumor growth was enhanced in CB2R-deficient mice. In-depth analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using scRNA-seq showed less differentiated B cells in CB2R-deficient tumors, favoring the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Taken together, these data indicate a central role of CB2R on B cells in regulating tumor immunity. These results contribute to the understanding of the role of CB2R in tumor immunity and facilitate the development of new CB2R-targeted anti-cancer drugs.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/13/8/1934

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the inhibition of melanoma cells in vitro

Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry: Vol 41, No 5 “Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most popular emerging plant extracts that is being investigated for its wide range of potential health benefits.

This experiment tests how B16 mice melanoma cells, are affected by four different concentrations (0.2 mg/mL, 0.04 mg/mL, 0.008 mg/mL and 0.0016 mg/mL) of 99% CBD oil.

The results of this experiment demonstrate that CBD significantly inhibited melanoma cell growth in-vitro at 0.2 mg/mL and 0.04 mg/mL.

This shows that CBD has the potential to inhibit melanoma cell growth in vertebrates, namely mice.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33428525/

 

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Effects of standardized Cannabis sativa extract and ionizing radiation in melanoma cells in vitro

Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics “Melanoma causes the highest number of skin cancer-related deaths worldwide. New treatment methods are essential for the management of this life-threatening disease.

Aims: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract alone or in combination with single radiation dose (6 Gy) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in an extract dose-dependent manner.

Results: Administration of the extract alone or alongside radiation substantially inhibited melanoma cell viability and proliferation in the extract dose response-dependent manner. The inhibition of melanoma cell viability was paralleled by an increase in necrosis but not apoptosis when melanoma cells were treated with the extract alone. Radiation alone did not have any antiproliferative effects, and radiation also did not synergize antiproliferative effects of the extract when the extract and radiation were combined.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that C. sativa extract may have significant health and physiological implications for the treatment of melanoma. The results of this study also indicate that B16F10 mouse melanoma cells are radioresistant. Taken together, these findings may lead to the identification of new therapeutic strategy for the management of melanoma.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33342819/

“This study provides the first evidence of antitumor effects of C. sativa extract, when administered alone or in combination with radiation, to mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Our results may verify the value of C. sativa extract for the treatment of melanoma and may complement the therapeutic profile of C. sativa extracts administration in the future.”

https://www.cancerjournal.net/article.asp?issn=0973-1482;year=2020;volume=16;issue=6;spage=1495;epage=1499;aulast=Naderi

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Therapeutic application of cannabidiol on UVA and UVB irradiated rat skin. A proteomic study

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis “UV phototherapy used in chronic skin diseases causes redox imbalance and pro-inflammatory reactions, especially in the case of unchanged skin cells.

To prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation, cannabidiol (CBD) has been used, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBD on the metabolism of skin keratinocytes in nude rats exposed to UVA/UVB radiation using a proteomic approach.

The results obtained with SDS-PAGE/nanoHPLC/QexactiveOrbiTrap show that exposure of rat’s skin to UVA/UVB radiation, as well as the action of CBD, significantly modified the expression of proteins involved in inflammation, redox balance and apoptosis.

UVA/UVB radiation significantly increased the expression and biological effectiveness of the nuclear factor associated with erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) and cytoprotective proteins being products of its transcriptional activity, including superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and the inflammatory response (nuclear receptor coactivator-3 and paralemmin-3), while CBD treatment counteracted and partially eliminated these changes.

Moreover, cannabidiol reversed changes in the UV-induced apoptotic pathways by modifying anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors (apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 and transforming growth factor-β).

The results show that CBD maintains keratinocyte proteostasis and therefore could be suggested as a protective measure in the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in epidermal keratinocytes.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33086172/

“In summary, UVA and UVB radiation affect the proteomic profile of keratinocytes of healthy rat skin in different ways. Both types of radiation change the level of proteins involved in the regulation of cellular redox balance, inflammation, and apoptosis. In contrast, topical application of CBD to rat skin, when exposed to UV radiation, helps normalize the expression of keratinocyte proteins that are metabolically relevant by modeling their biosynthesis and degradation. Thus, CBD can maintain the proteostasis of keratinocytes. Because UV therapy is a part of the treatment of skin diseases, e.g. psoriasis, the use of CBD on unchanged skin may be suggested as a protective factor to reduce the metabolic changes caused by UV radiation in unchanged keratinocytes. This suggestion is particularly important when the beneficial effect of cannabidiol on psoriasis-induced skin lesions has recently also been confirmed.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0731708520315429?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Education and communication are critical to effectively incorporating cannabis into cancer treatment

“Providers need to be better equipped to discuss medical cannabis with patients even if they are not willing to prescribe it. The oncology community would be well served to ensure that providers are aware of existing cannabis research and are able to incorporate it into their communications with patients instead of leaving patients to figure out medical cannabis on their own.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32986251/

https://acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.33204

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cancer patients’ experiences with medicinal cannabis-related care

 “Background: Little is known about medical cannabis (MC)-related care for patients with cancer using MC.

Methods: Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of individuals (n = 24) with physician-confirmed oncologic diagnoses and state/district authorization to use MC (Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, Oregon, New York, and Washington, DC) from April 2017 to March 2019. Standard qualitative techniques were used to assess the degree of MC-related health care oversight, MC practices, and key information sources.

Results: Among 24 participants (median age, 57 years; range, 30-71 years; 16 women [67%]), MC certifications were typically issued by a professional new to a patient’s care after a brief, perfunctory consultation. Patients disclosed MCuse to their established medical teams but received little medical advice about whether and how to use MC. Patients with cancer used MC products as multipurpose symptom management and as cancer-directed therapy, sometimes in lieu of standard-of-care treatments. Personal experimentation, including methodical self-monitoring, was an important source of MC know-how. Absent formal advice from medical professionals, patients relied on nonmedical sources for MC information.

Conclusions: Patients with cancer used MC with minimal medical oversight. Most received MC certifications through brief meetings with unfamiliar professionals. Participants desired but were often unable to access high-quality clinical information about MC from their established medical teams. Because many patients are committed to using MC, a product sustained by a growing industry, medical providers should familiarize themselves with the existing data for MM and its limitations to address a poorly met clinical need.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32986266/

“Notably, oncology patients reported using medical cannabis (MC) for symptom management and as cancer‐directed therapy, sometimes instead of traditional treatments.”

https://acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.33202

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Novel cannabidiol sunscreen protects keratinocytes and melanocytes against ultraviolet B radiation

“Cannabidiol (CBD), a natural occurring phytocannabinoid, is used extensively in consumer products ranging from foods to shampoos, topical oils and lotions.

Several studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of cannabidiol. Nevertheless, the role of cannabidiol use in sunscreens is largely unknown as no studies on its effect on keratinocytes or melanocytes exist. As such, we aimed to explore the effect of CBD on keratinocyte and melanocyte viability following ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation.

CBD exhibited a dose-dependent protective effect on both keratinocytes and melanocyte viability. Further, since CBD does not demonstrate absorption in the UVB spectra, we speculate that the protective effect is due to reduction in reactive oxygen species.

To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the protective effect of CBD on keratinocytes and melanocytes irradiated with UVB.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32964699/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jocd.13693

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Roles of Cannabinoids in Melanoma: Evidence from In Vivo Studies

ijms-logo“Melanoma is the fourth most common type of cancer diagnosed in Australians after breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. While there has been substantial progress in the treatment of cancer in general, malignant melanoma, in particular, is resistant to existing medical therapies requiring an urgent need to develop effective treatments with lesser side effects.

Several studies have shown that “cannabinoids”, the major compounds of the Cannabis sativaL. plant, can reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in melanoma cells.

Despite prohibited use of Cannabis in most parts of the world, in recent years there have been renewed interests in exploiting the beneficial health effects of the Cannabis plant-derived compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was in the first instance to review the evidence from in vivo studies on the effects of cannabinoids on melanoma.

The findings revealed cannabinoids, individually or combined, reduced tumor growth and promoted apoptosis and autophagy in melanoma cells.

Further preclinical and animal studies are required to determine the underlying mechanisms of cannabinoids-mediated inhibition of cancer-signaling pathways. Well-structured, randomized clinical studies on cannabinoid use in melanoma patients would also be required prior to cannabinoids becoming a viable and recognized therapeutic option for melanoma treatment in patients.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32839414/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/17/6040

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Anti-Cancer Potential of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids Present in Cannabis

cancers-logo“In recent years, and even more since its legalization in several jurisdictions, cannabis and the endocannabinoid system have received an increasing amount of interest related to their potential exploitation in clinical settings. Cannabinoids have been suggested and shown to be effective in the treatment of various conditions. In cancer, the endocannabinoid system is altered in numerous types of tumours and can relate to cancer prognosis and disease outcome. Additionally, cannabinoids display anticancer effects in several models by suppressing the proliferation, migration and/or invasion of cancer cells, as well as tumour angiogenesis. However, the therapeutic use of cannabinoids is currently limited to the treatment of symptoms and pain associated with chemotherapy, while their potential use as cytotoxic drugs in chemotherapy still requires validation in patients. Along with cannabinoids, cannabis contains several other compounds that have also been shown to exert anti-tumorigenic actions. The potential anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, present in cannabis, are explored in this literature review.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32708138/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/12/7/1985

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous