Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the inhibition of melanoma cells in vitro

Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry: Vol 41, No 5 “Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most popular emerging plant extracts that is being investigated for its wide range of potential health benefits.

This experiment tests how B16 mice melanoma cells, are affected by four different concentrations (0.2 mg/mL, 0.04 mg/mL, 0.008 mg/mL and 0.0016 mg/mL) of 99% CBD oil.

The results of this experiment demonstrate that CBD significantly inhibited melanoma cell growth in-vitro at 0.2 mg/mL and 0.04 mg/mL.

This shows that CBD has the potential to inhibit melanoma cell growth in vertebrates, namely mice.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33428525/

 

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Effects of standardized Cannabis sativa extract and ionizing radiation in melanoma cells in vitro

Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics “Melanoma causes the highest number of skin cancer-related deaths worldwide. New treatment methods are essential for the management of this life-threatening disease.

Aims: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract alone or in combination with single radiation dose (6 Gy) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in an extract dose-dependent manner.

Results: Administration of the extract alone or alongside radiation substantially inhibited melanoma cell viability and proliferation in the extract dose response-dependent manner. The inhibition of melanoma cell viability was paralleled by an increase in necrosis but not apoptosis when melanoma cells were treated with the extract alone. Radiation alone did not have any antiproliferative effects, and radiation also did not synergize antiproliferative effects of the extract when the extract and radiation were combined.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that C. sativa extract may have significant health and physiological implications for the treatment of melanoma. The results of this study also indicate that B16F10 mouse melanoma cells are radioresistant. Taken together, these findings may lead to the identification of new therapeutic strategy for the management of melanoma.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33342819/

“This study provides the first evidence of antitumor effects of C. sativa extract, when administered alone or in combination with radiation, to mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Our results may verify the value of C. sativa extract for the treatment of melanoma and may complement the therapeutic profile of C. sativa extracts administration in the future.”

https://www.cancerjournal.net/article.asp?issn=0973-1482;year=2020;volume=16;issue=6;spage=1495;epage=1499;aulast=Naderi

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Therapeutic application of cannabidiol on UVA and UVB irradiated rat skin. A proteomic study

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis “UV phototherapy used in chronic skin diseases causes redox imbalance and pro-inflammatory reactions, especially in the case of unchanged skin cells.

To prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation, cannabidiol (CBD) has been used, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBD on the metabolism of skin keratinocytes in nude rats exposed to UVA/UVB radiation using a proteomic approach.

The results obtained with SDS-PAGE/nanoHPLC/QexactiveOrbiTrap show that exposure of rat’s skin to UVA/UVB radiation, as well as the action of CBD, significantly modified the expression of proteins involved in inflammation, redox balance and apoptosis.

UVA/UVB radiation significantly increased the expression and biological effectiveness of the nuclear factor associated with erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) and cytoprotective proteins being products of its transcriptional activity, including superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and the inflammatory response (nuclear receptor coactivator-3 and paralemmin-3), while CBD treatment counteracted and partially eliminated these changes.

Moreover, cannabidiol reversed changes in the UV-induced apoptotic pathways by modifying anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors (apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 and transforming growth factor-β).

The results show that CBD maintains keratinocyte proteostasis and therefore could be suggested as a protective measure in the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in epidermal keratinocytes.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33086172/

“In summary, UVA and UVB radiation affect the proteomic profile of keratinocytes of healthy rat skin in different ways. Both types of radiation change the level of proteins involved in the regulation of cellular redox balance, inflammation, and apoptosis. In contrast, topical application of CBD to rat skin, when exposed to UV radiation, helps normalize the expression of keratinocyte proteins that are metabolically relevant by modeling their biosynthesis and degradation. Thus, CBD can maintain the proteostasis of keratinocytes. Because UV therapy is a part of the treatment of skin diseases, e.g. psoriasis, the use of CBD on unchanged skin may be suggested as a protective factor to reduce the metabolic changes caused by UV radiation in unchanged keratinocytes. This suggestion is particularly important when the beneficial effect of cannabidiol on psoriasis-induced skin lesions has recently also been confirmed.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0731708520315429?via%3Dihub

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Education and communication are critical to effectively incorporating cannabis into cancer treatment

“Providers need to be better equipped to discuss medical cannabis with patients even if they are not willing to prescribe it. The oncology community would be well served to ensure that providers are aware of existing cannabis research and are able to incorporate it into their communications with patients instead of leaving patients to figure out medical cannabis on their own.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32986251/

https://acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.33204

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Cancer patients’ experiences with medicinal cannabis-related care

 “Background: Little is known about medical cannabis (MC)-related care for patients with cancer using MC.

Methods: Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of individuals (n = 24) with physician-confirmed oncologic diagnoses and state/district authorization to use MC (Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, Oregon, New York, and Washington, DC) from April 2017 to March 2019. Standard qualitative techniques were used to assess the degree of MC-related health care oversight, MC practices, and key information sources.

Results: Among 24 participants (median age, 57 years; range, 30-71 years; 16 women [67%]), MC certifications were typically issued by a professional new to a patient’s care after a brief, perfunctory consultation. Patients disclosed MCuse to their established medical teams but received little medical advice about whether and how to use MC. Patients with cancer used MC products as multipurpose symptom management and as cancer-directed therapy, sometimes in lieu of standard-of-care treatments. Personal experimentation, including methodical self-monitoring, was an important source of MC know-how. Absent formal advice from medical professionals, patients relied on nonmedical sources for MC information.

Conclusions: Patients with cancer used MC with minimal medical oversight. Most received MC certifications through brief meetings with unfamiliar professionals. Participants desired but were often unable to access high-quality clinical information about MC from their established medical teams. Because many patients are committed to using MC, a product sustained by a growing industry, medical providers should familiarize themselves with the existing data for MM and its limitations to address a poorly met clinical need.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32986266/

“Notably, oncology patients reported using medical cannabis (MC) for symptom management and as cancer‐directed therapy, sometimes instead of traditional treatments.”

https://acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.33202

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Novel cannabidiol sunscreen protects keratinocytes and melanocytes against ultraviolet B radiation

“Cannabidiol (CBD), a natural occurring phytocannabinoid, is used extensively in consumer products ranging from foods to shampoos, topical oils and lotions.

Several studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of cannabidiol. Nevertheless, the role of cannabidiol use in sunscreens is largely unknown as no studies on its effect on keratinocytes or melanocytes exist. As such, we aimed to explore the effect of CBD on keratinocyte and melanocyte viability following ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation.

CBD exhibited a dose-dependent protective effect on both keratinocytes and melanocyte viability. Further, since CBD does not demonstrate absorption in the UVB spectra, we speculate that the protective effect is due to reduction in reactive oxygen species.

To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the protective effect of CBD on keratinocytes and melanocytes irradiated with UVB.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32964699/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jocd.13693

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Roles of Cannabinoids in Melanoma: Evidence from In Vivo Studies

ijms-logo“Melanoma is the fourth most common type of cancer diagnosed in Australians after breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. While there has been substantial progress in the treatment of cancer in general, malignant melanoma, in particular, is resistant to existing medical therapies requiring an urgent need to develop effective treatments with lesser side effects.

Several studies have shown that “cannabinoids”, the major compounds of the Cannabis sativaL. plant, can reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in melanoma cells.

Despite prohibited use of Cannabis in most parts of the world, in recent years there have been renewed interests in exploiting the beneficial health effects of the Cannabis plant-derived compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was in the first instance to review the evidence from in vivo studies on the effects of cannabinoids on melanoma.

The findings revealed cannabinoids, individually or combined, reduced tumor growth and promoted apoptosis and autophagy in melanoma cells.

Further preclinical and animal studies are required to determine the underlying mechanisms of cannabinoids-mediated inhibition of cancer-signaling pathways. Well-structured, randomized clinical studies on cannabinoid use in melanoma patients would also be required prior to cannabinoids becoming a viable and recognized therapeutic option for melanoma treatment in patients.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32839414/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/17/6040

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Anti-Cancer Potential of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids Present in Cannabis

cancers-logo“In recent years, and even more since its legalization in several jurisdictions, cannabis and the endocannabinoid system have received an increasing amount of interest related to their potential exploitation in clinical settings. Cannabinoids have been suggested and shown to be effective in the treatment of various conditions. In cancer, the endocannabinoid system is altered in numerous types of tumours and can relate to cancer prognosis and disease outcome. Additionally, cannabinoids display anticancer effects in several models by suppressing the proliferation, migration and/or invasion of cancer cells, as well as tumour angiogenesis. However, the therapeutic use of cannabinoids is currently limited to the treatment of symptoms and pain associated with chemotherapy, while their potential use as cytotoxic drugs in chemotherapy still requires validation in patients. Along with cannabinoids, cannabis contains several other compounds that have also been shown to exert anti-tumorigenic actions. The potential anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, present in cannabis, are explored in this literature review.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32708138/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/12/7/1985

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Cannabinoids as anticancer therapeutic agents.

Cell Cycle Journal are Co-Sponsoring #ACCM15 – The Cell Division Lab “The recent announcement of marijuana legalization in Canada spiked many discussions about potential health benefits of Cannabis sativaCannabinoids are active chemical compounds produced by cannabis, and their numerous effects on the human body are primarily exerted through interactions with cannabinoid receptor types 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2). Cannabinoids are broadly classified as endo-, phyto-, and synthetic cannabinoids. In this review, we will describe the activity of cannabinoids on the cellular level, comprehensively summarize the activity of all groups of cannabinoids on various cancers and propose several potential mechanisms of action of cannabinoids on cancer cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32249682

“Endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids can be used for cancer therapy. Cannabis extracts have stronger anti-tumor capacity than single cannabinoids. Combination of several cannabinoids may have more potent effect on cancer.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15384101.2020.1742952?journalCode=kccy20

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Mechanisms of Cannabinoids and Potential Applicability to Skin Diseases.

SpringerLink“The legalisation of cannabis in a growing number of jurisdictions has led to increasing interest in its potential therapeutic effects in a range of disorders, including cutaneous conditions. Cannabinoids have been used as natural medicines for centuries; however, their biological activity in the skin is a new area of study.

Recent data suggest that cannabinoids are involved in neuro-immuno-endocrine modulation of skin functioning, yet their effect on the features of dermatologic conditions is unclear. This article sought to review the mechanisms by which cannabinoids regulate skin functioning through the lens of relevance to treatment of dermatologic diseases looking at the effects of cannabinoids on a range of cellular activities and dermatologic conditions both in vitro and in vivo.

We identified studies demonstrating an inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on skin inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis, pain, and itch-biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of many dermatologic conditions.

Cannabinoids have the potential to expand the therapeutic repertoire of a wide spectrum of skin disorders. Given their widespread unregulated use by the general public, basic and clinical studies are required to elucidate the effectiveness and long-term effects of topical and systemic cannabinoids in cutaneous disorders.”

“The endocannabinoid system of the skin. A potential approach for the treatment of skin disorders.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30138623

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