Pascal Biosciences Identifies Molecules in Cannabis That Stimulate the Immune System to Destroy Tumor Cells

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“Pascal Biosciences Inc. (TSX.V:PAS) (“Pascal” or the “Company”) announced the Company has discovered certain cannabinoids that enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, rendering them more susceptible to recognition by the immune system. This discovery is important because the leading class of new cancer fighting agents, termed “checkpoint inhibitors”, activates the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Enhancing recognition of cancer cells with cannabinoids may greatly improve the efficacy of this drug class. Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds which give the cannabis plant its medicinal properties with over 100 different cannabinoids identified. There is a growing body of research demonstrating the effectiveness of cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer symptoms, including nausea, appetite enhancement, and pain management. However, Pascal is the first to identify a mechanism in which cannabinoids may provide a direct benefit in immunotherapy.”

““We are very excited about this novel discovery,” commented Dr. Patrick Gray, CEO of Pascal Biosciences.” Cannabinoids typically have good pharmacological properties, as most have low toxicity and are easily absorbed into the blood, which are great advantages for drug development. In combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, cannabinoids may significantly improve cancer care. ”We wish to highlight specifically the line “Pascal is the first to identify a mechanism in which cannabinoids may provide a direct benefit in immunotherapy”.”
“Pascal Biosciences Stock Soars on New Cannabinoids Discovery”
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Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System.


“The biological effects of cannabinoids, the major constituents of the ancient medicinal plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana) are mediated by two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R) and 2. The CB1R is the prominent subtype in the central nervous system (CNS) and has drawn great attention as a potential therapeutic avenue in several pathological conditions, including neuropsychological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, cannabinoids also modulate signal transduction pathways and exert profound effects at peripheral sites. Although cannabinoids have therapeutic potential, their psychoactive effects have largely limited their use in clinical practice. In this review, we briefly summarized our knowledge of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, focusing on the CB1R and the CNS, with emphasis on recent breakthroughs in the field. We aim to define several potential roles of cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of signaling pathways and in association with several pathophysiological conditions. We believe that the therapeutic significance of cannabinoids is masked by the adverse effects and here alternative strategies are discussed to take therapeutic advantage of cannabinoids.”

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Extraction Method and Analysis of Cannabinoids in Cannabis Olive Oil Preparations.

“Recently, an increasing number of pharmacists had to supply medicinal products based on Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), prescribed by physicians to individual patients. 

Cannabis olive oil preparation is the first choice as a concentrated extract of cannabinoids, even though standardized operative conditions for obtaining it are still not available.

In this work, the impact of temperature and extraction time on the concentration of active principles was studied to harmonize the different compounding methods, optimize the extraction process, and reduce the variability among preparations.

“Therapeutic Use of Δ9-THC and Cannabidiol: Evaluation of a New Extraction Procedure for the Preparation of Cannabis-based Olive Oil.”

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Cannabis as an anticonvulsant

BMJ Journals“There are records of the cannabis plant being used for medicinal purposes in ancient times, and in the 19th century it was used as an effective anti-epileptic drug (AED) in children.

However, because of its abuse potential, most countries imposed laws restricting its cultivation and use, and this has greatly inhibited research into possible therapeutic uses.

Things are now changing, and cannabis derivatives are now used legally to treat, for example, pain, nausea and spasticity.

The plant contains over 100 biologically active compounds, and recently it has been possible to isolate these and identify the neurochemical mechanisms by which some of them operate: one in particular, cannabidiol”

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Cannabis for paediatric epilepsy: challenges and conundrums.

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“Research is expanding for the use of cannabidiol as an anticonvulsant drug. The mechanism of cannabidiol in paediatric epilepsy is unclear but is thought to play a role in modulation of synaptic transmission. Evidence for its efficacy in treating epilepsy is limited but growing, with a single pharmaceutical company-funded randomised double-blind controlled trial in children with Dravet syndrome. Progress towards the use of medicinal cannabinoids incorporates a complex interplay of social influences and political and legal reform. Access to unregistered but available cannabidiol in Australia outside of clinical trials and compassionate access schemes is state dependent and will require Therapeutic Goods Administration approval, although the cost may be prohibitive. Further clinical trials are needed to clearly define efficacy and safety, particularly long term.”

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Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.

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“Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important.

The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications.

Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes.

Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes with high content of cannabidiol (CBD)/cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG)/cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), respectively, on human recombinant and pig kidney aldose reductase activity in vitro.

A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The extracts showed significant dose-dependent aldose reductase inhibitory activity (>70%) and higher than fractions.

The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors.

The extracts of Cannabis with high content of non-psychotropic cannabinoids CBD/CBDA or CBG/CBGA significantly inhibit aldose reductase activity.

These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. sativa chemotypes based preparations as aldose reductase inhibitors.”

“Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications.”

“Edible vegetables as a source of aldose reductase differential inhibitors.”

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Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

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“Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare, severe form of epileptic encephalopathy, are frequently treatment resistant to available medications.

No controlled studies have investigated the use of cannabidiol for patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol as an add-on anticonvulsant therapy in this population of patients.

Add-on cannabidiol is efficacious for the treatment of patients with drop seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and is generally well tolerated.

“This study is registered with, number NCT02224690.”

“Cannabidiol for drop seizures in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome”

“Cannabidiol Reduces Drop Seizures in Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome”

“Cannabidiol helps reduce drop attacks in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, study shows”

“‘Pharma Grade’ CBD Effective in Lennox-Gastaut”

“Cannabidiol Efficacious for Lennox-Gastaut Drop Seizures”

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Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

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“The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes with millions of regular users around the world.

The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment.

Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and for pain management, but studies are limited particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products.

Smoking cannabis has not been proven to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of usage, small numbers of heavy cannabis smoking and confounding of risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer such as parallel chronic tobacco use.

Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally controlled trials where the CBD and the THC strength and usage are controlled and documented.”

“Good News: There’s No Definitive Link Between Marijuana Use and Lung Cancer” 

“Study Shows No Proven Link Between Weed-Smoking and Lung Cancer”

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Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Herbs with Special Emphasis on Herbal Medicines for Countering Inflammatory Diseases and Disorders – A Review.

“Diseases with inflammatory etiopathology have increased in incidence in recent times. Drugs used for therapeutic management of such inflammatory diseases are relieving the ailment but at the same time also countering serious life-threatening consequences. Moreover, they are costly and rarely available at all places. In this context, research and development on medicinal herbs have opened a new era in the prophylactic and therapeutic management of inflammatory diseases.


To highlight the importance of anti-inflammatory medicine-synthetic drugs and natural herbs, their constituents, mechanism of action, benefits, side effects and future prospects. The overall aim is to provide better health services to patiens regardless of their background on equality basis.


Anti-inflammatory herbs have proven beneficial by combating inflammatory responses that lead to severe abnormality in body systems. Inflammation though a protective response to infection or injury and may result in pathological outcome when aggravated or of severe degree thus needs an early intervention for proper resolution. Medicinal plants or their constituents are considered beneficial due to the properties i.e., satisfactory potency, ease of availability, cheapness, less or no side effects, safer and efficient as compared to the synthetic counterparts. These medicinal herbs contain phytoconstituents that can prevent undesirable inflammatory processes and also posses anti-inflammatory activity. Steroids, glycosides, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, terpenoids, cannabinoids, fatty acids are common phytoconstituents present in these plants. Different mechanisms have been explored for the anti-inflammatory action of these active ingredients. They may synergize the anti-inflammatory pathway enzymes, factors, proteins or interfere with these in the inflammatory pathway like lipooxygenases, cyclooxygenases, tumor necrosis factors, interleukins, prostaglandin, nitric oxide, mitogen-activated protein, nuclear factor, etc. Considering all the above-mentioned factors, further research from molecular to cellular level will enable a better understanding of the mechanisms. Common anti-inflammatory herbal plants are Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, Urtica dioica, Uncaria tomentosa, Vaccinium myrtillus, Olea europaea and much more. They are believed to be without side effects unlike the chemical counterparts or synthetic anti-inflammatory agents e.g. steroids, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and immunosuppressant used for controlling and suppressing inflammatory crisis. A proper phytochemical, pharmacological and physiological evaluation will enable their safe and effective use in inflammatory conditions. Many of these anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal preparations have been patented with some under consideration.


Natural herbs are safe, effective and better options as anti-inflammatory agents than synthetic ones. The phytoconstituents are as effective with the comparable mechanism of action as synthetic molecules. Future research should focus on molecular mechanisms of different beneficial applications of these herbal plants in various diseases. Recent patents on anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal plants have been covered which provide insight into the current status and future prospects in this field.”

“Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs”

“Cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammation.”

“Cannabis-based drugs have been shown to be effective in inflammatory diseases.”

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Oral cannabis extracts as a promising treatment for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder: Preliminary experience in Chilean patients

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“Preclinical studies and several anecdotal case reports suggest a dysfunctional endocannabinoid system implicated in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Objective: To report our preliminary findings in patients with ASD treated with oral cannabis extracts.

Most cases improved at least one of the core symptoms of ASD, including social communication, language, or repetitive behaviors. Additionally, sensory difficulties, food acceptance, feeding and sleep disorders, and/or seizures were improved in most cases.

71,5% of patients received balanced CBD:THC extracts; 19,0% high-CBD; and 9,5% high-THC extracts.

Oral cannabis extracts were well tolerated.

Two patients had more agitation and one had more irritability, effects that were solved by changing the strain.

Conclusion: In this small series of ASD patients, oral cannabis extracts were dramatically more effective than conventional medicines. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to establish efficacy and safety of medicinal cannabis in ASD.”

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