Cannabinoids Improve Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Patient With Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction.

Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition“Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare and challenging cause of pediatric intestinal failure, requiring long-term parenteral nutrition in most cases. Despite optimal management, some patients experience chronic abdominal pain and recurrent obstructive episodes with a major impact on their quality of life.

Cannabinoids have been successfully used in some conditions. However, their use in CIPO has never been reported in the literature.

We report a case of successful use of medicinal cannabinoids in a patient with CIPO, resulting in a significant reduction of abdominal pain, vomiting, and subocclusive episodes and increased appetite and weight, without major adverse events.

Although further observations are required to consolidate these findings, this case may be helpful for other patients suffering from the same condition.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32181915

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jpen.1821

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Safety Assessment of a Hemp Extract using Genotoxicity and Oral Repeat-Dose Toxicity Studies in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Toxicology Reports“Cannabinoids are extracted from Cannabis sativa L. and are used for a variety of medicinal purposes.

Recently, there has been a focus on the cannabinoid Cannabidiol (CBD) and its potential benefits.

This study investigated the safety of a proprietary extract of C. sativa, consisting of 9% hemp extract (of which 6.27% is CBD) and 91% olive oil.

Given the potential of CBD for a variety of human uses and the limited data currently available, these results support that hemp extracts are likely safe human consumption and additional studies should be conducted to validate this conclusion.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214750019305207?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Role of cannabis in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Image result for Ann Gastroenterol“For many centuries, cannabis (marijuana) has been used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. Currently, there are about 192 million cannabis users worldwide, constituting approximately 3.9% of the global population. Cannabis comprises more than 70 aromatic hydrocarbon compounds known as cannabinoids. Endogenous circulating cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, their metabolizing enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase) and 2 G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, together represent the endocannabinoid system and are present throughout the human body. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the activated endocannabinoid system reduces gut motility, intestinal secretion and epithelial permeability, and induces inflammatory leukocyte recruitment and immune modulation through the cannabinoid receptors present in the enteric nervous and immune systems. Because of the effects of cannabinoids on the GI tract, attempts have been made to investigate their medicinal properties, particularly for GI disorders such as pancreatitis, hepatitis, and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The effects of cannabis on IBD have been elucidated in several small observational and placebo-controlled studies, but with varied results. The small sample size and short follow-up duration in these studies make it difficult to show the clear benefits of cannabis in IBD. However, cannabis is now being considered as a potential drug for inflammatory GI conditions, particularly IBD, because of its spreading legalization in the United States and other countries and the growing trend in its use. More high-quality controlled studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism and benefits of cannabis use as a possible option in IBD management.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32127734

http://www.annalsgastro.gr/files/journals/1/earlyview/2020/ev-02-2020-03-AG4866-0452.pdf

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Application of Cannabinoids in Neurosciences: Considerations and Implications.

 Current Issue Cover Image“Medicinal cannabinoid use continues to evolve across the United States, although legitimate federal recognition for medicinal purpose is lacking. Variability exists across states within the United States with respect to legislation, and health care institutions encounter challenges when patients present with a history of medicinal cannabinoid use. Emerging evidence in the field of neurosciences suggests a role of cannabinoids for neurologic medical conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. We aim to provide an overview of cannabinoids including a historical perspective, pharmacology, applications in neurosciences, and challenges in health care and academia. Knowledge of the appropriate role of cannabinoids in the clinical setting is essential for all health care practitioners including nursing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32084064

https://journals.lww.com/ccnq/Abstract/2020/04000/Application_of_Cannabinoids_in_Neurosciences_.9.aspx

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Secondary Metabolites Profiled in Cannabis Inflorescences, Leaves, Stem Barks, and Roots for Medicinal Purposes.

Scientific Reports “Cannabis research has historically focused on the most prevalent cannabinoids. However, extracts with a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites may have increased efficacy and decreased adverse effects compared to cannabinoids in isolation.

Cannabis’s complexity contributes to the length and breadth of its historical usage, including the individual application of the leaves, stem barks, and roots, for which modern research has not fully developed its therapeutic potential. This study is the first attempt to profile secondary metabolites groups in individual plant parts comprehensively.

We profiled 14 cannabinoids, 47 terpenoids (29 monoterpenoids, 15 sesquiterpenoids, and 3 triterpenoids), 3 sterols, and 7 flavonoids in cannabis flowers, leaves, stem barks, and roots in three chemovars available. Cannabis inflorescence was characterized by cannabinoids (15.77-20.37%), terpenoids (1.28-2.14%), and flavonoids (0.07-0.14%); the leaf by cannabinoids (1.10-2.10%), terpenoids (0.13-0.28%), and flavonoids (0.34-0.44%); stem barks by sterols (0.07-0.08%) and triterpenoids (0.05-0.15%); roots by sterols (0.06-0.09%) and triterpenoids (0.13-0.24%).

This comprehensive profile of bioactive compounds can form a baseline of reference values useful for research and clinical studies to understand the “entourage effect” of cannabis as a whole, and also to rediscover therapeutic potential for each part of cannabis from their traditional use by applying modern scientific methodologies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32094454

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-60172-6

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis and the exocannabinoid and endocannabinoid systems. Their use and controversies.

“Cannabis (marijuana) is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world. The term marijuana is of Mexican origin. The primary cannabinoids that have been studied to date include cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which is responsible for most cannabis physical and psychotropic effects. Recently, the endocannabinoid system was discovered, which is made up of receptors, ligands and enzymes that are widely expressed in the brain and its periphery, where they act to maintain balance in several homeostatic processes. Exogenous cannabinoids or naturally-occurring phytocannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system. Marijuana must be processed in a laboratory to extract tetrahydrocannabinol and leave cannabidiol, which is the product that can be marketed. Some studies suggest cannabidiol has great potential for therapeutic use as an agent with antiepileptic, analgesic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties; however, the findings on cannabinoids efficacy and cannabis-based medications tolerability-safety for some conditions are inconsistent. More scientific evidence is required in order to generate recommendations on the use of medicinal cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32091020

http://gacetamedicademexico.com/frame_eng.php?id=348

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Impact of Cannabinoids on Symptoms of Refractory Gastroparesis: A Single-center Experience.

Image result for cureus journal“Cannabinoids are increasingly used for medicinal purposes, including neuropathy.

Gastroparesis is a neuromuscular disorder and neuropathy plays a large role in its pathogenesis. It is thus reasonable that cannabinoids can serve a beneficial role in the management of gastroparesis.

Our study evaluates the effect of cannabinoids on gastroparesis symptoms.

A significant improvement in the GCSI total symptom composite score was seen with either cannabinoid treatment (mean score difference of 12.8, 95% confidence interval 10.4-15.2; p-value < 0. 001). Patients prescribed marijuana experienced a statistically significant improvement in every GCSI symptom subgroup. Significant improvement in abdominal pain score was also seen with either cannabinoid treatment (mean score difference of 1.6; p-value <0.001).

Conclusions: Cannabinoids dramatically improve the symptoms of gastroparesis. Furthermore, an improvement in abdominal pain with cannabinoids represents a breakthrough for gastroparesis-associated abdominal pain treatment, for which there are currently no validated therapies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31993268

“In conclusion, cannabinoids dramatically improve refractory gastroparesis symptoms, including abdominal pain. Marijuana may be superior to dronabinol in improving these symptoms, though both cannabinoids seem to be promising as novel therapeutic options in gastroparesis.”

https://www.cureus.com/articles/25832-impact-of-cannabinoids-on-symptoms-of-refractory-gastroparesis-a-single-center-experience

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The nephrologist’s guide to cannabis and cannabinoids.

“Cannabis (marijuana, weed, pot, ganja, Mary Jane) is the most commonly used federally illicit drug in the United States.

The present review provides an overview of cannabis and cannabinoids with relevance to the practice of nephrology so that clinicians can best take care of patients.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Cannabis may have medicinal benefits for treating symptoms of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease including as a pain adjuvant potentially reducing the need for opioids.

Cannabis does not seem to affect kidney function in healthy individuals. However, renal function should be closely monitored in those with CKD, the lowest effective dose should be used, and smoking should be avoided. Cannabis use may delay transplant candidate listing or contribute to ineligibility.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has recently exploded in popularity. Although generally well tolerated, safe without significant side effects, and effective for a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions, consumers have easy access to a wide range of unregulated CBD products, some with inaccurate labeling and false health claims. Importantly, CBD may raise tacrolimus levels.

SUMMARY:

Patients and healthcare professionals have little guidance or evidence regarding the impact of cannabis use on people with kidney disease. This knowledge gap will remain as long as federal regulations remain prohibitively restrictive towards prospective research.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31972598

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Medicinal cannabis for psychiatric disorders: a clinically-focused systematic review.

 Image result for bmc psychiatry“Medicinal cannabis has received increased research attention over recent years due to loosening global regulatory changes.

Medicinal cannabis has been reported to have potential efficacy in reducing pain, muscle spasticity, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and intractable childhood epilepsy. Yet its potential application in the field of psychiatry is lesser known.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is currently encouraging, albeit embryonic, evidence for medicinal cannabis in the treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders. Supportive findings are emerging for some key isolates, however, clinicians need to be mindful of a range of prescriptive and occupational safety considerations, especially if initiating higher dose THC formulas.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31948424

https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-019-2409-8

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Source of cannabinoids: what is available, what is used, and where does it come from?

John Libbey Eurotext“Cannabis sativa L. is an ancient medicinal plant wherefrom over 120 cannabinoids are extracted. In the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabis-based treatments for neurological disorders such as epilepsy, and there is now evidence for the medical use of cannabis and its effectiveness for a wide range of diseases.

Cannabinoid treatments for pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (Nabiximols) have been approved in several countries. Cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast to tetra-hydro-cannabidiol (THC), is not a controlled substance in the European Union, and over the years there has been increasing use of CBD-enriched extracts and pure CBD for seizure disorders, particularly in children. No analytical controls are mandatory for CBD-based products and a pronounced variability in CBD concentrations in commercialized CBD oil preparations has been identified.

Randomized controlled trials of plant-derived CBD for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome (DS) have provided evidence of anti-seizure effects, and in June 2018, CBD was approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an add-on antiepileptic drug for patients two years of age and older with LGS or DS. Medical cannabis, with various ratios of CBD and THC and in different galenic preparations, is licensed in many European countries for several indications, and in July 2019, the European Medicines Agency also granted marketing authorisation for CBD in association with clobazam, for the treatment of seizures associated with LGS or DS.

The purpose of this article is to review the availability of cannabis-based products and cannabinoid-based medicines, together with current regulations regarding indications in Europe (as of July 2019). The lack of approval by the central agencies, as well as social and political influences, have led to significant variation in usage between countries.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31941643

https://www.jle.com/fr/revues/epd/e-docs/source_of_cannabinoids_what_is_available_what_is_used_and_where_does_it_come_from__316043/article.phtml

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous