Cannabis sativa: A comprehensive ethnopharmacological review of a medicinal plant with a long history.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology

“Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) is an annual dioecious plant, which shares its origins with the inception of the first agricultural human societies in Asia. Over the course of time different parts of the plant have been utilized for therapeutic and recreational purposes, for instance, extraction of healing oils from seed, or the use of inflorescences for their psychoactive effects. The key psychoactive constituent in C. sativa is called Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC). The endocannabinoid system seems to be phylogenetically ancient, as it was present in the most primitive vertebrates with a neuronal network. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are the main endocannabinoids ligands present in the animal kingdom, and the main endocannabinoid receptors are cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor and cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

The review aims to provide a critical and comprehensive evaluation, from the ancient times to our days, of the ethnological, botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of C. sativa, with a vision for promoting further pharmaceutical research to explore its complete potential as a therapeutic agent.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

A detailed comparative analysis of the available resources for C. sativa confirmed its origin and traditional spiritual, household and therapeutic uses and most importantly its popularity as a recreational drug. The result of several studies suggested a deeper involvement of phytocannabinoids (the key compounds in C. sativa) in several others central and peripheral pathophysiological mechanisms such as food intake, inflammation, pain, colitis, sleep disorders, neurological and psychiatric illness. However, despite their numerous medicinal benefits, they are still considered as a menace to the society and banned throughout the world, except for few countries. We believe that this review will help lay the foundation for promoting exhaustive pharmacological and pharmaceutical studies in order to better understand the clinical relevance and applications of non-psychoactive cannabinoids in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases and help to improve the legal status of C. sativa.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30205181

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874118316611?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol restores differentiation capacity of LPS exposed adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells.

Experimental Cell Research

“Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) support wound healing processes. These cells express toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs perform important key functions when the immune system is confronted with danger signals. TLR ligation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activates MSCs and induces intracellular signaling cascades, which affect their differentiation profile, increase the release of inflammatory cytokines and the production of reactive oxygen species. Continuing exposure to LPS triggers prolonged inflammatory reactions, which may lead to deleterious conditions, e.g. non-healing wounds.

Cannabidiol (CBD) exerts anti-inflammatory processes through cannabinoid receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. In the present study, we examined whether CBD could influence the inflammatory MSC phenotype.

Exposure to LPS increased the release of IL-6, as well as other soluble factors, and elevated levels of oxidized macromolecules found in cell homogenisates. While the amount of IL-6 was unaffected, co-treatment with CBD reduced the oxidative stress acting on the cells. LPS inhibited adipogenic as well as chondrogenic differentiation, which was attenuated by CBD treatment. In the case of adipogenesis, the disinhibitory effect probably depended on CBD interaction with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

CBD could exert mild immunosuppressive properties on MSCs, while it most effectively acted anti-oxidatively and by restoring the differentiation capacity upon LPS treatment.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30036540

“Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces oxidative stress and restores adipogenesis and chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) upon lipopolysaccharides (LPS)  exposure.” https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014482718304312

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Can Marijuana Cure Cancer? Mom Claims To Have Cured Son’s Leukemia By Secretly Giving Him Weed

deryn

“Boy’s miracle recovery from rare cancer after mum gave him cannabis”  http://metro.co.uk/2017/03/26/boys-miracle-recovery-from-rare-cancer-after-mum-gave-him-cannabis-6534160/

“A mother in England reports that she secretly gave her son marijuana, and credits it with curing his leukemia, and saving the teen’s life. Callie Blackwell chose to secretly give her dying son illegally bought marijuana to help him deal with the pain and anxiety from his aggressive leukemia, because she felt he had “nothing else to lose,” The Independent reported. The drug did far more than the mother could have hoped; it not only relieved Deryn’s pain, it reportedly cured his cancer. Now, Blackwell hopes to share her family’s story in an effort to raise awareness about the healing potential of marijuana.

Deryn was first diagnosed with his severe and aggressive form of leukemia, a type of cancer that originates in the blood cells, at age 10. At 14, doctors informed him that there was nothing more they could do, and the young teen went to live out the rest of his short life in a hospice facility. However, that was three years ago, and now at 17, Deryn has fully recovered from his disease and plans to start a career in the food industry. Callie teamed up with author Karen Hockney to write The Boy in 7 Million, a book detailing the family’s experience and highlighting the potential of marijuana in cancer treatment.

There have been a number of instances where marijuana was suspected of significantly improving, and in some cases even curing cancer, but the science remains inconclusive. Research suggests that cannabinoids—chemicals found in the marijuana plants—can target and kill cancer cells in ways that drugs cannot.” http://www.medicaldaily.com/can-marijuana-cure-cancer-mom-claims-have-cured-sons-leukemia-secretly-giving-414375

“Teenager dying of cancer ‘recovers after mother gives him marijuana'” http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/teenager-deryn-boy-dying-cancer-mother-callie-blackwell-recover-medical-marijuana-cannabis-weed-a7652106.html

‘I GAVE MY BOY CANNABIS’. Mum reveals she gave her cancer-stricken son CANNABIS in bid to ease his pain… and now he’s made a miracle recovery. Deryn Blackwell, who was expected to die, has defied doctors by surviving two deadly cancers”  https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/3181956/mum-callie-blackwell-cancer-stricken-son-deryn-cannabis/

“I gave my little boy CANNABIS to help cure his cancer: Mother reveals how her teenage son who was given days to live made a miracle recovery when she gave him the drug behind his doctors’ backs” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-4349232/Mother-gave-young-son-cannabis-help-cure-cancer.html

One in 7 Billion: Deryn Blackwell begins his hospital ordeal aged 10

“‘I gave my dying son cannabis to ease his cancer symptoms and he made a miracle recovery’ reveals mum” http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/i-gave-dying-son-cannabis-10103387

“I Secretly Gave My Son Cannabis to Save His Life | This Morning”  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqvJOAV7oAc&t=4s

“This Morning fans praise mum who risks prosecution after giving son cannabis cancer drug” http://www.express.co.uk/showbiz/tv-radio/784387/This-Morning-Phillip-Schofield-Holly-Willoughby-cannabis-based-drug-cancer

“Mum claims cannabis cured son’s cancer after he was given days to live. A MUM has claimed that cannabis cured her son’s terminal cancer.”  http://www.dailystar.co.uk/showbiz-tv/hot-tv/600294/cannabis-cures-cancer-this-morning-holly-willoughby

“As teenage boy ‘beats’ cancer with cannabis oil here are nine illnesses the drug could ‘cure’. Deryn Blackwell’s parents secretly gave him the class B drug to ease his pain and anxiety as he underwent gruelling treatment in hospital for leukaemia and cancer.” http://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/health/after-cannabis-oil-miracle-recovery-10111458

I gave my cancer-stricken son weed and it saved his life” http://nypost.com/2017/03/26/i-gave-my-cancer-stricken-son-weed-and-it-saved-his-life/

“London mother claims cannabis helped her dying son recover from rare cancer” http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/u-mother-claims-cannabis-helped-dying-son-recover-cancer-article-1.3010404

“Mother gives marijuana to cancer-struck son and he makes full recovery”  http://topexaminer.com/2017/03/28/mother-gives-marijuana-cancer-struck-son-makes-full-recovery/

“CALLIE BLACKWELL SAYS CANNABIS OIL HELPED SON’S CANCER: ‘THE BOY IN 7 BILLION’” http://www.inquisitr.com/4095508/callie-blackwell-says-cannabis-oil-helped-sons-cancer-the-boy-in-7-billion/

“Teenager Dying Of Cancer Survives After His Mother Gives Him A Dose Of Marijuana” http://www.indiatimes.com/health/buzz/teenager-dying-of-cancer-survives-after-his-mother-gives-him-a-dose-of-marijuana-274499.html

“Mother risked 14 years in prison to smuggle cannabis into hospital for dying son – and she claims it saved his life.‘” http://metro.co.uk/2017/10/23/mother-risked-14-years-in-prison-to-smuggle-cannabis-into-hospital-for-dying-son-and-she-claims-it-saved-his-life-7021003/
“Teen boy ‘saved by cannabis’ reveals how his mum’s illegal drug-buying stopped him from dying. Deryn Blackwell, from Norfolk, was sent to a hospice shortly after his 14th birthday to live out his final few days. He was frail and in extraordinary pain after a relentless battle with a one in a billion form of cancer, Langerhans cell sarcoma. But after his parents secretly gave him cannabis oil to ease his pain and anxiety, he made a miracle recovery. Today, Deryn – who had also battled leukaemia – is a happy and healthy 17-year-old student, with friends and a girlfriend.” http://www.mirror.co.uk/tv/tv-news/teen-boy-saved-cannabis-reveals-11393969

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/leukemia/

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Effects of JWH015 in cytokine secretion in primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts and its suitability for topical/transdermal delivery.

Image result for Mol Pain.

“JWH015 is a cannabinoid (CB) receptor type 2 agonist that produces immunomodulatory effects. Since skin cells play a key role in inflammatory conditions and tissue repair, we investigated the ability of JWH015 to promote an anti-inflammatory and pro-wound healing phenotype in human primary skin cells.

The expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors (mRNA) and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors enhanced in keratinocytes and fibroblasts following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. JWH015 reduced the concentration of major pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6 and MCP-1) and increased the concentration of a major anti-inflammatory factor (TGF-β) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.

JWH015 induced a faster scratch gap closure. These JWH015’seffects were mainly modulated through both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Topically administered JWH015 was mostly retained in the skin and displayed a sustained and low level of transdermal permeation.

Our findings suggest that targeting keratinocytes and fibroblasts with cannabinoid drugs could represent a therapeutic strategy to resolve peripheral inflammation and promote tissue repair.”

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Accelerated Burn Wound Closure in Mice with a New Formula Based on Traditional Medicine.

Image result for Iran Red Crescent Med J.

“A combination of the oils of sesame, hemp, wild pistachio, and walnut has been used for treatment of skin disorders, including wound burns, in some parts of Kerman, Iran. Evaluation of this remedy in the form of a pharmaceutical formulation in animal models can pave the way for its future application in wound burn healing in humans.

This experimental study investigated the healing potential of a new formula (NF) based on folk medicine from Iran for the treatment of third degree burns in mice. The formula was a combination of the oils of four plants: sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.), hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), and walnut (Juglans regia L.).

When compared to the controls, NF significantly improved wound contraction after day 10. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the efficacy of the NF.

CONCLUSIONS:

A new therapeutic remedy was introduced for the treatment of burn wounds.

Further clinical and molecular studies are suggested to determine the exact mechanism(s) involved in the burn wound healing effect of NF.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28191338

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In vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Six Chemotypes of Medicinal Cannabis

“Nowadays, medicinal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L) is in the focus of the researches not only for its high content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but for other cannabinoids as well.

It has been reported that some of the identified substances (e.g. cannabidiol, cannabinochromene) possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, which corresponds to its traditional use as wound healing agent at Pakistan.

The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant ability of extracts from high potent Cannabis sativa chemotypes.

The six ethanolic extracts prepared from dried inflorescence of five medicinal cannabis chemotypes (Nurse Jackie, Jilly Bean, Nordle, Jack Cleaner, Conspiracy Kush) were tested by standard microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus (three strains), Streptococcus pyogenes and the yeast Candida albicans.

Those microbial strains are present on skin and can cause complication during wound healing process.

The antioxidative activity, which plays an important role in wound healing process, was tested by oxygen radical absorbance capacity test (ORAC).

All tested extracts demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against two strains of S. aureus and S. pyogenes (MIC ranged from 4 – 16 µg·mL-1), moreover high antioxidant capacity was observed (ORAC ranged from 800 – 1300 µg TE/mg of extract).

The results indicate that cannabis has high potential to be used in ointments and other material for wound healing.

However, further research on the identification of the active components is needed.”

https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0036-1596302

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Abnormal cannabidiol attenuates experimental colitis in mice, promotes wound healing and inhibits neutrophil recruitment.

“Non-psychotropic atypical cannabinoids have therapeutic potential in a variety of inflammatory conditions including those of the gastrointestinal tract.

Here we examined the effects of the atypical cannabinoid abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) on wound healing, inflammatory cell recruitment and colitis in mice.

TNBS-induced colitis was attenuated by treatment with Abn-CBD.

Abn-CBD is protective against TNBS-induced colitis, promotes wound healing of endothelial and epithelial cells and inhibits neutrophil accumulation on HUVEC monolayers.

Thus, the atypical cannabinoid Abn-CBD represents a novel potential therapeutic in the treatment of intestinal inflammatory diseases.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418880

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Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor attenuates inflammation, fibrogenesis, and promotes re-epithelialization during skin wound healing.

“Previous studies showed that cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor is expressed in multiple effector cells during skin wound healing. Meanwhile, its functional involvement in inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation in other organs and skin diseases implied CB2 receptor might also regulate skin wound healing.

These results, taken together, indicate that activating CB2 receptor could ameliorate wound healing by reducing inflammation, accelerating re-epithelialization, and attenuating scar formation.

Thus, CB2 receptor agonist might be a novel perspective for skin wound therapy.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268717

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Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin.

“Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation.

Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing.

Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH).

We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process.

Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin.

Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical counter measures against vesicants.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27125198

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Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the regulation of fibrogenesis during skin wound repair in mice.

“Studies have shown that cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in wound repair, however, its physiological roles in fibrogenesis remain to be elucidated.

In the present study, the capacity of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the regulation of skin fibrogenesis during skin wound healing was investigated.

These results indicated that cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate fibrogenesis and the TGF‑β/Smad profibrotic signaling pathway during skin wound repair in the mouse.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935001

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