Cannabidiol modulates phosphorylated rpS6 signalling in a zebrafish model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Behavioural Brain Research

“Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and is characterized by widespread tumour growth, intractable epilepsy, cognitive deficits and autistic behaviour.

CBD has been reported to decrease seizures and inhibit tumour cell progression, therefore we sought to determine the influence of CBD on TSC pathology in zebrafish carrying a nonsense mutation in the tsc2 gene.

CBD treatment from 6 to 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) induced significant anxiolytic actions without causing sedation. Furthermore, CBD treatment from 3 dpf had no impact on tsc2-/- larvae motility nor their survival. CBD treatment did, however, reduce the number of phosphorylated rpS6 positive cells, and their cross-sectional cell size. This suggests a CBD mediated suppression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in the tsc2-/- larval brain.

Taken together, these data suggest that CBD selectively modulates levels of phosphorylated rpS6 in the brain and additionally provides an anxiolytic effect. This is pertinent given the alterations in mTOR signalling in experimental models of TSC. Additional work is necessary to identify upstream signal modulation and to further justify the use of CBD as a possible therapeutic strategy to manage TSC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30684511

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432818311215?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain

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“Clinical studies indicate that cannabidiol (CBD), the primary nonaddictive component of cannabis that interacts with the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor, may possess analgesic and anxiolytic effects.

Overall, repeated treatment with low-dose CBD induces analgesia predominantly through TRPV1 activation, reduces anxiety through 5-HT1A receptor activation, and rescues impaired 5-HT neurotransmission under neuropathic pain conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30157131

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006396-900000000-98870

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Beta-caryophyllene alleviates diet-induced neurobehavioral changes in rats: The role of CB2 and PPAR-γ receptors.

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

“Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity predispose diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Beta-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural sesquiterpene, exerts neuroprotective, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects via its selective agonism to cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). BCP was shown to have an anti-diabetic effect, however, the implication of CB2R is yet to be elucidated. A link between CB2R agonism and PPAR-γ activation has been discussed, but the exact mechanism is not well-defined.

This study was designed to examine the role of BCP in improving diet-induced metabolic (insulin resistance), neurobehavioral (anxiety, depression and memory deficit), and neurochemical (oxidative, inflammatory and neurotrophic factor) alterations in the prefrontal cortex of obese rats’ brain. The involvement of CB2R and/or PPAR-γ dependent activity was also investigated.

KEY RESULTS:

Beta-caryophyllene alleviated HFFD-induced IR, oxidative-stress, neuroinflammation and behavioral changes. The anxiolytic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of BCP were mediated by both PPAR-γ and CB2R. The effects of BCP on glycemic parameters seem to be CB2R-dependent with the non-significant role of PPAR-γ. Furthermore, BCP-evoked antidepressant and memory improvement are likely mediated only via CB2R, mainly by upregulation of PGC-1α and BDNF.

CONCLUSION:

This study suggests the potential effect of BCP in treating HFFD-induced metabolic and neurobehavioral alterations. BCP seems to activate PPAR-γ in a ligand-independent manner, via upregulation and activation of PGC-1α. The BCP activation of PPAR–γ seems to be CB2R-dependent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30469079

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332218370033?via%3Dihub

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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Pain and Depression: A Systematic Review.

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“Pain comorbid with depression is frequently encountered in clinical settings and often leads to significant impaired functioning. Given the complexity of comorbidities, it is important to address both pain and depressive symptoms when evaluating treatment options.

Overall, studies suggested that pain and depression are highly intertwined and may co-exacerbate physical and psychological symptoms. These symptoms could lead to poor physical functional outcomes and longer duration of symptoms. An important biochemical basis for pain and depression focuses on serotonergic and norepinephrine systems, which is evident in the pain-ameliorating properties of serotonergic and norepinephrine antidepressants.

Alternative pharmacotherapies such as ketamine and cannabinoids appear to be safe and effective options for improving depressive symptoms and ameliorating pain. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy may be a promising tool in the management of chronic pain and depression.

CONCLUSION:

The majority of the literature indicates that patients with pain and depression experience reduced physical, mental, and social functioning as opposed to patients with only depression or only pain. In addition, ketamine, psychotropic, and cognitive-behavioral therapies present promising options for treating both pain and depression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30407234

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00023727-201811000-00005

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Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation-A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype.

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“Cannabis sativa is a medicinal herb with a diverse range of chemotypes that can exert both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects on humans. Medical cannabis patients receiving organically grown cannabis from a single source were surveyed about the effectiveness of cannabis for treating anxiety.

Patients rated cannabis as highly effective overall for treating anxiety with an average score of 8.03 on a Likert scale of 0 to 10 (0 = not effective, 10 = extremely effective).

Patients also identified which strains they found the most or least effective for relieving their symptoms of anxiety. To find correlations between anxiolytic activity and chemotype, the top four strains voted most and least effective were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS to quantify cannabinoids and GC-MS to quantify terpenes. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and trans-nerolidol have statistically significant correlations with increased anxiolytic activity.

Guiaol, eucalyptol, γ-terpinene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene, and sabinene hydrate all have significant correlations with decreased anxiolytic activity. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the entourage effects that contribute to the anxiolytic properties of cannabis varieties.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30405331

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2018.00730/full

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Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test.

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

“Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the non-psychotomimetic compounds of Cannabis sativa, causes anxiolytic-like effects in animals, with typical bell-shaped dose-response curves. No study, however, has investigated whether increasing doses of this drug would also cause similar curves in humans.

The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of different doses of CBD and placebo in healthy volunteers performing a simulated public speaking test (SPST), a well-tested anxiety-inducing method.

Our findings confirm the anxiolytic-like properties of CBD and are consonant with results of animal studies describing bell-shaped dose-response curves. Optimal therapeutic doses of CBD should be rigorously determined so that research findings can be adequately translated into clinical practice.”

https://www.europeanneuropsychopharmacology.com/article/S0924-977X(16)31702-3/abstract

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462018005007102&lng=en&tlng=en

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Cannabidiol regulates the expression of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis-related genes in response to acute restraint stress.

SAGE Journals

“Research interest has grown around the potential therapeutic use of cannabidiol in mood-related disorders, due to its anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects.

These have been partially attributed to its action as an allosteric modulator of 5-HTR1A. However, the exact mechanism supporting cannabidiol properties remains unclear.

Taken together, these data suggest the ability of cannabidiol to regulate acute stress hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation might be explained, at least in part, by its action on 5-HTR1A receptors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30324842

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Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age.

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“Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana.

The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry.

CBD was shown to have anxiolytic, antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties. In addition, basic and clinical investigations on the effects of CBD have been carried out in the context of many other health conditions, including its potential use in epilepsy, substance abuse and dependence, schizophrenia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and Parkinson.

CBD is an useful and promising molecule that may help patients with a number of clinical conditions. Controlled clinical trials with different neuropsychiatric populations that are currently under investigation should bring important answers in the near future and support the translation of research findings to clinical settings.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30298064

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009/full

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Repeated Cannabidiol treatment reduces cocaine intake and modulates neural proliferation and CB1R expression in the mouse hippocampus.

Neuropharmacology

“Cannabinoid derivatives have shown promising results for treating neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction.

Recent studies on the therapeutic effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on drug abuse showed mixed results, especially with psychostimulant substances such as cocaine. To determine whether CBD can attenuate cocaine reinforcement, we assessed behavioural responses induced by cocaine in mice, using the behavioural sensitization, conditioned place preference and intravenous self-administration paradigms.

We show that repeated CBD treatment produces anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze test, increases the discrimination index of the novel object recognition task and attenuates cocaine-induced conditioned place preference but does not affect behavioural sensitization.

CBD reduced cocaine voluntary consumption and progressive ratio breaking point in the self-administration paradigm, but not drug-induced reinstatement. In parallel, CBD increased expression of type 1 cannabinoid receptor, MAPK-CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and neural cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and reduced the GluA1/2 AMPA subunit receptor ratio in the striatum.

In summary, we show that CBD can modulate some behavioural and molecular manifestations of cocaine reinforcement. Moreover, our findings show that CBD has pro-neurogenic effects also in cocaine consuming animals.

Overall, this novel evidence provides new perspectives to use CBD as a therapeutic tool.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30273593

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390818307135?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and prevents allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain.

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“Clinical studies indicate that cannabidiol (CBD), the primary non-addictive component of cannabis that interacts with the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, may possess analgesic and anxiolytic effects. However, its effects on 5-HT neuronal activity, as well as its impact in models of neuropathic pain are unknown.

Seven days of treatment with CBD reduced mechanical allodynia, decreased anxiety-like behavior, and normalized 5-HT activity. Anti-allodynic effects of CBD were fully prevented by capsazepine (10 mg/kg/day, s.c., for 7 days) and partially prevented by WAY 100635 (2 mg/kg/day, s.c., for 7 days), while the anxiolytic effect was blocked only by WAY.

Overall, repeated treatment with low-dose CBD induces analgesia predominantly via TRPV1 activation, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A receptor activation, and rescues impaired 5-HT neurotransmission under neuropathic pain conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30157131

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006396-900000000-98870

“Cannabis pain relief without the ‘high’. Canadian researchers pinpoint the mechanism of cannabidiol for safe pain relief without side effects”  https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-10/muhc-cpr102418.php

“Effective dose of cannabidiol for safe pain relief without the typical ‘high'”  https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181025/Effective-dose-of-cannabidiol-for-safe-pain-relief-without-the-typical-high.aspx

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