Cannabidiol regulates the expression of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis-related genes in response to acute restraint stress.

SAGE Journals

“Research interest has grown around the potential therapeutic use of cannabidiol in mood-related disorders, due to its anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects.

These have been partially attributed to its action as an allosteric modulator of 5-HTR1A. However, the exact mechanism supporting cannabidiol properties remains unclear.

Taken together, these data suggest the ability of cannabidiol to regulate acute stress hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation might be explained, at least in part, by its action on 5-HTR1A receptors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30324842

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Cannabinoids in depressive disorders.

 Life Sciences “Cannabis sativa is one of the most popular recreational and medicinal plants. Benefits from use of cannabinoid agents in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and others have been suggested. It seems that the endocannabinoid system is also involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression, though its role in this mental disease has not been fully understood yet. Both the pro- and antidepressant activity have been reported after cannabis consumption and a number of pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that both agonist and antagonist of the endocannabinoid receptors act similarly to antidepressants. Responses to the cannabinoid agents are relatively fast, and most probably, the noradrenergic, serotoninergic, glutamatergic neurotransmission, neuroprotective activity, as well as modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are implicated in the observed effects. Based on the published data, the endocannabinoid system evidently gives novel ideas and options in the field of antidepressant treatment, however further studies are needed to determine which group of patients could benefit from this type of therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30290188

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320518306040?via%3Dihub

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Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

“Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes – both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence.

Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono- and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail.

The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops. Terpenes’ medicinal properties are supported by numerous in vitro, animal and clinical trials and show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic attributes, among others.

Because of the very low toxicity, these terpenes are already widely used as food additives and in cosmetic products. Thus, they have been proven safe and well-tolerated.”

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Hippocampal mammalian target of rapamycin is implicated in stress-coping behavior induced by cannabidiol in the forced swim test.

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“Cannabidiol is a non-psychotomimetic compound with antidepressant-like effects.

However, the mechanisms and brain regions involved in cannabidiol effects are not yet completely understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-receptor kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (BDNF-TrkB-mTOR) signaling, especially in limbic structures, seems to play a central role in mediating the effects of antidepressant drugs.

RESULTS:

Systemic cannabidiol administration induced antidepressant-like effects and increased BDNF levels in the dorsal hippocampus. Rapamycin, but not K252a, injection into the dorsal hippocampus prevented the antidepressant-like effect induced by systemic cannabidiol treatment (10 mg/kg). Differently, hippocampal administration of cannabidiol (10 nmol/0.2 µL) reduced immobility time, an effect that was blocked by both rapamycin and K252a local microinjection.

CONCLUSION:

Altogether, our data suggest that the hippocampal BDNF-TrkB-mTOR pathway is vital for cannabidiol-induced antidepressant-like effect when the drug is locally administered. However, other brain regions may also be involved in cannabidiol-induced antidepressant effect upon systemic administration.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29968502

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881118784877?journalCode=jopa

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Antidepressant-like effect induced by Cannabidiol is dependent on brain serotonin levels.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound of Cannabis sativa with relevant therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. CBD treatment has shown significant antidepressant-like effects in different rodent preclinical models.

However, the mechanisms involved in CBD-induced antidepressant effects are still poorly understood. Therefore, this work aimed at investigating the participation of serotonin (5-HT) and/or noradrenaline (NA) in CBD-induced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST) by: 1) testing if CBD co-administration with serotonergic (fluoxetine, FLX) or noradrenergic (desipramine, DES) antidepressants would have synergistic effects; and 2) investigating if 5-HT or NA depletion would impair CBD-induced behavioral effects.

Results showed that CBD (10 mg/kg), FLX (10 mg/kg) and DES (5 mg/kg) induced antidepressant-like effects in mice submitted to FST. Ineffective doses of CBD (7 mg/kg), when co-administered with ineffective doses of FLX (5 mg/kg) or DES (2.5 mg/kg) resulted in significant antidepressant-like effects, thus implicating synergistic and/or additive mechanisms.

Pretreatment with PCPA (an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis: 150 mg/kg, i.p., once per day for 4 days), but not DSP-4 (a noradrenergic neurotoxin: 1 μg/μl, i.c.v., 24 h before the test), reduced monoamine levels in the brain. However, only PCPA treatment abolished CBD-induced behavioral effects in FST, indicating the participation of serotonergic mechanisms. None of the treatments induced locomotor effects.

Our results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect induced by CBD in the FST is dependent on serotonin levels in the central nervous system (CNS).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29885468

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584618301167

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Sub-chronic treatment with cannabidiol but not with URB597 induced a mild antidepressant-like effect in diabetic rats.

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“Depression associated with diabetes has been described as a highly debilitating comorbidity. Due to its complex and multifactorial mechanisms, the treatment of depression associated with diabetes represents a clinical challenge.

Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychotomimetic compound derived from Cannabis sativa, has been pointed out as a promising compound for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders.

Here, we evaluated the potential antidepressant-like effect of acute or sub-chronic treatment with CBD in diabetic rats using the modified forced swimming test (mFST).

Also, to better understand the functionality of the endocannabinoid system in diabetic animals we also evaluated the effect of URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor.

Acute treatment with either CBD or URB induced an antidepressant-like effect in NGL rats, but not in DBT rats. However, sub-chronic treatment with CBD (only at a dose of 30 mg/kg), but not with URB597, induced a mild antidepressant-like effect in DBT animals. Neither body weight nor blood glucose levels were altered by treatments.

Considering the importance of the endocannabinoid system to the mechanism of action of many antidepressant drugs, the mild antidepressant-like effect of the sub-chronic treatment with CBD, but not with URB597 does not invalidate the importance of deepening the studies involving the endocannabinoid system particularly in DBT animals.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29885450

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Cannabidiol Induces Rapid and Sustained Antidepressant-Like Effects Through Increased BDNF Signaling and Synaptogenesis in the Prefrontal Cortex.

Molecular Neurobiology

“Currently available antidepressants have a substantial time lag to induce therapeutic response and a relatively low efficacy. The development of drugs that addresses these limitations is critical to improving public health.

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa, is a promising compound since it shows large-spectrum therapeutic potential in preclinical models and humans.

However, its antidepressant properties have not been completely investigated. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate in male rodents (i) whether CBD could induce rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects after a single administration and (ii) whether such effects could be related to changes in synaptic proteins/function.

These results indicate that CBD induces fast and sustained antidepressant-like effect in distinct animal models relevant for depression. These effects may be related to rapid changes in synaptic plasticity in the mPFC through activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway.

The data support a promising therapeutic profile for CBD as a new fast-acting antidepressant drug.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29869197

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12035-018-1143-4

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No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design.

The drug did not induce any significant effect.

Different from anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs such as benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, acute administration of an anxiolytic dose of CBD does not seem to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers. The present findings support the proposal that CBD do not alter normal sleep architecture.

Cannabidiol may play a therapeutic role in sleep regulation.

We found no differences between CBD and placebo in respect to polysomnographic findings or cognitive and subjective measures in a sample of healthy subjects. Unlike widely used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs such as benzodiazepines and SSRIs, the acute administration of an anxiolytic dose of CBD does not appear to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers. Future studies should address the effects of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of patient populations as well as evaluate the chronic effects of CBD in larger samples of patients with sleep and neuropsychiatric disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29674967

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.00315/full

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Regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic systems by cannabinoids: relevance to cannabinoid-induced effects.

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“The cannabinoid system is composed of Gi/o protein-coupled cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor and endogenous compounds. The CB1 receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and it is involved in the regulation of common physiological functions. At the neuronal level, the CB1 receptor is mainly placed at GABAergic and glutamatergic axon terminals, where it modulates excitatory and inhibitory synapses. To date, the involvement of CB2 receptor in the regulation of neurotransmission in the CNS has not been clearly shown. The majority of noradrenergic (NA) cells in mammalian tissues are located in the locus coeruleus (LC) while serotonergic (5-HT) cells are mainly distributed in the raphe nuclei including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In the CNS, NA and 5-HT systems play a crucial role in the control of pain, mood, arousal, sleep-wake cycle, learning/memory, anxiety, and rewarding behaviour. This review summarizes the electrophysiological, neurochemical and behavioural evidences for modulation of the NA/5-HT systems by cannabinoids and the CB1 receptor. Cannabinoids regulate the neuronal activity of NA and 5-HT cells and the release of NA and 5-HT by direct and indirect mechanisms. The interaction between cannabinoid and NA/5-HT systems may underlie several behavioural changes induced by cannabis such as anxiolytic and antidepressant effects or side effects (e.g. disruption of attention). Further research is needed to better understand different aspects of NA and 5-HT systems regulation by cannabinoids, which would be relevant for their use in therapeutics.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29169951

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320517306069

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Pharmacological Foundations of Cannabis Chemovars.

“An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety.

Cannabis is often divided into several categories based on cannabinoid content. Type I, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-predominant, is the prevalent offering in both medical and recreational marketplaces. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cannabidiol have been better recognized, leading to the promotion of additional chemovars: Type II, Cannabis that contains both Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and cannabidiol-predominant Type III Cannabis.

While high-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and high-myrcene chemovars dominate markets, these may not be optimal for patients who require distinct chemical profiles to achieve symptomatic relief. Type II Cannabis chemovars that display cannabidiol- and terpenoid-rich profiles have the potential to improve both efficacy and minimize adverse events associated with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure. Cannabis samples were analyzed for cannabinoid and terpenoid content, and analytical results are presented via PhytoFacts, a patent-pending method of graphically displaying phytocannabinoid and terpenoid content, as well as scent, taste, and subjective therapeutic effect data.

Examples from the breeding program are highlighted and include Type I, II, and III Cannabis chemovars, those highly potent in terpenoids in general, or single components, for example, limonene, pinene, terpinolene, and linalool. Additionally, it is demonstrated how Type I - III chemovars have been developed with conserved terpenoid proportions. Specific chemovars may produce enhanced analgesia, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety effects, while simultaneously reducing sequelae of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol such as panic, toxic psychosis, and short-term memory impairment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29161743

https://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0043-122240

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