“Perinatal asphyxia remains a major cause of both mortality and neurological morbidity. Neonatal encephalopathy affects to 1-3/1,000 newborns, leading to significant brain damage and childhood disability.
The only standard therapy is moderate hypothermia, whose efficacy, despite proved, is limited, being partially effective.
The use of therapeutic agents such as erythropoietin and cannabinoids and mesenchymal stem cells have shown promising results in experimental models of perinatal asphyxia, being able of modulate neurogenesis, neuronal plasticity and neuroreparation processes after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.”
“Neurogenesis plays an indispensable role in the formation of the nervous system during development. The discovery that the adult brain still maintains neurogenic niches that allow the continued production of new cells after birth has changed the field of neuroscience. It has also opened a new venue of opportunities for the treatment of central nervous system disorders related to neuronal loss. This chapter has reviewed the studies showing that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) or the enzymes responsible for endocannabinoid metabolism modify/regulate cell proliferation and neurogenesis during development and in the adult brain. A better characterization of the mechanisms involved in these effects could contribute to the development of new therapeutic alternatives to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.”
“The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 R) or cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2 R).
The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor.
Here we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:
Together, these findings suggest GPR55 activation as a novel target and strategy to regulate NSC proliferation and adult neurogenesis.”
“A generally undesired effect of cannabis smoking is a reversible disruption of short term memory induced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis.
However, this paradigm has been recently challenged by a group of scientists who have shown that THC is also able to improve neurological function in old animals when chronically administered at low concentrations.
Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that THC paradoxically promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents neurodegenerative process occurring in Alzheimer Disease, protects from inflammation-induced cognitive damage and restores memory and cognitive function in old mice.
With the aim to reconcile these seemingly contradictory facts, the present work will show that such paradox can be explained within the framework of hormesis, defined as biphasic dose responses. ”