“CB1 and GPR55 are GPCRs expressed by islet β-cells. Pharmacological compounds have been used to investigate their function, but off-target effects of ligands have been reported.
This study examined the effects of Abn-CBD (GPR55 agonist) and LH-21 (CB1 antagonist) on human and mouse islet function, and islets from GPR55-/- mice were used to determine signalling via GPR55.
Abn-CBD potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and elevated [Ca2+ ]i in human islets and islets from both GPR55+/+ and GPR55-/- mice. LH-21 also increased insulin secretion and [Ca2+ ]i in human islets and GPR55+/+ mouse islets, but concentrations of LH-21 up to 0.1 μM were ineffective in islets from GPR55-/- mice. Neither ligand affected basal insulin secretion or islet cAMP levels. Abn-CBD and LH-21 reduced cytokine-induced apoptosis in human islets and GPR55+/+ mouse islets, and these effects were suppressed following GPR55 deletion. They also increased β-cell proliferation: the effects of Abn-CBD were preserved in islets from GPR55-/- mice, while those of LH-21 were abolished. Abn-CBD and LH-21 increased AKT phosphorylation in mouse and human islets.
This study demonstrated that Abn-CBD and LH-21 improve human and mouse islet β-cell function and viability. Use of islets from GPR55-/- mice suggests that designation of Abn-CBD and LH-21 as GPR55 agonist and CB1 antagonist, should be revised.”
“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) primarily consists of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), endogenous ligands, and enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and inactivation. Although the presence of CBRs, both CB1 and CB2, as well as a third receptor (G-protein receptor 55 [GPR55]), has been established in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, few studies have focused on the role of cannabinoids on esophageal function. To date, studies have shown their effect on GI motility, inflammation and immunity, intestinal and gastric acid secretion, nociception and emesis pathways, and appetite control. Given the varying and sometimes limited efficacy of current medical therapies for diseases of the esophagus, further understanding and investigation into the interplay of the ECS on esophageal health and disease may present new therapeutic modalities that may help advance current treatment options. In this brief review, the current understanding of the ECS role in various esophageal functions and disorders is presented.”
“Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) include Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. However, C. sativa extracts contain hundreds of compounds. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C. sativa extracts has never been characterized in detail with in vitro and ex vivo colon models.
Material and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativa extracts was studied on three lines of epithelial cells and on colon tissue. C. sativa flowers were extracted with ethanol, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of interleukin-8 in colon cells and tissue biopsies, chemical analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR.
Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) present in fraction 7 (F7) of the extract. However, all fractions of C. sativa at a certain combination of concentrations have a significant increased cytotoxic activity. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT116 cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol (CBD) shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue.
Conclusions: It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts on colon epithelial cells derives from a fraction of the extract that contains THCA, and is mediated, at least partially, via GPR55 receptor. The cytotoxic activity of the C. sativa extract was increased by combining all fractions at a certain combination of concentrations and was partially affected by CB2 receptor antagonist that increased cell proliferation. It is suggested that in a nonpsychoactive treatment for IBD, THCA should be used rather than CBD.”
“Worldwide medicinal use of cannabis is rapidly escalating, despite limited evidence of its efficacy from preclinical and clinical studies. Here we show that cannabidiol (CBD) effectively reduced seizures and autistic-like social deficits in a well-validated mouse genetic model of Dravet syndrome (DS), a severe childhood epilepsy disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the brain voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1.
The duration and severity of thermally induced seizures and the frequency of spontaneous seizures were substantially decreased. Treatment with lower doses of CBD also improved autistic-like social interaction deficits in DS mice.
Phenotypic rescue was associated with restoration of the excitability of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, an important area for seizure propagation. Reduced excitability of dentate granule neurons in response to strong depolarizing stimuli was also observed.
The beneficial effects of CBD on inhibitory neurotransmission were mimicked and occluded by an antagonist of GPR55, suggesting that therapeutic effects of CBD are mediated through this lipid-activated G protein-coupled receptor.
Our results provide critical preclinical evidence supporting treatment of epilepsy and autistic-like behaviors linked to DS with CBD. We also introduce antagonism of GPR55 as a potential therapeutic approach by illustrating its beneficial effects in DS mice.
Our study provides essential preclinical evidence needed to build a sound scientific basis for increased medicinal use of CBD.”
“The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 has been shown to play a tumor-promoting role in various cancers, and is involved in many physiological and pathological processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
While the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) has been reported to suppress intestinal tumor growth, the role of GPR55 in the development of GI cancers is unclear. We, therefore, aimed at elucidating the role of GPR55 in colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide.
Collectively, our data suggest that GPR55 and CB1 play differential roles in colon carcinogenesis where the former seems to act as oncogene and the latter as tumor suppressor.”
“G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) shares numerous cannabinoid ligands with CB1 and CB2 receptors despite low homology with those classical cannabinoid receptors. The pharmacology of GPR55 is not yet fully elucidated; however, GPR55 utilizes a different signaling system and downstream cascade associated with the receptor. Therefore, GPR55 has emerged as a putative “type 3” cannabinoid receptor, establishing a novel class of cannabinoid receptor. Furthermore, the recent evidence of GPR55-CB1 and GPR55-CB2 heteromerization along with its broad distribution from central nervous system to peripheries suggests the importance of GPR55 in various cellular processes and pathologies and as a potential therapeutic target in inflammation.”
“This gene belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The encoded integral membrane protein is a likely cannabinoid receptor. It may be involved in several physiological and pathological processes by activating a variety of signal transduction pathways. ” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/9290
“Preparations of Cannabis sativa have been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for at least 4000 years and extracts of C. sativa contain over 60 different pharmacologically active components the most prominent being Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol
Ligands such as cannabidiol and abnormal cannabidiol which exhibit no CB1or CB2 activity and are believed to function at a novel cannabinoid receptor, also showed activity at GPR55.
These data suggest that GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor, and its ligand profile with respect to CB1and CB2 described here will permit delineation of its physiological function(s).”
“The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses.
Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD).
These results demonstrate for the first time that activation of GPR55 might be beneficial in combating PD.”
“The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid receptor, whose exact role in anxiety remains unknown. The present study was conducted to explore the possible mechanisms by which GPR55 regulates anxiety and to evaluate the effectiveness of O-1602 in the treatment of anxiety-like symptoms. Mice were exposed to two types of acute stressors: restraint and forced swimming. Anxiety behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze and the open field test. We found that O-1602 alleviated anxiety-like behavior in acutely stressed mice. We used lentiviral shRNA to selective ly knockdown GPR55 in the medial orbital cortex and found that knockdown of GPR55 abolished the anxiolytic effect of O-1602. We also used Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, and U73122, an inhibitor of PLC, and found that both inhibitors attenuated the effectiveness of O-1602. Western blot analysis revealed that O-1602 downregulated the expression of GluA1 and GluN2A in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays an important role in anxiety and O-1602 may have therapeutic potential in treating anxiety-like symptoms.”