Cannabidiol attenuates seizures and social deficits in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.

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“Worldwide medicinal use of cannabis is rapidly escalating, despite limited evidence of its efficacy from preclinical and clinical studies. Here we show that cannabidiol (CBD) effectively reduced seizures and autistic-like social deficits in a well-validated mouse genetic model of Dravet syndrome (DS), a severe childhood epilepsy disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the brain voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1.

The duration and severity of thermally induced seizures and the frequency of spontaneous seizures were substantially decreased. Treatment with lower doses of CBD also improved autistic-like social interaction deficits in DS mice.

Phenotypic rescue was associated with restoration of the excitability of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, an important area for seizure propagation. Reduced excitability of dentate granule neurons in response to strong depolarizing stimuli was also observed.

The beneficial effects of CBD on inhibitory neurotransmission were mimicked and occluded by an antagonist of GPR55, suggesting that therapeutic effects of CBD are mediated through this lipid-activated G protein-coupled receptor.

Our results provide critical preclinical evidence supporting treatment of epilepsy and autistic-like behaviors linked to DS with CBD. We also introduce antagonism of GPR55 as a potential therapeutic approach by illustrating its beneficial effects in DS mice.

Our study provides essential preclinical evidence needed to build a sound scientific basis for increased medicinal use of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28973916

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/26/1711351114

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G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes colorectal cancer and has opposing effects to cannabinoid receptor 1.

International Journal of Cancer

“The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 has been shown to play a tumor-promoting role in various cancers, and is involved in many physiological and pathological processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

While the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) has been reported to suppress intestinal tumor growth, the role of GPR55 in the development of GI cancers is unclear. We, therefore, aimed at elucidating the role of GPR55 in colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide.

Collectively, our data suggest that GPR55 and CB1 play differential roles in colon carcinogenesis where the former seems to act as oncogene and the latter as tumor suppressor.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28875496

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.31030/abstract

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GPR55 – a putative “type 3” cannabinoid receptor in inflammation.

“G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) shares numerous cannabinoid ligands with CB1 and CB2 receptors despite low homology with those classical cannabinoid receptors. The pharmacology of GPR55 is not yet fully elucidated; however, GPR55 utilizes a different signaling system and downstream cascade associated with the receptor. Therefore, GPR55 has emerged as a putative “type 3” cannabinoid receptor, establishing a novel class of cannabinoid receptor. Furthermore, the recent evidence of GPR55-CB1 and GPR55-CB2 heteromerization along with its broad distribution from central nervous system to peripheries suggests the importance of GPR55 in various cellular processes and pathologies and as a potential therapeutic target in inflammation.”

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GPR55 G protein-coupled receptor 55 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

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“This gene belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The encoded integral membrane protein is a likely cannabinoid receptor. It may be involved in several physiological and pathological processes by activating a variety of signal transduction pathways. ” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/9290

“The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095107/

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The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor

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“Preparations of Cannabis sativa have been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for at least 4000 years and extracts of C. sativa contain over 60 different pharmacologically active components the most prominent being Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol

Ligands such as cannabidiol and abnormal cannabidiol which exhibit no CB1or CB2 activity and are believed to function at a novel cannabinoid receptor, also showed activity at GPR55.

These data suggest that GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor, and its ligand profile with respect to CB1and CB2 described here will permit delineation of its physiological function(s).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095107/

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GPR55: A therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease?

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“The GPR55 receptor is expressed abundantly in the brain, especially in the striatum, suggesting it might fulfill a role in motor function. Indeed, motor behavior is impaired in mice lacking GPR55, which also display dampened inflammatory responses.

Abnormal-cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic cannabidiol (CBD) isomer, is a GPR55 agonist that may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

In this study, we explored whether modulating GPR55 could also represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD).

These results demonstrate for the first time that activation of GPR55 might be beneficial in combating PD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28807673

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390817303842

“The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095107/

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The novel cannabinoid receptor GPR55 mediates anxiolytic-like effects in the medial orbital cortex of mice with acute stress.

Biomed Central

“The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid receptor, whose exact role in anxiety remains unknown. The present study was conducted to explore the possible mechanisms by which GPR55 regulates anxiety and to evaluate the effectiveness of O-1602 in the treatment of anxiety-like symptoms. Mice were exposed to two types of acute stressors: restraint and forced swimming. Anxiety behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze and the open field test. We found that O-1602 alleviated anxiety-like behavior in acutely stressed mice. We used lentiviral shRNA to selective ly knockdown GPR55 in the medial orbital cortex and found that knockdown of GPR55 abolished the anxiolytic effect of O-1602. We also used Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, and U73122, an inhibitor of PLC, and found that both inhibitors attenuated the effectiveness of O-1602. Western blot analysis revealed that O-1602 downregulated the expression of GluA1 and GluN2A in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays an important role in anxiety and O-1602 may have therapeutic potential in treating anxiety-like symptoms.”

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GPR55 and the regulation of glucose homeostasis.

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“Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are reportedly associated to over-activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Therefore, modulation of the ECS offers potential therapeutic benefits on those diseases. GPR55, the receptor for L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) that has also affinity for various cannabinoid ligands, is distributed at the central and peripheral level and it is involved in several physiological processes. This review summarizes the localization and role of GPR55 in tissues that are crucial for the regulation of glucose metabolism, and provides an update on its contribution in obesity and insulin resistance. The therapeutic potential of targeting the GPR55 receptor is also discussed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457969

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Antihyperalgesic Activities of Endocannabinoids in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

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“Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs.

Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy.

Conclusion: These data show that ddC induces thermal hyperalgesia, which is associated with dysregulation of the mRNA expression of some endocannabinoid system molecules. The endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG have antihyperalgesic activity, which is dependent on cannabinoid receptor and GPR55 activation. Thus, agonists of cannabinoid receptors and GPR55 could be useful therapeutic agents for the management of NRTI-induced painful sensory neuropathy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28373843

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Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

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“The anti-inflammatory effects of O-1602 and cannabidiol (CBD), the ligands of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) were investigated.

Cannabidiol or O-1602 treatment significantly improved the pathological changes of mice with AP and decreased the enzyme activities, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α; levels, and the myeloperoxidase activities in plasma and in the organ tissues.

G protein-coupled receptor 55 mRNA and protein expressed in the pancreatic tissue, and the expressions were decreased in the mice with AP, and either CBD or O-1602 attenuated these changes to a certain extent.

CONCLUSION:

Cannabidiol and O-1602 showed anti-inflammatory effects in mice with AP and improved the expression of GPR55 in the pancreatic tissue as well.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22850623

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