GPR55 and the regulation of glucose homeostasis.

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“Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are reportedly associated to over-activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Therefore, modulation of the ECS offers potential therapeutic benefits on those diseases. GPR55, the receptor for L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) that has also affinity for various cannabinoid ligands, is distributed at the central and peripheral level and it is involved in several physiological processes. This review summarizes the localization and role of GPR55 in tissues that are crucial for the regulation of glucose metabolism, and provides an update on its contribution in obesity and insulin resistance. The therapeutic potential of targeting the GPR55 receptor is also discussed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457969

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Antihyperalgesic Activities of Endocannabinoids in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

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“Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs.

Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy.

Conclusion: These data show that ddC induces thermal hyperalgesia, which is associated with dysregulation of the mRNA expression of some endocannabinoid system molecules. The endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG have antihyperalgesic activity, which is dependent on cannabinoid receptor and GPR55 activation. Thus, agonists of cannabinoid receptors and GPR55 could be useful therapeutic agents for the management of NRTI-induced painful sensory neuropathy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28373843

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Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

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“The anti-inflammatory effects of O-1602 and cannabidiol (CBD), the ligands of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) were investigated.

Cannabidiol or O-1602 treatment significantly improved the pathological changes of mice with AP and decreased the enzyme activities, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α; levels, and the myeloperoxidase activities in plasma and in the organ tissues.

G protein-coupled receptor 55 mRNA and protein expressed in the pancreatic tissue, and the expressions were decreased in the mice with AP, and either CBD or O-1602 attenuated these changes to a certain extent.

CONCLUSION:

Cannabidiol and O-1602 showed anti-inflammatory effects in mice with AP and improved the expression of GPR55 in the pancreatic tissue as well.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22850623

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GPR55: a new promising target for metabolism?

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“GPR55 is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been identified as a new cannabinoid receptor. Given the wide localization of GPR55 in brain and peripheral tissues, this receptor has emerged as a regulator of multiple biological actions. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is generally accepted as the endogenous ligand of GPR55. In this review, we will focus on the role of GPR55 in energy balance and glucose metabolism. We will summarize its actions on feeding, nutrient partitioning, gastrointestinal motility and insulin secretion in preclinical models and the scarce data available in humans. The potential of GPR55 to become a new pharmaceutical target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes, as well as the foreseeing difficulties are also discussed.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28196832

 “GPR55 – a putative “type 3” cannabinoid receptor in inflammation.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26669245
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Metabolism of endocannabinoids.

“Endocannabinoids belong to a group of ester, ether and amide derivatives of fatty acids, which are endogenous ligands of receptors CB1, CB2, TRPV1 and GPR55 that are included in the endocannabinoid system of the animal organism. The best known endocannabinoids are: N-arachidonylethanolamide called anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). They occur in all organisms, and their highest level is observed in the brain. In this review the mechanisms of synthesis and degradation of both AEA and 2-AG are shown. Endocannabinoids are synthesized from phospholipids (mainly phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol) located in the cell membrane. As a result of arachidonic acid transfer from phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine, N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine is formed, which is hydrolyzed to AEA by phospholipase D, C and A2. However, 2-AG is formed during the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol catalyzed mainly by DAGL. The primary role of endocannabinoids is the activation of cannabinoid receptors. Both AEA and 2-AG are primarily agonists of the CB1 receptor and to a lower degree CB2 and TRPV1r eceptors, but 2-AG has stronger affinity for these receptors. Through activation of receptors, endocannabinoids affect cellular metabolism and participate in the metabolic processes by receptor-independent pathways. Endocannabinoids which are not bound to the receptors are degraded. The main enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of AEA and 2-AG are FAAH and MAGL, respectively. Apart from hydrolytic degradation, endocannabinoids may also be oxidized by cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450. It has been shown that the metabolites of both endocannabinoids also have biological significance.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27516570

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Modulation of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by cannabinoids.

“This study has implications for developing new therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, pain, and metabolic disorders.

GPR55 is activated by l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) but also by certain cannabinoids.

In this study, we investigated the GPR55 pharmacology of various cannabinoids, including analogues of the CB1 receptor antagonist Rimonabant®, CB2 receptor agonists, and Cannabis sativa constituents.

Here, we show that CB1 receptor antagonists can act both as agonists alone and as inhibitors of LPI signaling under the same assay conditions. This study clarifies the controversy surrounding the GPR55-mediated actions of SR141716A; some reports indicate the compound to be an agonist and some report antagonism. In contrast, we report that the CB2 ligand GW405833 behaves as a partial agonist of GPR55 alone and enhances LPI signaling. GPR55 has been implicated in pain transmission, and thus our results suggest that this receptor may be responsible for some of the antinociceptive actions of certain CB2 receptor ligands.

Here, we report that the little investigated cannabis constituents CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV are potent inhibitors of LPI-induced GPR55 signaling.

The phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, and cannabigerovarin are also potent inhibitors of LPI.

Our findings also suggest that GPR55 may be a new pharmacological target for the following C. sativa constituents: Δ9-THCV, CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV.

These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249141/

“Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is a bioactive lipid generated by phospholipase A2 which is believed to play an important role in several diseases.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285325

 “The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation.  In this issue of Oncogene, two groups demonstrated that GPR55 is expressed in various cancer types in an aggressiveness-related manner, suggesting a novel cancer biomarker and a potential therapeutic target.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21057532
“The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation via ERK. These findings reveal the importance of GPR55 in human cancer, and suggest that it could constitute a new biomarker and therapeutic target in oncology.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818416
“The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 defines a novel autocrine loop in cancer cell proliferation. These findings may have important implications for LPI as a novel cancer biomarker and for its receptor GPR55 as a potential therapeutic target.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838378
“L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol meets GPR55: a deadly relationship. Evidence points to a role of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) in cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21367464
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Scotopic vision in the monkey is modulated by the G protein-coupled receptor 55.

“The endogenous cannabinoid system plays important roles in the retina of mice and monkeys via their classic CB1 and CB2 receptors.

We have previously reported that the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a putative cannabinoid receptor, is exclusively expressed in rod photoreceptors in the monkey retina, suggesting its possible role in scotopic vision.

These results support the hypothesis that GPR55 plays an instrumental role in mediating scotopic vision.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485069

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Activation of the orphan receptor GPR55 by lysophosphatidylinositol promotes metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer.

Image result for Oncotarget.“The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been directly or indirectly related to basic alterations that drive malignant growth: uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, and cancer cell adhesion and migration. However, little is known about the involvement of this receptor in metastasis.

Here, we show that elevated GPR55 expression in human tumors is associated with the aggressive basal/triple-negative breast cancer population, higher probability to develop metastases, and therefore poor patient prognosis. Activation of GPR55 by its proposed endogenous ligand lysophosphatidylinositol confers pro-invasive features on breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, this effect is elicited by coupling to Gq/11 heterotrimeric proteins and the subsequent activation, through ERK, of the transcription factor ETV4/PEA3.

Together, these data show that GPR55 promotes breast cancer metastasis, and supports the notion that this orphan receptor may constitute a new therapeutic target and potential biomarker in the highly aggressive triple-negative subtype.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27340777

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A Functional Assay for GPR55: Envision Protocol.

“AlphaScreen(®) SureFire(®) assay is a novel technology that combines luminescent oxygen channeling technology, nano-beads, and monocloncal antibodies to detect the level of a selected protein in a volume lower than 5 μl. This method is more sensitive compared with the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and can detect an increasing number of new targets. Here, we described a method for AlphaScreen(®) SureFire(®) assay that targets ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a primary downstream signaling pathway that conveys activation of GPR55 by L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and certain cannabinoids.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27245893

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Advances towards the Discovery of GPR55 Ligands.

“The G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was identified in 1999.

It was proposed as a novel member of the endocannabinoid system due to the fact that some endogenous, plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoid ligands act on GPR55. However, the complexity of the cellular downstream signaling pathways related to GPR55 activation delayed the discovery of selective GPR55 ligands.

It was only a few years ago that the high throughput screening of libraries of pharmaceutical companies and governmental organizations allowed to identify selective GPR55 agonists and antagonists. Since then, several GPR55 modulator scaffolds have been reported.

The relevance of GPR55 has been explored in diverse physiological and pathological processes revealing its role in inflammation, neuropathic pain, bone physiology, diabetes and cancer.

Considering GPR55 as a new promising therapeutic target, there is a clear need for new selective and potent GPR55 modulators. This review will address a current structural update of GPR55 ligands.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27109575

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