Role of Cannabinoids in Obesity.

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“Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide. Its related comorbidities imply a high cost for the National Health System and diminish a patient’s life quality.

Adipose tissue is composed of three types of cells. White adipocytes are involved in fat storage and secretion of hormones. Brown adipocytes are involved in thermogenesis and caloric expenditure. Beige adipocytes are transitional adipocytes that in response to various stimuli can turn from white to brown and could be protective against the obesity, enhancing energy expenditure.

The conversion of white in beige adipose tissue is a potential new therapeutic target for obesity.

Cannabinoid receptors (CB) regulate thermogenesis, food intake and inflammation. CB1 ablation or inhibition helps reducing body weight and food intake. Stimulation of CB2 limits inflammation and promotes anti-obesity effects by reducing food intake and weight gain. Its genetic ablation results in adiposity development.

CB receptors are also responsible for transforming white adipose tissue towards beige or brown adipocytes, therefore their modulation can be considered potential anti-obesity target. CB1 principal localization in central nervous system represents an important limit. Stimulation of CB2, principally localized on peripheral cells instead, should facilitate the anti-obesity effects without exerting remarkable psychotropic activity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30201891

http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/9/2690

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Time-dependent effect of phytocannabinoid treatments in fat cells.

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“The objectives of this paper is to investigate, demonstrate, and compare the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids as antidiabetic and anti-obesity agents in preadipocytes and adipocytes, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin.

Briefly, cannabis extract, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (in very low dosages) were shown to promote glucose uptake higher or to equivalent levels, reduce fat accumulation, and reverse the insulin-resistant state of 3T3-L1 cells more effectively, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. The phytocannabinoids had a more pronounced effect in preadipocytes undifferentiated model rather than the differentiated model. They induced a protective effect at the mitochondrial level by preventing overactivity of the succinate dehydrogenase pathway (p < .01), unlike rosiglitazone, through activation of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase shuttling system. An increase in oxygen consumption and an increased expression of beta to alpha adrenoceptors (p < .05) in treated cells were noted.

These findings contribute toward understanding the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids in fat cells and highlight the antidiabetic and anti-obesity properties of various phytocannabinoids that could potentially support the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29464872

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Novel Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Selective Antagonist TXX-522 with Prominent Weight-Loss Efficacy in Diet Induced Obese Mice.

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“The clinical development of the first generation of globally active cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists was suspended because of their adverse neuropsychiatric effects. Selective blockade of peripheral CB1Rs has the potential to provide a viable strategy for the treatment of severe obesity while avoiding these central nervous system side effects.

In the current study, a novel compound (TXX-522) was rationally designed based on the parent nucleus of a classical CB1R-selective antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant (SR141716A).

TXX-522 showed good binding, CB1R-selectivity (over the CB2R), and functional antagonist activities in a range of in vitro molecular and cellular assays.

In vivo analysis of the steady state distribution of TXX-522 in the rat brain and blood tissues and the assay of its functional effects on CB1R activity collectively showed that TXX-522 showed minimal brain penetration. Moreover, the in vivo pharmacodynamic study further revealed that TXX-522 had good oral bioavailability and a potent anti-obesity effect, and ameliorated insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. No impact on food intake was observed in this model, confirming the limited brain penetration of this compound.

Thus, the current study indicates that TXX-522 is a novel and potent peripherally acting selective CB1R antagonist with the potential to control obesity and related metabolic disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29051736

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2017.00707/full

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The cannabinoid ligand LH-21 reduces anxiety and improves glucose handling in diet-induced obese pre-diabetic mice.

“LH-21 is a triazol derivative that has been described as a low-permeant neutral CB1 antagonist, though its pharmacology is still unclear. It has been associated with anti-obesity actions in obese rats. However, its role in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D) onset have not been studied yet. Given CB1 receptors remain as potential pharmacological targets to fight against obesity and T2D, we wanted to explore the metabolic impact of this compound in an animal model of obesity and pre-diabetes as well as the lack of relevant actions in related central processes such as anxiety. These results suggest that LH-21 can be a new candidate to fight against diabetes onset. Indeed, this compound shows potential in counteracting obesity-related anxiety.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28638091   https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-03292-w

“Anti-obesity efficacy of LH-21, a cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist with poor brain penetration, in diet-induced obese rats.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951309

“Antiobesity effects of the novel in vivo neutral cannabinoid receptor antagonist 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-hexyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole–LH 21.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16750544

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Current Drug Targets in Obesity Pharmacotherapy – A Review.

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“Obesity, an impending global pandemic, is not being effectively controlled by current measures such as lifestyle modifications, bariatric surgery or available medications. Its toll on health and economy compels us to look for more effective measures. Fortunately, the advances in biology and molecular technology have been in our favour for delineating new pathways in the pathophysiology of obesity and have led to subsequent development of new drug targets. Development of anti-obesity drugs has often been riddled with problems in the past. Some of the recently approved drugs for pharmacotherapy of obesity have been lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate and naltrexone/bupropion combinations.

Several promising new targets are currently being evaluated, such as amylin analogues (pramlintide, davalintide), leptin analogues (metreleptin), GLP-1 analogues (exenatide, liraglutide, TTP-054), MC4R agonists (RM-493), oxyntomodulin analogues, neuropeptide Y antagonists (velneperit), cannabinoid type-1 receptor blockers (AM-6545), MetAP2 inhibitors (beloranib), lipase inhibitors (cetilistat) and anti-obesity vaccines (ghrelin, somatostatin, Ad36).

Many of these groups of drugs act as “satiety signals” while others act by antagonizing orexigenic signals, increasing fat utilisation and decreasing absorption of fats. Since these targets act through various pathways, the possibility of combined use of two or more classes of these drugs unlocks numerous therapeutic avenues. Hence, the dream of personalized management of obesity might be growing closer to reality.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28245771

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Cannabinol and cannabidiol exert opposing effects on rat feeding patterns.

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“Increased food consumption following ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced cannabinoid type 1 receptor agonism is well documented.

However, possible non-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol phytocannabinoid-induced feeding effects have yet to be fully investigated. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of the individual phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol, cannabidiol and cannabinol, upon feeding behaviors.

Cannabinol induced a CB(1)R-mediated increase in appetitive behaviors via significant reductions in the latency to feed and increases in consummatory behaviors via increases in meal 1 size and duration. Cannabinol also significantly increased the intake during hour 1 and total chow consumed during the test. Conversely, cannabidiol significantly reduced total chow consumption over the test period. Cannabigerol administration induced no changes to feeding behavior.

This is the first time cannabinol has been shown to increase feeding. Therefore, cannabinol could, in the future, provide an alternative to the currently used and psychotropic ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-based medicines since cannabinol is currently considered to be non-psychotropic.

Furthermore, cannabidiol reduced food intake in line with some existing reports, supporting the need for further mechanistic and behavioral work examining possible anti-obesity effects of cannabidiol.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543671

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Dietary olive oil induces cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in adipose tissue of ApcMin/+ transgenic mice.

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“Cannabinoid– 2 (CB2) receptor is known for its anti-obesity effects silencing the activated immune cells that are key drivers of metabolic syndrome and inflammation.

Nutritional interventions in experimental models of carcinogenesis have been demonstrated to modulate tissue inflammation state and proliferation.

OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to test, in ApcMin/+ mice, whether a diet enriched with olive oil, omega- 3 and omega-6- PUFAs affects the adipose tissue inflammation status.

RESULTS: The diet enriched with olive oil significantly induced CB2 receptor expression and it was able to control inflammatory and proliferative activity of mice adipose tissue.

CONCLUSIONS: The present findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies considering olive oil a key ingredient of a healthy dietary pattern.”

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Cannabinoid receptor 2 as anti-obesity target: inflammation, fat storage and browning modulation.

“Obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, and adipocyte hyperplasia/hypertrophy.

Obesity inhibits the “browning” of white adipose tissue.

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists reduce food intake and induce anti-obesity effect in mice.

CB2 receptor is a novel pharmacological target that should be considered for obesity.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294325

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/obesity-2/

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Anti-Obesity Effect of the CB2 Receptor Agonist JWH-015 in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

“The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is well known for its immune modulatory role. However, recent localisation of CB2 receptors in metabolically active tissue suggests that the CB2 receptor plays a significant role in energy homeostasis.

This study was designed to investigate the impact of chronic CB2 receptor stimulation on food intake, body weight and mood.

These results demonstrate a role for CB2 receptors in modulating energy homeostasis and obesity associated metabolic pathologies in the absence of any adverse impact on mood.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26588700

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New insights on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy balance.

“Within the last 15 years, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a lipid signaling system critically involved in the regulation of energy balance, since it exerts a regulatory control on every aspect related to the search, the intake, the metabolism and the storage of calories.

An overactive endocannabinoid-cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor signaling promotes the development of obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, representing a valuable pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity and metabolic disorders.

However, due to psychiatric side effects, the first generation of brain-penetrant CB1 receptor blockers developed as anti-obesity treatment was removed from the European market in late 2008.

Since then, recent studies have identified new mechanisms of action of the ECS in energy balance and metabolism, as well as novel ways of targeting the system that may be efficacious for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374449

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