Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study.

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“Research in the last decades has widely investigated the anti-oxidant properties of natural products as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and the treatment of oxidative-stress related disorders.

In this context, several studies were aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, the bioactive compounds of Cannabis sativa.

Here, we examined the anti-oxidant ability of Cannabigerol (CBG), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, still little known, into counteracting the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, we tested selective receptor antagonists for cannabinoid receptors and specifically CB1R (SR141716A) and CB2R (AM630) in order to investigate through which CBG may exert its action.

Taken together, our in vitro results showed that CBG is able to counteract oxidative stress by activation of CB2 receptors.

Based on its antioxidant activities, CBG may hold great promise as an anti-oxidant agent and therefore used in clinical practice as a new approach in oxidative-stress related disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28348416

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Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke.

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“Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta⁸-THC), and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol, and cannabigerol.

It is well-known that delta⁸-THC and other cannabinoid CB₁ receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury.

Additionally, delta⁸-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB₁ receptor in the central nervous system.

In addition to the CB₁ receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB₁ receptor independent.

Of the CB₁ receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD.

In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD.

In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.

The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB₁ receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance.

In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27713349

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Modulation of cellular redox homeostasis by the endocannabinoid system

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) constitute two key cellular signalling systems that participate in the modulation of diverse cellular functions.

Importantly, growing evidence suggests that cross-talk between these two prominent signalling systems acts to modulate functionality of the ECS as well as redox homeostasis in different cell types…

To conclude, there is growing appreciation that the ECS may play an important role in the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis…

Indeed, the studies highlighted in this review show that ECS function can impact upon free radical production in a number of different ways.

Crucially, given the importance of redox status in the development of numerous pathologies, these findings identify ECS components as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurological, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.”

http://rsob.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/4/150276

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NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CANNABIS SATIVA ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT AGAINST SPINAL ALPHA MOTONEURONS DEGENERATION IN MALE TYPE II DIABETIC RATS

“Diabetic neourophaty is one of the long-term usual outcomes of diabetes.

According to anti-tumor, anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Cannabis sativa, the aim of this research was to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on Alpha motoneurons degeneration after sciatic nerve compression in diabetic rats…

Conclusion: Using alcoholic extract of Cannabis sativa as a neuroprotective agent can prevent the progression of neural system disorders as a result of hyperglycemia.”

http://en.journals.sid.ir/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=278407

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/diabetes/

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Therapeutic Potential of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol in Ischemic Stroke

“Cannabis contains over 60 different terpeno-phenol compounds…

cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidivarin (CBDV) are known as non-psychoactive components of cannabis.

These compounds have shown anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, analgesic, anxiolytic and anti-cancer effects…

Cannabinoids may play a role in neuroprotection in disorders such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy…

It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury…

Accumulating data now suggest that cannabinoid CB1 receptors contribute to neuroprotection… Emerging data now support the evidence of the anti-inflammatory action of CBD…

 We have previously reported that CBD  has a potent and long-lasting neuroprotective effect when administered both pre- and post-ischemia, whereas only pre-ischemic treatment with delta9-THC reduced the infarction size…

These results suggest that CBD may prevent post-ischemic injury progressively induced by ischemic stroke….

…anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.

The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance.

In the last 10 years, it has been possible to demonstrate that CBD has the following unique therapeutic profile: 1) a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, 2) long-lasting cerebro- protective effect after ischemic stroke, and lack of development of tolerance.

Moreover, CBD has almost no side effects, including psychotropic activity.

Preliminary studies highlight the fact that the multifunctional actions of CBD may lead to benefits in more complex systems within the brain after ischemic stroke.

CBD offers new therapeutic possibilities for treating ischemic stroke…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4036658/

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/stroke-2/

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Regulation of neuroinflammation by herbal medicine and its implications for neurodegenerative diseases. A focus on traditional medicines and flavonoids.

“Herbal medicine has long been used to treat neural symptoms. Although the precise mechanisms of action of herbal drugs have yet to be determined, some of them have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and/or anti-oxidant effects in a variety of peripheral systems.

 Now, as increasing evidence indicates that neuroglia-derived chronic inflammatory responses play a pathological role in the central nervous system, anti-inflammatory herbal medicine and its constituents are being proved to be a potent neuroprotector against various brain pathologies.

 Structural diversity of medicinal herbs makes them valuable source of novel lead compounds against therapeutic targets that are newly discovered by genomics, proteomics, and high-throughput screening.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15956812

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The role of the endocannabinoid system in Alzheimer’s disease: facts and hypotheses.

“Unlike other neuroinflammatory disorders, like Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and multiple sclerosis, little is still known of the role of the endocannabinoid system in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is partly due to the poor availability of animal models that are really relevant to the human disease, and to the complexity of AD as compared to other neurological states. Nevertheless, the available data indicate that endocannabinoids are likely to play in this disorder a role similar to that suggested in other neurodegenerative diseases, that is, to represent an endogenous adaptive response aimed at counteracting both the neurochemical and inflammatory consequences of beta-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperactivity, possibly the most important underlying cause of AD.

Furthermore, plant and synthetic cannabinoids, and particularly the non-psychotropic cannabidiol, might also exert other, non-cannabinoid receptor-mediated protective effects, including, but not limited to, anti-oxidant actions. There is evidence, from in vivo studies on beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity, also for a possible causative role of endocannabinoids in the impairment in memory retention, which is typical of AD.

 This might open the way to the use of cannabinoid receptor antagonists as therapeutic drugs for the treatment of cognitive deficits in the more advanced phases of this disorder. The scant, but nevertheless important literature on the regulation and role of the endocannabinoid system in AD, and on the potential treatment of this disorder with cannabinoids and endocannabinoid-based drugs, are discussed in this mini-review.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18781980

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Cannabidiol affects the expression of genes involved in zinc homeostasis in BV-2 microglial cells.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Unlike Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD is devoid of psychotropic effects and has very low affinity for both cannabinoid receptors, CB(1) and CB(2). We have previously reported that CBD and THC have different effects on anti-inflammatory pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, in a CB(1)/CB(2) independent manner. Moreover, CBD treatment of BV-2 cells, was found to induce a robust change in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress, glutathione deprivation and inflammation. Many of these genes were shown to be controlled by Nrf2 and ATF4 transcription factors. Using the Illumina MouseRef-8 BeadChip platform, DAVID Bioinformatics and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we identified functional sets of genes and networks affected by CBD. A subset of genes was found to be regulated by the metal responsive element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) and is shown to be related to zinc homeostasis. We found that CBD upregulates the expression of the mRNAs for metallothionein 2 (Mt2), N-myc-downstream regulated gene 1 and matrix metalloproteinase 23 as well as of the zinc transporters ZnT1/Slc30a1 and Zip4/Slc39a4 but downregulates the expression of the mRNA for the zinc transporter Zip10/Slc39a10 as well as for the zinc finger protein 472. Among these genes, ZnT1, Mt2 and the zinc transporters ZIPs are known to function together to control the intracellular zinc concentration. These results show that CBD, but much less so THC, affects the expression of genes involved in zinc homeostasis and suggest that the regulation of zinc levels could have an important role through which CBD may exert its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22178458

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Cannabidiol as an Emergent Therapeutic Strategy for Lessening the Impact of Inflammation on Oxidative Stress

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“Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system, which includes the CB1 and CB2 G protein-coupled receptors and their endogenous lipid ligands, may be an area that is ripe for therapeutic exploitation. In this context, the related nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol, which may interact with the endocannabinoid system, but has actions that are distinct, offers promise as a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development.

This review discusses recent studies suggesting that cannabidiol may have utility in treating a number of human diseases and disorders now known to involve activation of the immune system and associated oxidative stress, as a contributor to their etiology and progression. These include rheumatoid arthritis, types I and II diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, depression, and neuropathic pain.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major nonpsychotropic cannabinoid compound derived from the plant Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana…

Conclusions

Inflammation and oxidative stress are intimately involved in the genesis of many human diseases. Unraveling that relationship therapeutically has proven challenging, in part because inflammation and oxidative stress “feed off” each other. However, CBD would seem to be a promising starting point for further drug development given its anti-oxidant (although relatively modest) and anti-inflammatory actions on immune cells, such as macrophages and microglia. CBD also has the advantage of not having psychotropic side effects. Studies on models of human diseases support the idea that CBD attenuates inflammation far beyond its antioxidant properties, for example, by targeting inflammation-related intracellular signaling events. The details on how CBD targets inflammatory signaling remain to be defined.

The therapeutic utility of CBD is a relatively new area of investigation that portends new discoveries on the interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress, a relationship that underlies tissue and organ damage in many human diseases.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085542/

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson’s disease.

Abstract

“The cannabinoid system is represented by two principal receptor subtypes, termed CB1 and CB2, along with several endogenous ligands. In the central nervous system it is involved in several processes. CB1 receptors are mainly expressed by neurons and their activation is primarily implicated in psychotropic and motor effects of cannabinoids. CB2 receptors are expressed by glial cells and are thought to participate in regulation of neuroimmune reactions. This review aims to highlight several reported properties of cannabinoids that could be used to inhibit the adverse neuroinflammatory processes contributing to Parkinson’s disease and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. These include anti-oxidant properties of phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids as well as hypothermic and antipyretic effects. However, cannabinoids may also trigger signaling cascades leading to impaired mitochondrial enzyme activity, reduced mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased oxidative stress, all of which could contribute to neurotoxicity. Therefore, further pharmacological studies are needed to allow rational design of new cannabinoid-based drugs lacking detrimental in vivo effects.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21699489

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