Insulinotropic and antidiabetic effects of β-caryophyllene with l-arginine in type 2 diabetic rats.

Journal of Food Biochemistry banner“Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a flavoring agent, whereas l-arginine (LA) is used as a food supplement.

They possess insulinotropic and β cell regeneration activities, respectively.

We assessed the antidiabetic potential of BCP, LA, and its combination in RIN-5F cell lines and diabetic rats.

The results indicated that the combination of BCP with LA showed a significant decrease in glucose absorption and an increase in its uptake in tissues and also an increase in insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells. The combination treatment of BCP with LA showed a significant reduction in glucose, lipid levels, and oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue when compared with the diabetic group. Furthermore, the combination of BCP with LA normalized glucose tolerance and pancreatic cell damage in diabetic rats.

In conclusion, the combinational treatment showed significant potentials in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent chronic metabolic disorder affecting a large population.

Beta-caryophyllene is a CB2 receptor agonist shown to have insulinotropic activity.

l-Arginine is a food supplement that possesses beta-cell regeneration property.

The combination of BCP with LA could work as a potential therapeutic intervention, considering the individual pharmacological activities of each.

We evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the combination of BCP with LA in diabetic rats using ex vivo and in vitro experimentations.

Results from the study revealed that the combination of BCP with LA showed a significant (p < .001) reduction in glucose and lipid levels as compared to individual treatment. In vitro study also supports the diabetic potential of the combination of BCP with LA in the glucose-induced insulin secretion in RIN-5F cell lines.

The study indicates a therapeutic approach to treat T2DM by BCP and LA combination as food and dietary supplement.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31997410

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jfbc.13156

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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Cannabinoids in the descending pain modulatory circuit: Role in inflammation.

Pharmacology & Therapeutics“The legalization of cannabis in some states has intensified interest in the potential for cannabis and its constituents to lead to novel therapeutics for pain.

Our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying cannabinoid actions in the brain have lagged behind opioids; however, the current opioid epidemic has also increased attention on the use of cannabinoids as alternatives to opioids for pain, especially chronic pain that requires long-term use.

Endogenous cannabinoids are lipid signaling molecules that have complex roles in modulating neuronal function throughout the brain.

In this review, we discuss cannabinoid functions in the descending pain modulatory pathway, a brain circuit that integrates cognitive and emotional processing of pain to modulate incoming sensory inputs. In addition, we highlight areas where further studies are necessary to understand cannabinoid regulation of descending pain modulation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32004514

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0163725820300231?via%3Dihub

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Treatment with Cannabinoids as a Promising Approach for Impairing Fibroblast Activation and Prostate Cancer Progression.

ijms-logo “Endo-, phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids have been proposed as promising anti-cancer agents able to impair cancer cells’ behavior without affecting their non-transformed counterparts.

However, cancer outcome depends not only on cancer cells’ activity, but also on the stromal cells, which coevolve with cancer cells to sustain tumor progression.

Here, we show for the first time that cannabinoid treatment impairs the activation and the reactivity of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most represented stromal component of prostate tumor microenvironment.

Overall, our data strongly support the use of cannabinoids as anti-tumor agents in prostate cancer, since they are able to simultaneously strike both cancer and stromal cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31991773

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/3/787

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Normalization of mediotemporal and prefrontal activity, and mediotemporal-striatal connectivity, may underlie antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol in psychosis.

 Image result for cambridge university press“Recent evidence suggests that cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating ingredient present in cannabis extract, has an antipsychotic effect in people with established psychosis. However, the effect of CBD on the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying psychosis is unknown.

METHODS:

Patients with established psychosis on standard antipsychotic treatment were studied on separate days at least one week apart, to investigate the effects of a single dose of orally administered CBD (600 mg) compared to a matched placebo (PLB), using a double-blind, randomized, PLB-controlled, repeated-measures, within-subject cross-over design. Three hours after taking the study drug participants were scanned using a block design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, while performing a verbal paired associate learning task. Fifteen psychosis patients completed both study days, 13 completed both scanning sessions. Nineteen healthy controls (HC) were also scanned using the same fMRI paradigm under identical conditions, but without any drug administration. Effects of CBD on brain activation measured using the blood oxygen level-dependent hemodynamic response fMRI signal were studied in the mediotemporal, prefrontal, and striatal regions of interest.

RESULTS:

Compared to HC, psychosis patients under PLB had altered prefrontal activation during verbal encoding, as well as altered mediotemporal and prefrontal activation and greater mediotemporal-striatal functional connectivity during verbal recall. CBD attenuated dysfunction in these regions such that activation under its influence was intermediate between the PLB condition and HC. CBD also attenuated hippocampal-striatal functional connectivity and caused trend-level symptom reduction in psychosis patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

This suggests that normalization of mediotemporal and prefrontal dysfunction and mediotemporal-striatal functional connectivity may underlie the antipsychotic effects of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31994476

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/psychological-medicine/article/normalization-of-mediotemporal-and-prefrontal-activity-and-mediotemporalstriatal-connectivity-may-underlie-antipsychotic-effects-of-cannabidiol-in-psychosis/6571F47CE15D05DC50782A7BB7C00A7F

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Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Use in an Outpatient Palliative Medicine Population.

Image result for American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine® “Palliative medicine physicians are challenged by lack of guidance regarding effectiveness and dosing of cannabis products in the setting of their emerging popularity.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to describe early patterns of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) use in Florida following passage of the state’s first medical marijuana law. We describe here the perceived benefits, side effects, and beliefs expressed by patients in a single outpatient academic palliative medicine practice.

RESULTS:

In all, 24% (14/58) of respondents reported THC use, with half using THC on a daily basis. Patients reported improvements in pain, appetite, and nausea. In all, 71% (10/14) began using THC after the diagnosis of their chronic illness, and the most common form of usage was vaping. In all, 24% (14/58) of patients reported CBD use. Patients reported improvements in pain, and the most common form of usage was topical application. None of the patients had used CBD prior to the onset of their chronic illness. In all, 21% (3/14) of THC users and 21% (3/14) of CBD users thought that their substance was helping to cure their illness. Individual reported side effects in both groups were minimal.

CONCLUSIONS:

Approximately a quarter of outpatient palliative care patients use THC or CBD, often on a daily basis. Palliative care providers should be aware of the frequency, diverse usage, and beliefs behind cannabis product use in this patient population.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31986898

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1049909119900378

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The Role of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Chronic Pain Management: An Assessment of Current Evidence.

 “Given the growing challenges in chronic pain management coupled with the ongoing consequences of the opioid epidemic, pain management practitioners are looking into more effective, innovative, and safer alternatives to treat pain.

Cannabis-based medicine had been described for hundreds of years but only recently have we seen the more scientific, evidence-based approach to its use, and ongoing investigations continue to explore its potential medical benefits.

While historically more attention has been paid to the psychoactive component of the cannabis plant Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), there have been fewer scientific studies on the medical use of the cannabidiol (CBD) – a non-psychoactive component of the cannabis plant.

RECENT FINDINGS:

By examining recent literature, we investigated the use of CBD and its potential role in pain management. Since there are currently no approved pharmaceutical products that contain CBD alone for the management of pain, this review focused on nabiximols (which is a combined product of THC/CBD in a 1:1 ratio) as the only pharmaceutical product available that contains CBD and is being used for the management of pain.

It is difficult to definitely attribute the therapeutic properties to CBD alone since it is always administered with THC.

Based on the available literature, it is difficult to make a recommendation for the use of CBD in chronic pain management. It is also important to note that there are many CBD products currently available as supplements, but these products are non-pharmaceuticals and lack the appropriate clinical studies to support their efficacy claims.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31980957 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11916-020-0835-4

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Abnormal Cannabidiol Affects Production of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators and Astrocyte Wound Closure in Primary Astrocytic-Microglial Cocultures.

molecules-logo “Abnormal cannabidiol (abn-CBD) exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the impact of abn-CBD on the glial production of proinflammatory mediators and scar formation within in vitro models. Primary astrocytic-microglial cocultures and astrocytic cultures from neonatal C57BL/6 mice and CB2 receptor knockout mice were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitrite were determined. Furthermore, we performed a live cell microscopy-based scratch-wound assay. After LPS stimulation, TNFα, IL-6 and nitrite production was more strongly increased in cocultures than in isolated astrocytes. Abn-CBD treatment attenuated the LPS-induced production of TNFα and nitrite in cocultures, while IL-6 production remained unaltered. In isolated astrocytes, only LPS-induced TNFα production was reduced by abn-CBD. Similar effects were observed after abn-CBD application in cocultures of CB2 knockout mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced TNFα and nitrite levels were far lower in CB2 knockout cultures compared to wildtypes, while IL-6 levels did not differ. In the scratch-wound assay, treatment with abn-CBD decelerated wound closure when microglial cells were present. Our data shows a differential role of abn-CBD for modulation of glial inflammation and astrocytic scar formation. These findings provide new explanations for mechanisms behind the neuroprotective potential of abn-CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31979350

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/3/496

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Phytocannabinoids in Neurological Diseases: Could They Restore a Physiological GABAergic Transmission?

ijms-logo“γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are the main inhibitory mediators in the central nervous system (CNS). GABAARs are pentameric ligand gated ion channels, and the main subunit composition is usually 2α2βγ, with various isotypes assembled within a set of 19 different subunits. The inhibitory function is mediated by chloride ion movement across the GABAARs, activated by synaptic GABA release, reducing neuronal excitability in the adult CNS. Several studies highlighted the importance of GABA-mediated transmission during neuro-development, and its involvement in different neurological and neurodevelopmental diseases, from anxiety to epilepsy. However, while it is well known how different classes of drugs are able to modulate the GABAARs function (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, neurosteroids, alcohol), up to now little is known about GABAARs and cannabinoids interaction in the CNS. Endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids are lately emerging as a new class of promising drugs for a wide range of neurological conditions, but their safety as medication, and their mechanisms of action are still to be fully elucidated. In this review, we will focus our attention on two of the most promising molecules (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; Δ9-THC and cannabidiol; CBD) of this new class of drugs and their possible mechanism of action on GABAARs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31979108

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/3/723

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Source of cannabinoids: what is available, what is used, and where does it come from?

John Libbey Eurotext“Cannabis sativa L. is an ancient medicinal plant wherefrom over 120 cannabinoids are extracted. In the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of cannabis-based treatments for neurological disorders such as epilepsy, and there is now evidence for the medical use of cannabis and its effectiveness for a wide range of diseases.

Cannabinoid treatments for pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (Nabiximols) have been approved in several countries. Cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast to tetra-hydro-cannabidiol (THC), is not a controlled substance in the European Union, and over the years there has been increasing use of CBD-enriched extracts and pure CBD for seizure disorders, particularly in children. No analytical controls are mandatory for CBD-based products and a pronounced variability in CBD concentrations in commercialized CBD oil preparations has been identified.

Randomized controlled trials of plant-derived CBD for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome (DS) have provided evidence of anti-seizure effects, and in June 2018, CBD was approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an add-on antiepileptic drug for patients two years of age and older with LGS or DS. Medical cannabis, with various ratios of CBD and THC and in different galenic preparations, is licensed in many European countries for several indications, and in July 2019, the European Medicines Agency also granted marketing authorisation for CBD in association with clobazam, for the treatment of seizures associated with LGS or DS.

The purpose of this article is to review the availability of cannabis-based products and cannabinoid-based medicines, together with current regulations regarding indications in Europe (as of July 2019). The lack of approval by the central agencies, as well as social and political influences, have led to significant variation in usage between countries.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31941643

https://www.jle.com/fr/revues/epd/e-docs/source_of_cannabinoids_what_is_available_what_is_used_and_where_does_it_come_from__316043/article.phtml

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Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat Hypo-E22 cells and Isolated Hypothalamus.

antioxidants-logo “Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychotropic terpenophenols isolated from Cannabis sativa, which, besides their anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects, are able to inhibit, the first, and to stimulate, the second, the appetite although there are no studies elucidating their role in the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network. Consequently, the aim of the present research is to investigate the role of CBD and CBG in regulating hypothalamic neuromodulators. Comparative evaluations between oxidative stress and food intake-modulating mediators were also performed.

RESULTS:

Both CBD and CBG inhibited NPY and POMC gene expression and decreased the 3-HK/KA ratio in the hypothalamus. The same compounds also reduced hypothalamic NE synthesis and DA release, whereas the sole CBD inhibited 5-HT synthesis.

CONCLUSION:

The CBD modulates hypothalamic neuromodulators consistently with its anorexigenic role, whereas the CBG effect on the same mediators suggests alternative mechanisms, possibly involving peripheral pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31941059

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/9/1/71

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