Cannabis Therapeutics and the Future of Neurology.

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“Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes.

While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain.

This review will examine the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

Current basic science and clinical investigations support the safety and efficacy of such interventions in treatment of these currently intractable conditions, that in some cases share pathological processes, and the plausibility of interventions that harness endocannabinoid mechanisms, whether mediated via direct activity on CB1 and CB2 (tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, caryophyllene), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ; THCA), 5-HT1A (CBD, CBDA) or even nutritional approaches utilizing prebiotics and probiotics.

The inherent polypharmaceutical properties of cannabis botanicals offer distinct advantages over the current single-target pharmaceutical model and portend to revolutionize neurological treatment into a new reality of effective interventional and even preventative treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30405366

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnint.2018.00051/full

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A New Study Suggests Cannabis Could Treat Cervical Cancer

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“A new study suggests that cannabis might be useful in treating cervical cancer.

Through in vitro, or test tube/petri dish, analysis, researchers from the biochemistry department at North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa found that the non-psychotropic cannabinoid, or chemical compound, CBD (cannabidiol), taken from a Cannabis sativa extract, could hold anticarcinogenic properties. They pointed out that cannabis acted on the cancerous cells through apoptosis, or a process of cell death, causing only the cancerous cells to kill themselves, and inhibiting their growth.

Cervical cancer is no longer a leading cause of death as much as it used to be in the United States, thanks in large part to the widespread use of pap smears, but it’s still a widespread threat. And in Sub-Saharan Africa, it kills 250,000 women every year. “This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies,” the study’s authors wrote in the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal. “In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines.”

It will take much more research before cannabis can be integrated into official cervical cancer treatments in sub-Saharan Africa. But earlier studies also shows that cannabis has been useful in treating not only the symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy, but also the cancer itself.

One study from the journal of Current Clinical Pharmacology found that cannabis served as a preventative agent, reducing inflammation, which researchers also said was useful in reducing the likelihood of cancer. Another study from Oncology Hematology also noted cannabis’ anti-cancer effects, explaining how the plant’s cannabinoids inhibited tumor growth in vitro, such as in a petri dish or test tube, and in vivo, or a living organism.

A handful of other studies have also looked into cannabis as a treatment specifically for cervical cancer. Another from the University Hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, found that the cannabinoids, including the body’s own endocannabinoids, offered “attractive opportunities for the development of novel potent anticancer drugs.”

With that said, often medical marijuana is ingested via capsules, tinctures, vaporizable oils, and other non-smokeable, more pharmaceutical-style forms. Should cannabis eventually become approved for cervical cancer treatment in Africa, it may be up for debate whether whole plant therapy (in which all the cannabinoids work synergistically through the “entourage effect”) or specific cannabinoid therapy is best.”

http://motherboard.vice.com/read/a-new-study-suggests-cannabis-could-treat-cervical-cancer

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The therapeutic potential of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol for Alzheimer’s disease.

“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of cognition. Over 35 million individuals currently have AD worldwide. Unfortunately, current therapies are limited to very modest symptomatic relief.

The brains of AD patients are characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated forms of tau protein. AD brains also show neurodegeneration and high levels of oxidative stress and inflammation.

The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) possesses neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and reduces amyloid-β production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro.

CBD has also been shown to be effective in vivo making the phytocannabinoid an interesting candidate for novel therapeutic interventions in AD, especially as it lacks psychoactive or cognition-impairing properties.

CBD treatment would be in line with preventative, multimodal drug strategies targeting a combination of pathological symptoms, which might be ideal for AD therapy.

Thus, this review will present a brief introduction to AD biology and current treatment options before outlining comprehensively CBD biology and pharmacology, followed by in-vitro and in-vivo evidence for the therapeutic potential of CBD. We will also discuss the role of the endocannabinioid system in AD before commenting on the potential future of CBD for AD therapy (including safety aspects).”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471947

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Review of Various Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatments for Oral Cancer.

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“In the United States, nearly 44,000 people are diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer annually. The life expectancy for those who are diagnosed have a survival rate of 57% after five years. Among them, oral cancer can be classified as benign or malignant tumors and is diagnosed at several stages in the development: premalignant conditions, premalignant lesions, and malignant cancer. The early signs of oral cancer often go unnoticed by the individual and are often discovered during routine dental examinations. Early detection and treatment may help to increase patient survival rates. The most widely used treatments for oral cancer include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy-alone or in combination.

Preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of green tea, raspberry, asparagus, and cannabis extracts is discussed in this review. Diet changes, supplementation with antioxidants, high-dose vitamin C therapy, and cannabinoid use have been suggested to decrease cancer cell replication and increase chance of remission.

Early detection and lifestyle changes, including the use of dietary supplements in at-risk populations, are critical steps in preventing and successfully treating oral cancer. The main evidence for supplement use is currently in cancer prevention rather than treatment.

Further research, determination, and mechanism of action for bioactive compounds such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate, through in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials need to be completed to support the use of natural products and their effectiveness in preventative care and supporting therapeutic approaches.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863913

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/19390211.2015.1122693?journalCode=ijds20

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/oral-cancer/

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Activation of cannabinoid receptors prevents antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in guinea pigs.

“In this study we evaluated the effects of the CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist on antigen-induced asthma-like reaction in sensitized guinea pigs…

These findings suggest that targeting cannabinoid receptors could be a novel preventative therapeutic strategy in asthmatic patients.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266975

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Long-Term Cannabidiol Treatment Prevents the Development of Social Recognition Memory Deficits in Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mice.

“Impairments in cognitive ability and widespread pathophysiological changes caused by neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and altered cholesterol homeostasis are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of AD transgenic mice and to exert neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo…

This study is the first to demonstrate CBD’s ability to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in AD transgenic mice.

Our findings provide the first evidence that CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment for AD with a particular relevance for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024347

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Spinal gene expression profiling and pathways analysis of a CB2 agonist (MDA7)-targeted prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy.

“Patients receiving paclitaxel often develop peripheral neuropathies. We found that a novel selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist (MDA7) prevents paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice…

The preventive effect of MDA7 on paclitaxel-induced peripheral allodynia in rats may be associated with genes involved in signal pathways in central sensitization, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361916

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Preventive and treatment effects of a hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

“This work determined the ability of hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH)-containing diets to attenuate elevated blood pressure (hypertension) development in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)…

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that HMH with strong hypotensive effects in SHRs could be used as a therapeutic agent for both the prevention and treatment of hypertension.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292743

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Activation of Cortical Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptors Ameliorates Ischemic Brain Injury, Study Suggests

“A new study published in the March issue of The American Journal of Pathology suggests that cortical type 2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors might serve as potential therapeutic targets for cerebral ischemia.

Researchers found that the cannabinoid trans-caryophyllene (TC) protected brain cells from the effects of ischemia in both in vivo and in vitro animal models. In rats, post-ischemic treatment with TC decreased cerebral infarct size and edema. In cell cultures composed of rat cortical neurons and glia exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), TC decreased neuronal injury and mitochondrial depolarization, specifically through type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) pathways.

“To our knowledge, novel data presented in this study provide evidence for the first time supporting a previously unappreciated role of cortical CB2R, especially neuronal CB2Rs, in ischemia,” says lead investigator Won-Ki Kim, PhD, of the Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, Korea University in Seoul. “This study suggests that further investigation is warranted to establish the clinical usefulness of TC as a preventative and therapeutic agent for treatment of stroke.””

More: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130221141140.htm

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Low Doses of THC (Cannabis) Can Halt Brain Damage, Study Suggests – ScienceDaily

“The use of THC can prevent long-term cognitive damage that results from brain injury, the researchers conclude.

Preventative and long-term use

According to Prof. Sarne, there are several practical benefits to this treatment plan. Due to the long therapeutic time window, this treatment can be used not only to treat injury after the fact, but also to prevent injury that might occur in the future. For example, cardiopulmonary heart-lung machines used in open heart surgery carry the risk of interrupting the blood supply to the brain, and the drug can be delivered beforehand as a preventive measure. In addition, the low dosage makes it safe for regular use in patients at constant risk of brain injury, such as epileptics or people at a high risk of heart attack.

Prof. Sarne is now working in collaboration with Prof. Edith Hochhauser of the Rabin Medical Center to test the ability of low doses of THC to prevent damage to the heart. Preliminary results indicate that they will find the same protective phenomenon in relation to cardiac ischemia, in which the heart muscle receives insufficient blood flow.”

More: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130530132531.htm

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