Neuroprotection in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases: role of endocannabinoid system modulation.

Image result

“Redox imbalance may lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequent oxidative tissue damage which is a critical event in the course of neurodegenerative diseases. It is still not fully elucidated, however, whether oxidative stress is the primary trigger or a consequence in process of neurodegeneration.

Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the propagation of neuronal injury and consequent inflammatory response, which in concert promote development of pathological alterations characteristic of most common neurodegenerative diseases.

Critical Issue: Accumulating recent evidence also suggests that there is an important interplay between the lipid endocannabinoid system (ECS; comprising of the main cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2), endocannabinoids and their synthetic and metabolizing enzymes) and various key inflammatory and redox-dependent processes.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Targeting the ECS in order to modulate redox state-dependent cell death, and to decrease consequent or preceding inflammatory response holds therapeutic potential in multitude of oxidative stress-related acute or chronic neurodegenerative disorders from stroke and traumatic brain injury to Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s diseases, and multiple sclerosis, just to name a few, which will be discussed in this overview.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis: old medicine with new promise for neurological disorders.

Image result for Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs

“Marijuana is a complex substance containing over 60 different forms of cannabinoids, the active ingredients. Cannabinoids are now known to have the capacity for neuromodulation, via direct, receptor-based mechanisms at numerous levels within the nervoussystem. These have therapeutic properties that may be applicable to the treatment of neurological disorders; including anti-oxidative, neuroprotective, analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions; immunomodulation, modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. This article reviews the emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids in the context of neurological disease.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054093

“Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Neurological Disorders” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604187/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol: an alternative therapeutic agent for oral mucositis?

Image result for Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

“Chemo- and radiotherapy are therapeutic modalities often used in patients with malignant neoplasms. They kill tumour cells but act on healthy tissues as well, resulting in adverse effects. Oral mucositis is especially of concern, due to the morbidity that it causes.

We reviewed the literature on the etiopathogenesis of oral mucositis and the activity of cannabidiol, to consider the possibility of its use for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

The control of oxidative stress may prevent and alleviate oral mucositis. Studies have demonstrated that cannabidiol is safe to use and possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

The literature on the use of cannabidiol in dentistry is still scarce. Studies investigating the use of cannabidiol in oral mucositis and other oxidative stress-mediated side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the oral mucosa should be encouraged.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28191662

“Review: cannabidiol may be beneficial for oral mucositis. The researchers found evidence that oxidative stress control could prevent and relieve oral mucositis. Cannabidiol was found to be safe to use and demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties,” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-02-cannabidiol-beneficial-oral-mucositis.html
“Cannabidiol could be beneficial for the treatment of oral mucositis, according to a review published online Feb. 12 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.” http://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/3029295/Review-cannabidiol-may-be-beneficial-for-oral-mucositis.html
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) Receptors Activation Protects against Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation Associated Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone Model of Parkinson’s Disease.

“The cannabinoid type two receptors (CB2), an important component of the endocannabinoid system, have recently emerged as neuromodulators and therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD).

The downregulation of CB2 receptors has been reported in the brains of PD patients. Therefore, both the activation and the upregulation of the CB2 receptors are believed to protect against the neurodegenerative changes in PD.

In the present study, we investigated the CB2 receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of β-caryophyllene (BCP), a naturally occurring CB2 receptor agonist, in, a clinically relevant, rotenone (ROT)-induced animal model of PD.

Interestingly, BCP supplementation demonstrated the potent therapeutic effects against ROT-induced neurodegeneration, which was evidenced by BCP-mediated CB2 receptor activation and the fact that, prior administration of the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 diminished the beneficial effects of BCP.

The present study suggests that BCP has the potential therapeutic efficacy to elicit significant neuroprotection by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities mediated by activation of the CB2 receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27531971

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Evaluation of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic rats.

Logo of ijbms

Cannabis has been known to be the oldest psychoactive plant for years. It is classified in the Cannabis genus, which is part of the Cannabacea family.

Cannabis sativa L. is the most common species. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive constituent identified in Cannabis sativa L.

THC is the most notable cannabinoid among all phytocannabinoids.

THC is exposed to degradation and converted into its active and inactive metabolites that are conjugated with glucuronic acid, and excreted in urine. THC is converted to active metabolite, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-THC (11-OH-THC), and then converted to an inactive metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy- Δ9-THC (THC – COOH).

ElSohly and Slade mention that C. sativa and its products have been used as medicinal agents.

Cannabinoids show a variety of therapeutic effects against chronic pain and muscle spasms, nausea and anorexia caused by HIV treatment, vomiting and nausea caused by cancer chemotherapy as well as anorexia associated with weight loss caused by immune deficiency syndrome.

Many studies report that THC provides protection against neuronal injury in a cell culture model of Parkinson disease and experimental models of Huntington disease, exhibits anti-oxidative action and mitigates the severity of the autoimmune response in an experimental model of diabetes.

The development and progression of diabetes mellitus and its complications arise out of increased oxidative damage. Kassab and Piwowar report that the best-known pathways of diabetic complications include oxidative stress.

The aims of the study presented in this paper were: (a) to explain the effects of THC on oxidative stress in T2DM treated with THC and (b) to determine the level of THC metabolites in the urine of diabetic and control rats induced by THC injection.

The object of the study is to examine the effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) against oxidative stress in the blood and excretion of THC metabolites in urine of type 2 diabetic rats.

These findings highlight that THC treatment may attenuate slightly the oxidative stress in diabetic rats.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818362/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Long-Term Cannabidiol Treatment Prevents the Development of Social Recognition Memory Deficits in Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mice.

“Impairments in cognitive ability and widespread pathophysiological changes caused by neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and altered cholesterol homeostasis are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of AD transgenic mice and to exert neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo…

This study is the first to demonstrate CBD’s ability to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in AD transgenic mice.

Our findings provide the first evidence that CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment for AD with a particular relevance for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024347

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Muscular Dystrophy-Cannabinoids-Symptom Relief

“Cannabinoids Help Muscular Dystrophy Symptoms: Cannabinoids are now known to have the capacity for neuromodulation, via direct, receptor-based mechanisms, at numerous levels within the nervous system. 

These provide therapeutic properties that may be applicable to the treatment of neurological disorders, including anti-oxidative, neuroprotective effects, analgesia, anti-inflammatory actions, immunomodulation, modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. 

Beyond that, the cannabinoids have also been shown to be “remarkably safe with no potential for overdose.”

(vaporizing) Marijuana:

“miraculously improved his quality of life so much so that he left his family and friends in New Jersey to live in California, where he can readily get his medication.”

Sublingual (under the tongue)-tincture (alcohol based) or infused oil (olive or food grade glycerin or coconut)

Topicals (salves, ointments, balms) for muscle pain and spasms.

Cannabinoids:  increase appetite, analgesic (rid pain), muscle relaxant, saliva reduction, bronchodialation,  and sleep induction.

 

CBD-rich strains are best choice.  Sativa dominant x Indica.”

More: http://medicalmarijuana.com/medical-marijuana-treatments/MD

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol: an overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects. Part I: chemical aspects.

“Over the last few years considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis. In Part I of this review we present a condensed survey of the chemistry of CBD; in Part II, to be published later, we shall discuss the anti-convulsive, anti-anxiety, anti-psychotic, anti-nausea and anti-rheumatoid arthritic properties of CBD. CBD does not bind to the known cannabinoid receptors and its mechanism of action is yet unknown. In Part II we shall also present evidence that it is conceivable that, in part at least, its effects are due to its recently discovered inhibition of anandamide uptake and hydrolysis and to its anti-oxidative effect.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12505688

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52920296/Cannabidiol-an-Overview-of-Some-Chemical-and-Pharmacological-Aspects-Part-I-Chemical-Aspects

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous