Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

“Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil.

Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein.

This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils.

Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid (CBDA) were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions.”

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Flexible Bionanocomposites from Epoxidised Hemp Seed Oil Thermosetting Resin Reinforced with Halloysite Nanotubes.

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“Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) oil comprises a variety of beneficial unsaturated triglycerides with well-documented nutritional and health benefits.

However, it can become rancid over a relatively short time period leading to increased industrial costs and waste of a valuable product. The development of sustainable polymers is presented as a strategy where both the presence of unsaturation and perox-ide content could be affectively utilised to alleviate both this waste and financial burden.

After reaction with peroxyacetic acid, incorporation of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and sub-sequent thermal curing, without the need for organic sol-vents or interfacial modifiers, flexible transparent materials with a low glass transition temperature were developed. The improvement in thermal stability and both the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the bionanocomposites were significantly enhanced with the well-dispersed HNT filler. At an optimum concentration of 0.5 wt.% HNTs, a simultaneous increase in stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness was observed in comparison to the unfilled cured resin.

These sustainable food-waste derived bionanocompo-sites may provide an interesting alternative to petroleum-based materials, particularly for low-load bearing applica-tions, such as packaging.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28240903

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[Study on the extraction process for cannabinoids in hemp seed oil by orthogonal design].

“OBJECTIVE: To select the optimum extracting procedure for cannabinoids from hemp seed oil.

METHODS: The optimum extracting procedure was selected with the content of cannabinol and delta9-tetrehydrocannabinol from hemp seed oil by orthogonal test design. We have examined three factors that may influence the extraction rate: the time of extraction, the times of extraction and the amount of methanol.

RESULTS: The optimum extraction condition was adding 5 ml, two times amount of methanol into hemp seed oil for 15 min.

CONCLUSION: The above extraction process gave the most rational, stable, feasible and satisfactory results. The method is convenient.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131037

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Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

“The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses.

From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively.

FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids.

The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF.

Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27076277

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Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

“The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID).

Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID.

The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142888

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A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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“This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)…

The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25493943

“Cannabis sativa L., also commonly called industrial hemp seed, is historically an important source of food, fibre, dietary oil and medicine; the seed contains about 30% oil and 25% protein…

Proteins from both plant and animal sources, including those of hemp seed, have been isolated and recognized as essential sources of bioactive peptides capable of exerting various in vitro and in vivo activities, such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, opioid, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic, appetite-reducing, mineral-binding, immunomodulatory and cytomodulatory…

HMH may serve as an important ingredient to formulate antioxidant diets with potential therapeutic effects.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276990/

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/

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[Ttextual research of Cannabis sativa varieties and medicinal part].

“Cannabis used now is identical with that described in ancient herbal literatures.

People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. sativa …unripe fruit, fruit and kernel of seed were all used..,both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part.

CONCLUSION:

The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical.

The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern.

And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel.

The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. Sativa.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20862977

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Effects of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil Press-Cake and Decaffeinated Green Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis) on Functional Characteristics of Gluten-Free Crackers.

“A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers.

All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers.

All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves.

Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9.

This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24527987

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