Novel mechanism of cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

The Breast Home

“Studies have emphasized an antineoplastic effect of the non-psychoactive, phyto-cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is not fully elucidated.

Herein, we have examined the effect of CBD on two different human breast cancer cell lines: the ER-positive, well differentiated, T-47D and the triple negative, poor differentiated, MDA-MB-231 cells.

In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay. CBD-induced apoptosis was accompanied by down-regulation of mTOR, cyclin D1 and up-regulation and localization of PPARγ protein expression in the nuclei and cytoplasmic of the tested cells.

The results suggest that CBD treatment induces an interplay among PPARγ, mTOR and cyclin D1 in favor of apoptosis induction in both ER-positive and triple negative breast cancer cells, proposing CBD as a useful treatment for different breast cancer subtypes.”

“Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26873/
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Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Cancer Treatment With Cannabinoids

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“Many in vitro and in vivo studies have reported on the antitumorigenic effects of plant-derived cannabinoids (CBDs) and their synthetic analogs, including effects in inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis.

Over the years, many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the antineoplastic effects of cannabinoids (CBDs), with reports advocating for investigations of combination therapy approaches that could better leverage these effects in clinical translation.

This study explores the potential of combination approaches employing CBDs with radiotherapy (RT) or smart biomaterials toward enhancing therapeutic efficacy during treatment of pancreatic and lung cancers. In in vitro studies, clonogenic assay results showed greater effective tumor cell killing, when combining CBDs and RT. Meanwhile, in vivo study results revealed major increase in survival when employing smart biomaterials for sustained delivery of CBDs to tumor cells. The significance of these findings, considerations for further research, and viable roadmap to clinical translation are discussed.

The advantage of combining CBDs with other therapies is that this may allow simultaneous targeting of tumor progression at different levels, while minimizing toxicities for these therapies relative to toxicities from higher doses when used as monotherapies.”

“Cannabis Science Announces the Second Frontiers Peer-Reviewed Publication of its Research Results on the Use of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Cancers”  https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2018/05/01/1493854/0/en/Cannabis-Science-Announces-the-Second-Frontiers-Peer-Reviewed-Publication-of-its-Research-Results-on-the-Use-of-Cannabinoids-in-the-Treatment-of-Cancers.html

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Can You Pass the Acid Test? Critical Review and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) is the acidic precursor of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound found in Cannabis sativa. THCA-A is biosynthesized and accumulated in glandular trichomes present on flowers and leaves, where it serves protective functions and can represent up to 90% of the total THC contained in the plant. THCA-A slowly decarboxylates to form THC during storage and fermentation and can further degrade to cannabinol. Decarboxylation also occurs rapidly during baking of edibles, smoking, or vaporizing, the most common ways in which the general population consumes Cannabis. Contrary to THC, THCA-A does not elicit psychoactive effects in humans and, perhaps for this reason, its pharmacological value is often neglected. In fact, many studies use the term “THCA” to refer indistinctly to several acid derivatives of THC. Despite this perception, many in vitro studies seem to indicate that THCA-A interacts with a number of molecular targets and displays a robust pharmacological profile that includes potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and antineoplastic properties. Moreover, the few in vivo studies performed with THCA-A indicate that this compound exerts pharmacological actions in rodents, likely by engaging type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. Although these findings may seem counterintuitive due to the lack of cannabinoid-related psychoactivity, a careful perusal of the available literature yields a plausible explanation to this conundrum and points toward novel therapeutic perspectives for raw, unheated Cannabis preparations in humans.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28861488

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2016.0008

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A Review of the Therapeutic Antitumor Potential of Cannabinoids.

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“The aim of this review is to discuss cannabinoids from a preclinical and clinical oncological perspective and provide the audience with a concise, retrospective overview of the most significant findings concerning the potential use of cannabinoids in cancer treatment.

RESULTS:

Cannabis sativa is a plant rich in more than 100 types of cannabinoids. Besides exogenous plant cannabinoids, mammalian endocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid analogues have been identified. Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) have been isolated and characterized from mammalian cells. Through cannabinoid receptor and non-receptor signaling pathways, cannabinoids show specific cytotoxicity against tumor cells, while protecting healthy tissue from apoptosis. The dual antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of cannabinoids and associated signaling pathways have been investigated on a large panel of cancer cell lines. Cannabinoids also display potent anticancer activity against tumor xenografts, including tumors that express high resistance to standard chemotherapeutics. Few studies have investigated the possible synergistic effects of cannabinoids with standard oncology therapies, and are based on the preclinically confirmed concept of “cannabinoid sensitizers.” Also, clinical trials aimed to confirm the antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids have only been evaluated on a small number of subjects, with no consensus conclusions regarding their effectiveness.

CONCLUSIONS:

A large number of cannabinoid compounds have been discovered, developed, and used to study the effects of cannabinoids on cancers in model systems. However, few clinical trials have been conducted on the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of cancers in humans. Further studies require extensive monitoring of the effects of cannabinoids alone or in combination with standard anticancer strategies. With such knowledge, cannabinoids could become a therapy of choice in contemporary oncology.”

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Medical Cannabis in the Palliation of Malignant Wounds—A Case Report

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“Anecdotal accounts of the use of topical extracts from the cannabis plant being used on open wounds date back to antiquity. In modern times, cannabinoid therapies have demonstrated efficacy as analgesic agents in both pharmaceutical and botanical formats. Medical cannabis (MC), also known as medical marijuana,…

The endogenous cannabinoid system, consisting of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, is ubiquitous throughout the human bodyAvailable research shows that cancer cells express higher levels of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, relative to their noncancer counterparts, while also demonstrating an overall state of upregulationHuman in vitro studies, using nonmelanoma skin lines, have demonstrated direct induction of tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of tumor-related angiogenesis, both by way of activation of cannabinoid receptors.

The analgesic outcomes observed in this case are supported by the results of a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabinoids for medical useUnlike intact skin, which is polar and hydrophilic, wounds lack epithelial coverage and are nonpolar and lipophilic. Therefore, lipophilic compounds such as the THC and CBD cannabinoids may be readily absorbed through cutaneous wounds.

Before the use of topical MC oil, the patient’s wound was growing rapidly. Yet, after a few weeks, a modest regression of his malignant wound was observed while the patient used topical MC. This secondary outcome suggests that topical MC may promote antineoplastic activity as per the findings of Casanova et al.

In summary, this is the first case report to demonstrate the potential for MC to provide effective pain and symptom management in the setting of malignant wounds. The rapid onset of analgesia after topical placement suggests that the effects were mediated through absorption of the THC and CBD cannabinoids that subsequently interacted with peripheral nociceptors, immune cells, and cancer cells. The postapplication analgesia may be because of the gastrointestinal absorption of ingested residual MC oil. This case suggests that MC delivered in vaporized and topical oil formats warrants further investigation in human malignancy, including randomized controlled trials capable of establishing long-term efficacy, optimal dosage, schedules of administration, mixture composition, and safety.”

http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(16)30328-1/fulltext

“Can Cannabis Oil Help Heal Wounds?”                              http://www.livescience.com/57500-can-medical-cannabis-help-heal-wounds.html

“Oral cancer patient, 44, claims cannabis oil helped to shrink a hole in his cheek that was caused by the disease” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4124752/Oral-cancer-patient-44-claims-cannabis-oil-helped-shrink-hole-cheek-caused-disease.html

“Miracle plant: Can medical marijuana heal wounds?” http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/medical-marijuana-heal-wounds-article-1.3384572

“Cannabis Oil Shows Potential To Heal Cancer Wounds Fast”  http://www.healthaim.com/cannabis-oil-shows-potential-heal-cancer-wounds-fast/71395

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May cannabinoids prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and intestinal mucositis? Experimental study in the rat.

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“The antineoplastic drug 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) is a pirimidine analog, which frequently induces potentially fatal diarrhea and mucositis.

Cannabinoids reduce gastrointestinal motility and secretion and might prevent 5-FU-induced gut adverse effects.

Here, we asked whether cannabinoids may prevent diarrhea and mucositis induced by 5-FU in the rat.

CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES:

5-FU-induced diarrhea, but not mucositis, was partly prevented by WIN at a low dose.

Cannabinoids might be useful to prevent chemotherapy-induced diarrhea.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27686064

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Comparing the effects of endogenous and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists on survival of gastric cancer cells.

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“Anti-neoplastic activity induced by cannabinoids has been extensively documented for a number of cancer cell types; however, this topic has been explored in gastric cancer cells only in a limited number of approaches.

SIGNIFICANCE:

Through a comparative approach, our results support and confirm the therapeutic potential that cannabinoid receptor agonists exert in gastric cancer cells and open possibilities to use cannabinoids as part of a new gastric cancer therapy.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27640887

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Hydroxytyrosol Inhibits Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Gene Expression in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Cell Line.

“The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line is a well characterized cell model for studying the adipocyte status and the molecular mechanisms involved in differentiation of these cells. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes have the ability to synthesize and degrade endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) and their differentiation into adipocytes increases the expression of cannabinoid (CB1) and PPAR-γ receptors.

Clinically, the blocking stimulation of the endocannabinoid pathway has been one of the first approaches proposed to counteract the obesity and obesity-associated diseases (such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cancer).

In this connection, here we studied in cultured 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes the effects of n-3-PUFA, α-Linolenic acid (OM-3), n-6-PUFA, Linoleic acid (OM-6) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) on the expression of CB1 receptor gene and the adipogenesis-related genes PPAR-γ, Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) and Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL).

HT was able to inhibit 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by down-regulating cell proliferation and CB1 receptor gene expression. HT exhibited anti-adipogenic effects, whereas OM-3 and OM-6 exerted an inhibitory action on cell proliferation associated with an induction of the preadipocytes differentiation and CB1 receptor gene expression.

Moreover, the expression of FAS and LPL genes resulted increased after treatment with both HT and OM-3 and OM-6.

The present study points out that the intake of molecules such as HT, contained in extra virgin olive oil, may be considered also in view of antiobesity and antineoplastic properties by acting directly on the adipose tissue and modulating CB1 receptor gene transcription.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26189725

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delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol for refractory vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy.

“Fifty-three patients receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy who had experienced severe nausea and vomiting refractory to standard antiemetic agents were treated with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

These patients were given THC 8 to 12 hours before, during, and for 24 hours after chemotherapy.

Ten patients (19%) had no further nausea and vomiting; 28 (53%) had at least a 50% reduction of nausea and vomiting compared to previous courses with the same agents.

We suggest that, since THC is a useful antimetic agent in patients having refractory chemotherapy-induced vomiting, existing restrictions prohibiting its therapeutic use should promptly be eased.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6244418

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The Inhibitory Effects of Cannabidiol on Systemic Malignant Tumors

“Cannabidiol may attenuate tumor growth in a number of other systemic malignancies.

Decreased tumor growth in pulmonary malignancies is seen after administration of cannabidiol.

Tumor metastasis also is markedly attenuated.

Similar attenuation of tumor growth is seen in breast malignancies.

The above examples clearly illustrate the significant antineoplastic effects of cannabidiol.

Hopefully, the next few years will see increased studies to fully and further evaluate these antineoplastic effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23544909

http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(13)00115-2/fulltext#article-outline

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/cancer/

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