“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) produces a resin that is valued for its psychoactive and medicinal properties.
Despite being the foundation of a multi-billion dollar global industry, scientific knowledge and research on cannabis is lagging behind compared to other high-value crops. This is largely due to legal restrictions that have prevented many researchers from studying cannabis, its products, and their effects in humans.
Cannabis resin contains hundreds of different terpene and cannabinoid metabolites.
Our understanding of the genomic and biosynthetic systems of these metabolites in cannabis, and the factors that affect their variability, is rudimentary. As a consequence, there is concern about lack of consistency with regard to the terpene and cannabinoid composition of different cannabis ‘strains’.
Likewise, claims of some of the medicinal properties attributed to cannabis metabolites would benefit from thorough scientific validation.”
“The β-caryophyllene (BCP), a phytocannabinoid presents in various essential oils, demonstrated selective action on the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor and attracted considerable attention because of its several pharmacological activities. Despite this recognized potential, this hydrophobic compound is a volatile and acid-sensitive sesquiterpene that readily oxidizes when exposed to air, and has low bioavailability in oral formulations. Thus, the development of formulations that guarantee its stability and increase its bioavailability is a challenge for its use in the pharmaceutical field.
The systems presented here may represent an interesting approach to overcome the limitations already mentioned for this terpene. These systems proved to be promising for improving solubility, stability and controlled release of this pharmacological relevant sesquiterpene. In the industrial field, some companies have filed patent applications for the commercial use of the BCP, however, the use of pharmaceutical formulations still appeared moderate.
This prospective study evidenced the new perspectives related to BCP vectorization systems in the pharmaceutical and industrial marketing field and may serve as a basis for further research and pharmaceutical use of this powerful cannabinoid.”
“Myrcene, a monoterpene… The results suggest that myrcene is capable of inducing antinociception in mice, probably mediated by alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulated release of endogenous opioids.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1983154
“Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. Terpenes such as myrcenemay constitute a lead for the development of new peripheral analgesics with a profile of action different from that of the aspirin-like drugs.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1753786
“Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG. The major components in Bedrocan smoke were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. The major components in Bedrocan vapor were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. ” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20118579
“The dichloromethane fraction of Ferula ferulaeoides was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and thirty-four compounds were identified. The main component in the fraction, guaiol (37.0%) was separated by chromatographic methods and identified from spectroscopic data, including 1H and 13C NMR, and X-ray crystallographic diffraction. Guaiol showed significant inhibition of aphids at a concentration of 70 mg/L. It also showed good contact activities against the 4th instar larvae of Mythimna separate and 3rd instar larvae of Plutella xylostella, with LD50 values of 0.07 and 8.9 mg/larva, as well as fumigation activity against the 4th instar larvae ofM. separata and adult Musca domestica, with LC50 values of 3.5 microL/L and 16.9 microL/L, respectively.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354171
“Terpinolene (TPO) is a natural monoterpene present in essential oils of many aromatic plant species.
Our findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084350
“Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. The major components in Bedrocan smoke were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20118579