“The history of Cannabis goes along that of humankind, as speculated based on geographical and evolutionary models together with historic data collected to date. Its medical use is several thousand years old, as attested both by archeobotanical evidence of Cannabis remains and written records found in ancient texts from the sacred Vedic foundational texts of Ayurvedic medicine (about 800 before current era [BCE]) to the first known Pharmacopoea, the Chinese “Shen Nung Pen Ts’ao Ching” (1 century BCE). In this paper, we retrace the history of Cannabis traveling through the key stages of its diffusion among the most important ancient cultures up to our days, when we are facing a renaissance of its medical employment. We report through the centuries evidence of its use in numerous pathologic conditions especially for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anticonvulsing properties that support the requirement to direct our present research efforts into the definitive understanding of its efficacy.”
“Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes – both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence.
Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono- and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail.
The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops. Terpenes’ medicinal properties are supported by numerous in vitro, animal and clinical trials and show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic attributes, among others.
Because of the very low toxicity, these terpenes are already widely used as food additives and in cosmetic products. Thus, they have been proven safe and well-tolerated.”
“2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide are two major endocannabinoids produced, released and eliminated by metabolic pathways.
Anticonvulsive effect of 2-AG and CB1 receptor is well-established. Herein, we designed to investigate the anticonvulsive influence of key components of the 2-AG and anandamide metabolism.
It seems extracellular accumulation of 2-AG or anandamide has anticonvulsive effect through the CB1 receptor, while intracellular anandamide accumulation is proconvulsive through TRPV1.”
Design: Multinational double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients randomised in 1:1 ratio to receive cannabidiol or placebo, in addition to stable antiepileptic treatment regime.
Setting: Twenty-three centres in Europe and USA.
Intervention: Adjunctive cannabidiol or placebo oral solution at 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day.
Primary outcome: Percentage change in median frequency of convulsive seizures per month.
Follow-up period: Outcome measured over a 14-week treatment period in comparison to a 4-week baseline period.
Patient follow-up: One hundred and eight (90%) completed the trial: 85% (52/61) in the cannabidiol group and …”
“The study was designed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats with chronic epilepsy.
The results revealed a significant decrease in the daily average grade of epileptic seizures on treatment with CBD (50 mg/kg).
The neuronal loss and astrocyte hyperplasia in the hippocampal area were also decreased.
CBD treatment did not affect the expression of iNOS in the hippocampus; however, the expression of NR1 was decreased significantly.
Thus, CBD administration inhibited the effect of pentylenetetrazole in rats, decreased the astrocytic hyperplasia, decreased neuronal damage in the hippocampus caused by seizures and selectively reduced the expression of the NR1 subunit of NMDA.
Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy.”
“Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the brain, affecting at least 50 million people globally… Despite development of a number of new antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy could not be significantly reduced and is a challenge to the clinicians… Many plants, known for their anticonvulsant activity are subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Cannabidiol (CBD) a constituent of the hemp seed exhibits potent anticonvulsant activity… The CBD possess anticonvulsive, anti-epileptic, and antimicrobial properties… The present study was performed to examine the anticonvulsive effects of CBD in pentylenetetrazole-induced chronic epilepsy rat models… The present study demonstrates that CBD protects against pentylenetetrazole-induced chronic seizures, decreases astrocytic hyperplasia, decreases neuronal cell loss and selectively suppresses NMDA1 receptor in the hippocampus… Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537971/
“Cannabis has been used for centuries to treat seizures.
Recent anecdotal reports, accumulating animal model data, and mechanistic insights have raised interest in cannabis-based antiepileptic therapies.
In this study, we review current understanding of the endocannabinoid system, characterize the pro- and anticonvulsive effects of cannabinoids [e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD)], and highlight scientific evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials of cannabinoids in epilepsy.
These studies suggest that CBD avoids the psychoactive effects of the endocannabinoid system to provide a well-tolerated, promising therapeutic for the treatment of seizures, while whole-plant cannabis can both contribute to and reduce seizures.
Finally, we discuss results from a new multicenter, open-label study using CBD in a population with treatment-resistant epilepsy. In all, we seek to evaluate our current understanding of cannabinoids in epilepsy and guide future basic science and clinical studies.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa.
It displays a plethora of actions including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, antipsychotic, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties.
However, it is well established that CBD produces its biological effects without exerting significant intrinsic activity upon cannabinoid receptors.
For this reason, CBD lacks the unwanted psychotropic effects characteristic of marijuana derivatives, so representing one of the bioactive constituents of Cannabis sativa with the highest potential for therapeutic use.
The present review reports the pharmacological profile of CBD and summarizes results from preclinical and clinical studies utilizing CBD, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids, for the treatment of a number of CNS disorders.”
“Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), activate presynaptic cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R) on inhibitory and excitatory neurons, resulting in a decreased release of neurotransmitters.
Event-specific activation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of the endocannabinoid degrading enzymes may offer a promising strategy to selectively activate CB1Rs at the site of excessive neuronal activation with the overall goal to prevent the development epilepsy.
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition on the development and progression of epileptic seizures in the kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
In conclusion, the data demonstrate that indirect CB1R agonism delays the development of generalized epileptic seizures, but has no relevant acute anticonvulsive effects.
Furthermore, we confirmed that the effects of JZL184 on kindling progression are CB1R mediated.
Thus, the data indicate that the endocannabinoid 2-AG might be a promising target for an anti-epileptogenic approach.”
“Excessive alcohol consumption, characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in neurodegeneration… the current study aimed to advance the preclinical development of transdermal delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration…
CBD is a main constituent of cannabis sativa… CBD is very well tolerated in humans. CBD has a plethora of actions, including anticonvulsive, anxiolytic, anti-relapse and neuroprotective properties, which make it an ideal candidate for treating multiple pathologies associated with alcohol use disorders…
These results demonstrate the feasibility of using CBD transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration.”
“Cannabidiol, the main nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, possesses a large number of pharmacological effects including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective, as demonstrated in clinical and preclinical studies.
Many neurodegenerative disorders involve cognitive deficits, and this has led to interest in whether cannabidiol could be useful in the treatment of memory impairment associated to these diseases…
We used an animal model of cognitive impairment induced by iron overload in order to test the effects of cannabidiol in memory-impaired rats…
A single acute injection of cannabidiol at the highest dose was able to recover memory in iron-treated rats. Chronic cannabidiol improved recognition memory in iron-treated rats. Acute or chronic cannabidiol does not affect memory in control rats.
The present findings provide evidence suggesting the potential use of cannabidiol for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative disorders.
Further studies, including clinical trials, are warranted to determine the usefulness of cannabidiol in humans suffering from neurodegenerative disorders.”