Anticonvulsive effects of endocannabinoids; an investigation to determine the role of regulatory components of endocannabinoid metabolism in the Pentylenetetrazol induced tonic- clonic seizures.

Metabolic Brain Disease

“2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide are two major endocannabinoids produced, released and eliminated by metabolic pathways.

Anticonvulsive effect of 2-AG and CB1 receptor is well-established. Herein, we designed to investigate the anticonvulsive influence of key components of the 2-AG and anandamide metabolism.

It seems extracellular accumulation of 2-AG or anandamide has anticonvulsive effect through the CB1 receptor, while intracellular anandamide accumulation is proconvulsive through TRPV1.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol reduced frequency of convulsive seizures in drug resistant Dravet syndrome.

BMJ Journals

“Study design

Design: Multinational double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients randomised in 1:1 ratio to receive cannabidiol or placebo, in addition to stable antiepileptic treatment regime.

Study question

Setting: Twenty-three centres in Europe and USA.

 Patients: Patients aged 2 years to 18 years with established diagnosis of Dravet syndrome having at least four convulsive seizures during the 28-day baseline period despite regular antiepileptic medication.

Intervention: Adjunctive cannabidiol or placebo oral solution at 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day.

Primary outcome: Percentage change in median frequency of convulsive seizures per month.

Follow-up period: Outcome measured over a 14-week treatment period in comparison to a 4-week baseline period.

Patient follow-up: One hundred and eight (90%) completed the trial: 85% (52/61) in the cannabidiol group and …”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

High dosage of cannabidiol (CBD) alleviates pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy in rats by exerting an anticonvulsive effect.

“The study was designed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats with chronic epilepsy.

The results revealed a significant decrease in the daily average grade of epileptic seizures on treatment with CBD (50 mg/kg).

The neuronal loss and astrocyte hyperplasia in the hippocampal area were also decreased.

CBD treatment did not affect the expression of iNOS in the hippocampus; however, the expression of NR1 was decreased significantly.

Thus, CBD administration inhibited the effect of pentylenetetrazole in rats, decreased the astrocytic hyperplasia, decreased neuronal damage in the hippocampus caused by seizures and selectively reduced the expression of the NR1 subunit of NMDA.

Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy.”

“Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the brain, affecting at least 50 million people globally… Despite development of a number of new antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy could not be significantly reduced and is a challenge to the clinicians… Many plants, known for their anticonvulsant activity are subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Cannabidiol (CBD) a constituent of the hemp seed exhibits potent anticonvulsant activity…  The CBD possess anticonvulsive, anti-epileptic, and antimicrobial properties… The present study was performed to examine the anticonvulsive effects of CBD in pentylenetetrazole-induced chronic epilepsy rat models… The present study demonstrates that CBD protects against pentylenetetrazole-induced chronic seizures, decreases astrocytic hyperplasia, decreases neuronal cell loss and selectively suppresses NMDA1 receptor in the hippocampus… Therefore, CBD exhibits an anticonvulsive effect in the rats with chronic epilepsy.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoids and Epilepsy.

“Cannabis has been used for centuries to treat seizures.

Recent anecdotal reports, accumulating animal model data, and mechanistic insights have raised interest in cannabis-based antiepileptic therapies.

In this study, we review current understanding of the endocannabinoid system, characterize the pro- and anticonvulsive effects of cannabinoids [e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD)], and highlight scientific evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials of cannabinoids in epilepsy.

These studies suggest that CBD avoids the psychoactive effects of the endocannabinoid system to provide a well-tolerated, promising therapeutic for the treatment of seizures, while whole-plant cannabis can both contribute to and reduce seizures.

Finally, we discuss results from a new multicenter, open-label study using CBD in a population with treatment-resistant epilepsy. In all, we seek to evaluate our current understanding of cannabinoids in epilepsy and guide future basic science and clinical studies.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol in medicine: a review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa.

It displays a plethora of actions including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, antipsychotic, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties.

However, it is well established that CBD produces its biological effects without exerting significant intrinsic activity upon cannabinoid receptors.

For this reason, CBD lacks the unwanted psychotropic effects characteristic of marijuana derivatives, so representing one of the bioactive constituents of Cannabis sativa with the highest potential for therapeutic use.

The present review reports the pharmacological profile of CBD and summarizes results from preclinical and clinical studies utilizing CBD, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids, for the treatment of a number of CNS disorders.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase mediates a cannabinoid 1-receptor dependent delay of kindling progression in mice.

“Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), activate presynaptic cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R) on inhibitory and excitatory neurons, resulting in a decreased release of neurotransmitters.

Event-specific activation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of the endocannabinoid degrading enzymes may offer a promising strategy to selectively activate CB1Rs at the site of excessive neuronal activation with the overall goal to prevent the development epilepsy.

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition on the development and progression of epileptic seizures in the kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

In conclusion, the data demonstrate that indirect CB1R agonism delays the development of generalized epileptic seizures, but has no relevant acute anticonvulsive effects.

Furthermore, we confirmed that the effects of JZL184 on kindling progression are CB1R mediated.

Thus, the data indicate that the endocannabinoid 2-AG might be a promising target for an anti-epileptogenic approach.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Transdermal Delivery of Cannabidiol Attenuates Binge Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of an Alcohol Use Disorder

“Excessive alcohol consumption, characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in neurodegeneration… the current study aimed to advance the preclinical development of transdermal delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration…

CBD is a main constituent of cannabis sativa… CBD is very well tolerated in humans. CBD has a plethora of actions, including anticonvulsive, anxiolytic, anti-relapse and neuroprotective properties, which make it an ideal candidate for treating multiple pathologies associated with alcohol use disorders…

These results demonstrate the feasibility of using CBD transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders.

“Cannabidiol, the main nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, possesses a large number of pharmacological effects including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective, as demonstrated in clinical and preclinical studies.

 Many neurodegenerative disorders involve cognitive deficits, and this has led to interest in whether cannabidiol could be useful in the treatment of memory impairment associated to these diseases…

We used an animal model of cognitive impairment induced by iron overload in order to test the effects of cannabidiol in memory-impaired rats…


A single acute injection of cannabidiol at the highest dose was able to recover memory in iron-treated rats. Chronic cannabidiol improved recognition memory in iron-treated rats. Acute or chronic cannabidiol does not affect memory in control rats.


The present findings provide evidence suggesting the potential use of cannabidiol for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative disorders.

 Further studies, including clinical trials, are warranted to determine the usefulness of cannabidiol in humans suffering from neurodegenerative disorders.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid Receptors

“Before the 1980s, it was often speculated that cannabinoids produced their physiological and behavioral effects via nonspecific interaction with cell membranes, instead of interacting with specific membrane-bound receptors.

The discovery of the first cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s helped to resolve this debate.

These receptors are common in animals, and have been found in mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles.

At present, there are two known types of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2, with mounting evidence of more.

Cannabinoid receptor type 1

CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain, to be specific in the basal ganglia and in the limbic system, including the hippocampus.

They are also found in the cerebellum and in both male and female reproductive systems. CB1 receptors are absent in the medulla oblongata, the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Thus, there is not a risk of respiratory or cardiovascular failure as there is with many other drugs. CB1 receptors appear to be responsible for the euphoric and anticonvulsive effects of cannabis.

Cannabinoid receptor type 2

CB2 receptors are almost exclusively found in the immune system, with the greatest density in the spleen.

While found only in the peripheral nervous system, a report does indicate that CB2 is expressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum.

CB2 receptors appear to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and possibly other therapeutic effects of cannabis.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol: an overview of some pharmacological aspects.

“Over the past few years, considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of cannabis.

The authors present a review on the chemistry of CBD and discuss the anticonvulsive, antianxiety, antipsychotic, antinausea, and antirheumatoid arthritic properties of CBD.

CBD does not bind to the known cannabinoid receptors, and its mechanism of action is yet unknown. It is possible that, in part at least, its effects are due to its recently discovered inhibition of anandamide uptake and hydrolysis and to its antioxidative effect.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous