The oncogenic role of CB2 in the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer.

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

“Several studies have verified the important role of cannabinoid and cannabinoid receptor agonists in tumor progression. However, little is known about the precise role of CB2 expression level in the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

The expression of CB2 in NSCLC tissues and corresponding paracancerous tissues was examined using immunohistochemical staining assay.

CONCLUSION:

Our data suggested that targeting CB2 may inhibit the growth and survival of NSCLC cells, which the Akt/mTOR/P70S6K pathway may be involved in. These results confer the pro-oncogenic role of CB2 in the progression of NSCLC, thus improving our understanding of CB2 in tumor progression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31176172

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332219321341?via%3Dihub

“Cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as novel targets for inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer growth and metastasis. These results suggest that CB1 and CB2 could be used as novel therapeutic targets against NSCLC.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21097714

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The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, improves working memory and reduces circulating levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in aged male mice.

Behavioural Brain Research“Age-related cognitive decline has been associated with proinflammatory cytokines, yet the precise relationship between cognitive decline and cytokine load remains to be elucidated. β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist with established anti-inflammatory effects that is known to improve memory and increase lifespan. It is of interest to explore the potential of BCP to reduce age-related cognitive decline and proinflammatory cytokine load. In this study, we assessed changes in circulating cytokines across the lifespan, memory performance in young and aged mice, and the effects of BCP on memory function and cytokine load. The plasma levels of 12 cytokines were assessed in male Swiss-Webster mice at 3, 12, and 18 months of age using multiplexed flow cytometry. Working memory was compared in 3 and 12 month-old mice using spontaneous alternations. A dose-response function (100-300 mg/kg, subchronic administration) for BCP-induced memory restoration was determined in 3 and 12 month-old mice. Finally, the effects on cytokine levels of the peak memory enhancing dose of BCP was assessed in 18 month-old mice. Circulating levels of several cytokines significantly increased with age. Multilinear regression analysis showed that IL-23 levels were most strongly associated with age. Aged mice showed deficits in working memory and higher levels of IL-23, both of which were reversed by BCP treatment. BCP appears to reverse age-associated impairments in memory and modulates cytokine production. IL-23 may play a significant role in the aging process, and future research should determine whether it has utility as a biomarker for novel anti-aging therapeutics.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31173795

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432819304516?via%3Dihub

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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Bipolar disorder and the endocannabinoid system.

 Image result for acta neuropsychiatrica“Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating, lifelong neuropsychiatric illness characterised by unsteady mood states which vacillate from (hypo)mania to depression. Despite the availability of pharmaceutical agents which can be effective in ameliorating the acute affective symptoms and prevent episodic relapse, BD is inadequately treated in a subset of patients.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert neuromodulatory effects on other neurotransmitter systems critical in governing emotions. Several studies ranging from clinical to molecular, as well as anecdotal evidence, have placed a spotlight on the potential role of the ECS in the pathophysiology of BD. In this perspective, we present advantages and disadvantages of cannabis use in the management of illness course of BD and provide mechanistic insights into how this system might contribute to the pathophysiology of BD.

RESULTS:

We highlight the putative role of selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists in BD and briefly discuss findings which provide a rationale for targeting the ECS to assuage the symptoms of BD. Further, data encourage basic and clinical studies to determine how cannabis and cannabinoids (CBs) can affect mood and to investigate emerging CB-based options as probable treatment approaches.

CONCLUSION:

The probable role of the ECS has been almost neglected in BD; however, from data available which suggest a role of ECS in mood control, it is justified to support conducting comprehensive studies to determine whether ECS manipulation could positively affect BD. Based on the limited available data, we suggest that activation of CB2 may stabilise mood in this disorder.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31159897

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/acta-neuropsychiatrica/article/bipolar-disorder-and-the-endocannabinoid-system/0C3191AF7BECA6D5A6EBED3C94CAA57B

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A selective CB2 agonist protects against the inflammatory response and joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis mice.

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

“Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, synovitis-dominated systemic disease with unknown etiology. RA is characterized by the involvement of multiple affected joints, symmetry, and invasive arthritis of the limbs, which can lead to joint deformity, cartilage destruction, and loss of function. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and is predominantly expressed in non-neuronal tissues. In the current study, the role of CB2 in the process of inflammatory bone erosion in RA was examined. The selective agonist or high-affinity ligand of CB2 (4-quinolone-3-carboxamides CB2 agonist, 4Q3C CB2agonist, 4Q3C) significantly reduced the severity of arthritis, decreased histopathological findings, and markedly reduced bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. In addition, 4Q3C prevented an increase in the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio and inhibited the formation of osteoclasts in CIA mice. Furthermore, the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase was lower in 4Q3C-treated CIA mice than in control CIA mice. Micro-computed tomography corroborated the finding that 4Q3C reduced joint destruction. These data clearly indicate that the CB2-selective agonist, 4Q3C, may have anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenesis effects in RA and may be considered to be a novel treatment for RA.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31154267

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332219307528?via%3Dihub

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CB2 Cannabinoid receptor agonist ameliorates novel object recognition but not spatial memory in transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

Neuroscience Letters

“The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) has been considered as a potential therapeutic target to ameliorate the neuroinflammation and cognitive impairments of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, there has been little research on the diverse roles of CB2R in regulating different forms of cognitive abilities and underlying neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of CB2R activation on cognitive abilities, activation and phenotype conversion of microglia, and dendrite complexity.

Results showed that CB2R activation normalized the cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory deficit in a novel object recognition test (P < 0.05) and CB2R activation was ineffective for hippocampus-dependent spatial cognitive dysfunction in the Morris water maze test (P > 0.05). Moreover, activation of CB2R did not affect the formation of plaque in either the cortex or hippocampus (P > 0.05). Interestingly, in the cortex but not in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice, there was decreased immunofluorescence intensity of Iba1, M1 to M2 microglial phenotype conversion, and restored dendritic complexity after a long treatment period of CB2R agonist (All P < 0.05).

Our results demonstrated that CB2R activation exerts a beneficial role in novel object recognition ability concomitant with region-specific regulation in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and dendritic complexity in AD-model mice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31150731

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394019303581?via%3Dihub

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Activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptor protects skeletal muscle from ischemia-reperfusion injury partly via Nrf2 signaling.

Life Sciences“Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor activation has been shown to attenuate IRI in various organs. NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) is an anti-oxidative factor that plays multiple roles in regulating cellular redox homeostasis and modulating cell proliferation and differentiation. The protective effects of CB2 receptor activation on skeletal muscle IRI and the underlying mechanism that involves Nrf2 signaling remain unknown.

Our results showed that CB2 receptor activation reduced IR-induced histopathological lesions, edema, and oxidative stress 1 day post-injury and accelerated early myogenesis 4 days post-injury in mice. Nrf2 knockout mice that were treated with AM1241 exhibited deteriorative skeletal muscle oxidative damage and myogenesis. In vitro, pretreatment with AM1241 significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and its nuclear translocation, attenuated the decrease in H2O2-induced C2C12 cell viability, and decreased reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis. CB2 receptor activation also significantly enhanced C2C12 myoblasts differentiation, which was impaired by silencing Nrf2.

Overall, CB2 receptor activation protected skeletal muscle against IRI by ameliorating oxidative damage and promoting early skeletal muscle myogenesis, which was partly via Nrf2 signaling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31128135

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320519304126?via%3Dihub

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CB2 receptor deletion on myeloid cells enhanced mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of neuropathic pain.

 Scientific Reports“Neuropathic pain can develop after nerve injury, leading to a chronic condition with spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia.

Pain is typically restricted to the side of the injured nerve, but may occasionally spread to the contralateral side, a condition that is often referred to as mirror-image pain.

Mechanisms leading to mirror-image pain are not completely understood, but cannabinoid CB2 receptors have been implicated.

In this study, we use genetic mouse models to address the question if CB2 receptors on neurons or on microglia/macrophages are involved.

We conclude that CB2 receptors on microglia and macrophages, but not on neurons, modulate neuropathic pain responses.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31097758

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-43858-4

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Cannabinoid-induced relief of hypermotility in a rat model of the irritable bowel syndrome.

Publication cover image

“Cannabinoid-2 receptor agonists may be useful in treating intestinal motility disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31094052

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nmo.13613

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Endocannabinoid System in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type-3 and Other Autosomal-Dominant Cerebellar Ataxias: Potential Role in Pathogenesis and Expected Relevance as Neuroprotective Targets.

Image result for frontiers in molecular neuroscience
“Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of hereditary and progressive neurological disorders characterized by a loss of balance and motor coordination. SCAs have no cure and effective symptom-alleviating and disease-modifying therapies are not currently available. However, based on results obtained in studies conducted in murine models and information derived from analyses in post-mortem tissue samples from patients, which show notably higher levels of CB1 receptors found in different cerebellar neuronal subpopulations, the blockade of these receptors has been proposed for acutely modulating motor incoordination in cerebellar ataxias, whereas their chronic activation has been proposed for preserving specific neuronal losses. Additional studies in post-mortem tissues from SCA patients have also demonstrated elevated levels of CB2 receptors in Purkinje neurons as well as in glial elements in the granular layer and in the cerebellar white matter, with a similar profile found for endocannabinoid hydrolyzing enzymes, then suggesting that activating CB2 receptors and/or inhibiting these enzymes may also serve to develop cannabinoid-based neuroprotective therapies.”
“Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system in the cerebellum and brainstem in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type-3.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27717809
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AM-1241 CB2 Receptor Agonist Attenuates Inflammation, Apoptosis and Stimulate Progenitor Cells in Bile Duct Ligated Rats.

 “The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays a pleiotropic role in the innate immunity and is considered a crucial mediator of liver disease.

Cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation has been reported to attenuate liver fibrosis in CCl4 exposed mice and also plays a potential role in liver regeneration in a mouse model of I/R and protection against alcohol-induced liver injury.

AIM:

In this study, we investigated the impact of CB2 receptors on the antifibrotic and regenerative process associated with cholestatic liver injury.

RESULTS:

Following bile duct ligation (BDL) for 3 weeks, there was increased aminotransferase levels, marked inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis with induced oxidative stress, as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation. Conversely, following treatment with the CB2 agonist, AM-1241, BDL rats displayed a reduction in liver injury and attenuation of fibrosis as reflected by expression of hydroxyproline and α-smooth muscle actin. AM1241 treatment also significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation end-products, p53-dependent apoptosis and also attenuated inflammatory process by stimulating IL-10 production. Moreover, AM1241 treated rats were associated with significant expression of hepatic progenitor/oval cell markers.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, this study points out that CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration via distinct mechanisms including IL-10 dependent inhibition of inflammation, reduction of p53-reliant apoptosis and through stimulation of oval/progenitor cells. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoregenrative properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30976335

https://www.id-press.eu/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2019.194

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