Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

 Food Chemistry

“In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated.

Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain.

In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29751921

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814618307180?via%3Dihub

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It’s Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month. Please Be Aware:

 Image result for cannabis colon cancer
 “Prevention and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer by Natural Agents From Mother Nature. This review clearly demonstrates that various nutraceuticals provided by the Mother Nature have a huge potential for both prevention and treatment of Colorectal cancer (CRC). Since these agents can be administered chronically without any concern for safety and are highly affordable, their use has been the wave of the past and is likely to continue as the wave of the future.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3693477/
“Links between inflammation and colon cancer metastasis” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150825094923.htm
“Inflammation and colon cancer. The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420949
“Cannabis-derived substances in cancer therapy–an emerging anti-inflammatory role for the cannabinoids. Chronic inflammation has been associated with neoplasia for sometime, and as a consequence, reducing inflammation as a way of impacting cancer presents a new role for these compounds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20925645
“Cannabinoids as gastrointestinal anti-inflammatory drugs.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28239924
“Colon Cancer Risk Linked To High-Fat Diet: How Eating More Fat Can Increase Intestinal Tumors” http://www.medicaldaily.com/colon-cancer-high-fat-diet-intestinal-tumors-376664
 
“Study: Red and Processed Meats Linked With Colon Cancer Risk” http://healthland.time.com/2011/05/27/study-red-and-processed-meats-linked-with-colon-cancer-risk/
 
“Eating hot dogs, ham and other processed meat can cause colorectal cancer, and eating red meat “probably” can cause cancer, the World Health Organization’s cancer agency reported” http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/10/26/experts-processed-meats-can-cause-cancer/74615390/
 
“Mediterranean Diet Reduces Risk of Colon Cancer”
 
 
“More evidence a veg diet might lower cancer risk” http://www.today.com/health/veggie-diet-lowers-colon-cancer-risk-t7671
 
 
 
“Omegas linked with colon cancer survival. A large, observational study has linked higher intake of omega-3s with a lower risk of dying from colon cancer.” http://www.newhope.com/breaking-news/omegas-linked-colon-cancer-survival
 “Study shows how high-fat diets increase colon cancer risk” http://news.temple.edu/news/2012-03-06/study-shows-how-high-fat-diets-increase-colon-cancer-risk
“Poor metabolic health linked to increased risk for colorectal cancer in normal-weight women” http://www.news-medical.net/news/20170201/Poor-metabolic-health-linked-to-increased-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-normal-weight-women.aspx
 
“Cheese, Milk, and Fatty Fish Can Help Fight Colon Cancer” https://munchies.vice.com/en_us/article/cheese-milk-and-fatty-fish-can-help-fight-colon-cancer
“Diet, exercise and aspirin: 3 tools to fight colon cancer” http://ktar.com/story/1314810/diet-exercise-aspirin-3-tools-fight-colon-cancer/
“Many Early Colon Cancers Linked to Inherited Genes” https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162574.html
“E.coli Bacteria Linked to Colon Cancer” http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/e-coli-bateria-linked-colon-cancer-375102
 
“Colorectal cancer prevalence linked to human papillomavirus: a systematic review with meta-analysis” http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1415-790X2016000400791&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en
“Colon cancer linked to viruses in beef, Nobel-winning scientist contends” http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/health/article/1695757/colon-cancer-linked-viruses-beef-nobel-winning-scientist-contends
 
“Diet High in Choline Linked with Increased Risk of Colorectal Polyps. According to the results of a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, high intake of choline-a nutrient found in foods such as red meat, eggs, poultry, and dairy products-may be linked with an increased risk of colorectal polyps.” http://news.cancerconnect.com/diet-high-in-choline-linked-with-increased-risk-of-colorectal-polyps/
“High-Glycemic Foods Linked to Colon Cancer. These foods include breads, pastas, pancakes, and other carbohydrates made from refined “white” grains, as well as other processed or sugary foods such as cakes, cookies, and other snacks.” http://www.webmd.com/colorectal-cancer/news/20040203/high-glycemic-foods-linked-to-colon-cancer#1
 
“Low-carb diet cuts risk of colon cancer” https://www.utoronto.ca/news/low-carb-diet-cuts-risk-colon-cancer
 
“Common food additive promotes colon cancer in mice. Emulsifiers, which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter intestinal bacteria in a manner that promotes intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161107110639.htm
“Processed meats including bacon, hot dogs linked to colon cancer” http://www.cp24.com/news/processed-meats-including-bacon-hot-dogs-linked-to-colon-cancer-1.2627498
“Processed meat can cause colon cancer, World Health Organization says” http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/meat-cancer-world-health-organization-1.3288355
 
“Sweets, sugary snacks linked to colorectal cancer” http://www.cbsnews.com/news/sweets-sugary-snacks-linked-to-colorectal-cancer/
“Eating Nuts Linked to Lower Risk of Colon Cancer” http://www.livescience.com/54448-eating-nuts-may-lower-colon-cancer-risk.html
 
“Coffee consumption linked to lower risk of colorectal cancer” http://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coffee-consumption-linked-to-lower-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-1.2841834
“Alcohol Linked to Colorectal Cancer Risk” http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/749886
“Excessive alcohol consumption favours high risk polyp or colorectal cancer occurrence among patients with adenomas: a case control study” http://gut.bmj.com/content/50/1/38.full
 
“High vitamin D levels linked to lower risk of colon cancer” http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_22-1-2010-13-46-0
 
“Anthocyanins in Purple, Blue and Red Foods Fight Colon Cancer” http://reliawire.com/anthocyanins-purple-blue-red-foods-fight-colon-cancer/
 
“Prunes reduce colon cancer risk by benefiting healthy gut bacteria” http://www.belmarrahealth.com/prunes-reduce-colon-cancer-risk-by-benefiting-healthy-gut-bacteria/
“BLACK RASPBERRIES A POTENTIALLY POWERFUL AGENT IN FIGHT AGAINST COLON CANCER” https://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/brberry.htm
 
 
 
 
 
“G‐protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a lysophospholipid receptor, has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis. GPR55 is involved in the migratory behaviour of colon carcinoma cells and may serve as a pharmacological target for the prevention of metastasis.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688947/
“The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21057532
 “L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol meets GPR55: a deadly relationship. Evidence points to a role of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) in cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21367464
“Modulation of l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling by Cannabinoids*Here, we report that the little investigated cannabis constituents CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV are potent inhibitors of LPI-induced GPR55 signaling. The phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, and cannabigerovarin are also potent inhibitors of LPI. Our findings also suggest that GPR55 may be a new pharmacological target for the following C. sativa constituents: Δ9-THCV, CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV. These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249141/
 “Cannabinoids and cancer: potential for colorectal cancer therapy.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16042581
 “The endogenous cannabinoid system protects against colonic inflammation”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC385396/
 “Cannabinoids in intestinal inflammation and cancer. In vivo, cannabinoids – via direct or indirect activation of CB(1) and/or CB(2) receptors – exert protective effects in well-established models of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer. Pharmacological elevation of endocannabinoid levels may be a promising strategy to counteract intestinal inflammation and colon cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442536
 “Cannabinoids have become a novel therapeutic approach against colon cancer with protective and anti-tumoral effects on colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in animal models of colon cancer” http://impactjournals.com/oncoscience/index.php?pii=119 
 “Possible endocannabinoid control of colorectal cancer growth. Inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation may prove useful anticancer agents.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12949714
“Increased endocannabinoid levels reduce the development of precancerous lesions in the mouse colon. Cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increasing evidence shows antitumor actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumor cells in vitro and in animal models” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755791/

“Loss of cannabinoid receptor 1 accelerates intestinal tumor growth”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2561258/

“Turned-off Cannabinoid Receptor Turns On Colorectal Tumor Growth” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080801074056.htm

“Turning CB1 back on and then treating with a cannabinoid agonist could provide a new approach to colorectal cancer treatment or prevention. Cannabinoids are a group of ligands that serve a variety of cell-signaling roles. Some are produced by the body internally (endocannabinoids). External cannabinoids include manmade versions and those present in plants, most famously the active ingredient in marijuana (THC).” http://www.news-medical.net/news/2008/08/03/40485.aspx

“Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Induces Apoptosis through Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Mediated Ceramide De novo Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells. The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. ” http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/14/23/7691.long

“The cannabinoid delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT survival signalling and induces BAD-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Here, we report that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells, and show for the first time that THC induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. The use of THC, or selective targeting of the CB1 receptor, may represent a novel strategy for colorectal cancer therapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17583570

“Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26873/

“Cannabis-Linked Cell Receptor Might Help Prevent Colon Cancer” http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=91511

“Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis sativa, exerts pharmacological actions (antioxidant and intestinal antinflammatory) and mechanisms (inhibition of endocannabinoid enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for colon carcinogenesis. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22231745

“CBD-Rich Marijuana Fights Colon Cancer, New Study Finds” http://blog.sfgate.com/smellthetruth/2014/01/06/cbd-rich-marijuana-fights-colon-cancer-new-study-finds/

“Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373545

“Cannabigerol (CBG) is a safe non-psychotropic Cannabis-derived cannabinoid. CBG hampers colon cancer progression in vivo and selectively inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells. CBG should be considered translationally in colorectal cancer prevention and cure.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269802

“According to researchers at the University of Texas in Houston chemicals in marijuana could be a potential cure in the treatment of colon cancer.” http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/258161

“Cannabis compound clue to colon cancer”  https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19926685.000-cannabis-compound-clue-to-colon-cancer/

“Marijuana takes on colon cancer” https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn14451-marijuana-takes-on-colon-cancer/

“Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. Tumor specimens revealed that THC had antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. CBD has also been demonstrated to exert a chemopreventive effect in a mouse model of colon cancer. In in vitro experiments involving colorectal cancer cell lines, the investigators found that CBD protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels, and reduced cell proliferation. In addition, both plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids have been studied for anti-inflammatory effects. A mouse study demonstrated that endogenous cannabinoid system signaling is likely to provide intrinsic protection against colonic inflammation. As a result, a hypothesis that phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids may be useful in the risk reduction and treatment of colorectal cancer has been developed.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/cannabis-pdq#section/_7

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Cannabimimetic phytochemicals in the diet – an evolutionary link to food selection and metabolic stress adaptation?

Image result for Br J Pharmacol

“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs.

Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS.

Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism.

Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS.

In addition to the fatty acid precursors of endocannabinoids the potential role of dietary cannabimimetic phytochemicals in agriculturist nutrition is discussed.

Dietary secondary metabolites from vegetables and spices able to enhance the activity of cannabinoid-type 2 (CB2) receptors may provide adaptive metabolic advantages and counteract inflammation.

Food able to modulate the CB1/CB2 receptor activation ratio may thus play a role in the nutrition transition of Western high calorie diets. In this review the interplay between diet and the ECS is highlighted from an evolutionary perspective.

The emerging potential of cannabimimetic food as nutraceutical strategy is critically discussed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891602

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