Cannabimimetic phytochemicals in the diet – an evolutionary link to food selection and metabolic stress adaptation?

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“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs.

Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS.

Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism.

Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS.

In addition to the fatty acid precursors of endocannabinoids the potential role of dietary cannabimimetic phytochemicals in agriculturist nutrition is discussed.

Dietary secondary metabolites from vegetables and spices able to enhance the activity of cannabinoid-type 2 (CB2) receptors may provide adaptive metabolic advantages and counteract inflammation.

Food able to modulate the CB1/CB2 receptor activation ratio may thus play a role in the nutrition transition of Western high calorie diets. In this review the interplay between diet and the ECS is highlighted from an evolutionary perspective.

The emerging potential of cannabimimetic food as nutraceutical strategy is critically discussed.”

Anti-Inflammatory and Osteoprotective Effects of Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Agonist Hu-308 in a Rat Model of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Periodontitis.

“Anti-inflammatory and immunological properties of cannabinoids have been reported in several tissues.

Also, cannabinoid receptors type 2 (CB2) were reported to be expressed in osteoblast and osteoclast, suggesting a key role in bone metabolism.

The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the treatment with the cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist HU-308 in the oral health of rats subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis.

This study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory, osteoprotective and pro-homeostatic effects of HU-308 in oral tissues of rats with LPS-induced periodontitis.”

Phytocannabinoids for Cancer Therapeutics: Recent Updates and Future Prospects.

“Phytocannabinoids (pCBs) are lipid-soluble phytochemicals present in the plant, Cannabis sativa L. and non-cannabis plants which have a long history in traditional and recreational medicine.

The plant and constituents were central in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, the most new target for drug discovery.

The endocannabinoid system includes two G protein-coupled receptors; the cannabinoid receptors-1 and -2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana’s psychoactive principle ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), their endogenous small lipid ligands; namely anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), also known as endocannabinoids and the proteins for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and degradation such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).

The endocannabinoid system has been suggested as a pro-homeostatic and pleiotropic signaling system activated in a time- and tissue-specific way during pathological conditions including cancer.

Targeting the CB1 receptors become a concern because of adverse psychotropic reactions. Hence, targeting the CB2 receptors or the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme by phytocannabinoids obtained from non-cannabis plant lacking psychotropic adverse reactions has garnered interest in drug discovery.

These pCBs derived from plants beyond cannabis appear safe and effective with a wider access and availability.

In recent years, several pCBs derived other than non-cannabinoid plants have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with cannabinoid receptors and appear promising candidate for drug development in cancer therapeutics.

Several of them also target the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this article, we summarize, critically discuss the updates and future prospects of the pCBs as novel and promising candidates for cancer therapeutics.”