The curative effect of a cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Publication cover image“As we learn more about the endocannabinoid system (ECS), our understanding and grasp of the system’s ubiquitous presence is expanding. In light of this, there is also a growing body of evidence for the therapeutic potential of ECS modulation in a range of clinical situations. Strategies include for example manipulation of the Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor, mostly in terms of CNS processes, and activation of the Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor as anti-inflammatory target.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31774568

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fcp.12524

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Perception of Benefits and Harms of Medical Cannabis among Seriously Ill Patients in an Outpatient Palliative Care Practice.

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“Patients with serious illness often have pain, uncontrolled symptoms, and poor quality of life. Evidence continues to evolve regarding the role of cannabis to treat chronic pain, nausea, and anorexia. Little is known about how patients with serious illness perceive its benefits and harms. Given that an increasing number of clinicians across the United States are treating patients with medical cannabis, it is important for providers to understand patient beliefs about this modality. We assessed patient perceptions of benefits and harms of cannabis who obtained a medical cannabis card within an ambulatory palliative care (APC) practice.

Results: All 101 patients invited to participate completed the survey. A majority had cancer (76%) and were married (61%), disabled or retired (75%), older than 50 years of age (64%), and men (56%). Most patients ingested (61%) or vaporized (49%) cannabis products. A majority of respondents perceived cannabis to be important for their pain (96%) management. They reported that side effects were minimally bothersome, and drowsiness was the most commonly reported bothersome harm (28%). A minority of patients reported cannabis withdrawal symptoms (19%) and concerns for dependency (14%). The majority of patients were using concurrent prescription opioids (65%). Furthermore, a majority of cancer patients reported cannabis as being important for cancer cure (59%).

Conclusion: Patients living with serious illnesses who use cannabis in the context of a multidisciplinary APC practice use cannabis for curative intent and for pain and symptom control. Patients reported improved pain, other symptoms, and a sense of well-being with few reported harms.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31539298

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jpm.2019.0211

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The protective effect of cannabinoid type 2 receptor activation on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

“Kidney ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is an important health problem resulting in acute renal failure. After IR, the inflammatory and apoptotic process is triggered.

The relation of Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor with inflammatory and apoptotic process has been determined. The CB2 receptor has been shown to be localized in glomeruli and tubules in human and rat kidney. Activation of CB2 receptor with JWH-133 has been shown to reduce apoptosis and inflammation.

In this study, it was investigated whether CB2 activation with selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was protective against renal IR injury.

We found that JWH-133 and CB2 receptor activation had a curative effect against kidney IR damage. JWH-133 may be a new therapeutic agent in preventing kidney IR damage.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31446615

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11010-019-03616-6

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The curative effect of cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology banner“Ischemia and reperfusion of intestinal tissue (intestinal I/R) induces disruption of ileal contractility and chain responses of inflammatory.

The aim of this study was to reveal whether therapeutic value of cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor activity in the intestinal I/R, via to the exogenous administration of CB2 agonist (AM-1241).

Intestinal I/R injury were performed through 30 min ischemia and 150 min reperfusion of mesenteric artery in Wistar rats. The pre-administered doses of 0.1, 1, and 5 mg/kg of CB2 agonist were studied to inhibit inflammation of intestinal I/R injury including ileum smooth muscle contractility, polymorphonuclear cell migration, oxidant/antioxidant defence system, and provocative cytokines.

Pre-administration with CB2 receptor agonist ensured to considerable improving the disrupted contractile responses in ileum smooth muscle along with decreased the formation of MDA that production of lipid peroxidation, reversed the depleted glutathione, inhibited the expression of TNF-α and of IL-1β in the intestinal I/R of rats.

Taken together results of this research, the agonistic activity of CB2 receptor for healing of intestinal I/R injury is ensuring associated with anti-inflammatory mechanisms such as the inhibiting of migration of inflammatory polymorphonuclear cells that origin of acute and initial responses of inflammation, the inhibiting of production of provocative and pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-1β, the rebalancing of oxidant/antioxidant redox system disrupted in injury of reperfusion period, and the supporting of physiologic defensive systems in endothelial and inducible inflammatory cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31373049

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fcp.12502

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Medical Cannabis: The Oncology Nurse’s Role in Patient Education About the Effects of Marijuana on Cancer Palliation

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“Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is legal either medicinally or recreationally in 29 states and the District of Columbia, with a majority of the U.S. adult population now living in states where cannabis is legal for medicinal use. As an advocate for patient autonomy and informed choice, the oncology nurse has an ethical responsibility to educate patients about and support their use of cannabis for palliation.

OBJECTIVES:

This article aims to discuss the human endocannabinoid system as a basis for better understanding the palliative and curative nature of cannabis as a medicine, as well as review cannabis delivery methods and the emerging role of the oncology nurse in this realm.

FINDINGS:

The oncology nurse can play a pivotal role in supporting patients’ use of cannabis for palliation”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29350699

https://cjon.ons.org/cjon/22/1/medical-cannabis-oncology-nurse-s-role-patient-education-about-effects-marijuana-cancer

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Neuroprotective Effects of β-Caryophyllene against Dopaminergic Neuron Injury in a Murine Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by MPTP.

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“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the causes of PD are not understood, evidence suggests that its pathogenesis is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies have suggested a protective role of the cannabinoid signalling system in PD. β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is an agonist of the cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R). Previous studies have suggested that BCP exerts prophylactic and/or curative effects against inflammatory bowel disease through its antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory action. The present study describes the neuroprotective effects of BCP in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced murine model of PD, and we report the results of our investigation of its neuroprotective mechanism in neurons and glial cells. In the murine model, BCP pretreatment ameliorated motor dysfunction, protected against dopaminergic neuronal losses in the SN and striatum, and alleviated MPTP-induced glia activation. Additionally, BCP inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the nigrostriatal system. The observed neuroprotection and inhibited glia activation were reversed upon treatment with the CB2R selective antagonist AM630, confirming the involvement of the CB2R. These results indicate that BCP acts via multiple neuroprotective mechanisms in our murine model and suggest that BCP may be viewed as a potential treatment and/or preventative agent for PD.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28684694

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934
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[Cannabis – therapy for the future?]

“Despite all the progress achieved in the treatment of chronic gastrointestinal diseases, in some patients the treatment does not reach long-term optimum effectiveness. Therefore a number of patients have turned to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

Of the different types of CAM patients with GIT diseases tend to prefer in particular homeopathy, acupuncture and not least phytotherapy, where therapeutic use of cannabis may also be included.

The pathophysiological basis of therapeutic effect of curative cannabis has not been fully clarified so far.

Many scientists in many fields of medicine and pharmacology have been engaged in the study of effects of cannabinoids on the body since the beginning of the 20th century with the interest significantly increasing in the 1980s.

The discovery of CB receptors (1988) and endogenous molecules which activate these receptors (1992) led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system.

Pharmacological modulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system offers new therapeutic possibilities of treatment of many illnesses and symptoms including the GIT disorders, including of nausea, vomiting, cachexia, IBS, Crohns disease and some other disorders.

Cannabinoids are attractive due to their therapeutic potential – they affect a lot of symptoms with minimum side effects.

Experience of patients with GIT disorders show that the use of cannabis is effective and helps in cases where the standard therapy fails.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375695

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Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders.

“Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs.

There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering curative therapy very difficult…

In this study, we investigated the involvement of cannabinoid system…

Our data indicate CB2 receptor as potential therapeutic target for the pharmacological management of the autism care.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23585028

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/autism/

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Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as potential curative agents for cancer. A critical examination of the preclinical literature.

“An internet search with searchwords “cannabis cures cancer” produce a wealth of sites claiming that cannabis has this effect. These sites are freely accessible to the general public and thus contribute to public opinion. But do Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) cure cancer? In the absence of clinical data other than a safety study and case reports, preclinical data should be evaluated in terms of its predictive value. Using a strict approach where only concentrations and/or models relevant to the clinical situation are considered, the current preclinical data does not yet provide robust evidence that systemically administered Δ9 -THC will be useful for the curative treatment of cancer. There is more support for an intratumoural route of administration of higher doses of Δ9 -THC. CBD produces effects in relevant concentrations and models, although more data are needed concerning its use in conjunction with other treatment strategies.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669486

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/cancer/

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Oxidative stress and cannabinoid receptor expression in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas following treatment with Δ9 -THC.

“We can suggest that Δ9 -THC may be an important agent for the treatment of oxidative damages induced by diabetes…

Furthermore, the present study for the first time emphasizes that Δ9 -THC may improve pancreatic cells via cannabinoid receptors in diabetes.

The aim of present study was to elucidate the effects of Δ9 -THC, a natural cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors, and oxidative stress statue in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas.

Results demonstrate that the cannabinoid receptors are presented in both Langerhans islets and duct regions.

The curative effects of Δ9 -THC can be occurred via activation of cannabinoid receptors in diabetic rat pancreas.

Moreover, it may provide a protective effect against oxidative damage induced by diabetes.

Thus, it is suggested that Δ9 -THC can be a candidate for therapeutic alternatives of diabetes symptoms.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187240

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/diabetes/

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