Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives isolated from hempseed and their effects on central nervous system enzymes

 Publication Cover“New neuroprotective treatments of natural origin are being investigated. Both, plant extracts and isolated compounds have shown bioactive effects.

Hempseed is known for its composition of fatty acids, proteins, fibre, vitamins, as well as a large number of phytochemical compounds. After a defatting process of the seeds, hydroxycinnamic acids and its amine derivatives are the majoritarian compounds in an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF).

In the present study, we investigated in vitro effect on neuronal enzymes: MAO-A, MAO-B, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase. Besides, the effect of EAF on striatal biogenic amines in mice was evaluated. Both, EAF and isolated compounds (N-trans-caffeoyltyramine and N-trans-coumaroyltyramine), showed inhibitory action on MAO-A, MAO-B and tyrosinase. Furthermore, an increasing of biogenic amines was observed in the corpus striatum of the mice, after administration of EAF.

These findings show that EAF and the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives may represent a potential treatment in degenerative neuronal diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32664762/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09637486.2020.1793305?journalCode=iijf20

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Understanding the basics of cannabidiol from cannabis to apply to therapeutics in epilepsy

Page Header“The compounds present in cannabis have been in use for both recreational and medicinal purposes for many centuries. Changes in the legislation in South Africa have led to an increase in the number of people interested in using these compounds for self-medication. Many of them may approach their general practitioner as the first source of information about possible therapeutic effects. It is important that medical professionals are able to give patients the correct information. Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main compounds in cannabis plants, and there is evidence that it can successfully treat certain patients with epilepsy. This review looks at the most recent evidence on the use of CBD in the treatment of epilepsy and explores the mechanisms behind these beneficial effects.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32657678/

http://www.samj.org.za/index.php/samj/article/view/12839

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Cannabinoids-Promising Antimicrobial Drugs or Intoxicants with Benefits?

antibiotics-logo“Novel antimicrobial drugs are urgently needed to counteract the increasing occurrence ofbacterial resistance.

Extracts of Cannabis sativa have been used for the treatment of several diseases since ancient times. However, its phytocannabinoid constituents are predominantly associated with psychotropic effects and medical applications far beyond the treatment of infections.

It has been demonstrated that several cannabinoids show potent antimicrobial activity against primarily Grampositive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

As first in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated recently, it is time to discuss whether cannabinoids are promising antimicrobial drug candidates or overhyped intoxicants with benefits.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32498408/

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/9/6/297

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Receptor Mechanisms Mediating the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation in a Rat Model of Migraine

European Jnl of Neuroscience – Applications sur Google Play

“Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance-P and dural mast cells are main contributors in neurogenic inflammation underlying migraine pathophysiology.

Modulation of endocannabinoid system attenuates migraine pain, but its mechanisms of action remains unclear.

We investigated receptor mechanisms mediating anti-neuroinflammatory effects of endocannabinoid system modulation in in-vivo migraine model and ex-vivo hemiskull preparations in rats.

Selective ligands targeting CB1 and CB2 receptors may provide novel and effective treatment strategies against migraine.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32639078/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ejn.14897

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Phytocannabinoids: Origins and Biosynthesis

 Cell Press Internship (part 1) – lionfishexplorer“Phytocannabinoids are bioactive natural products found in some flowering plants, liverworts, and fungi that can be beneficial for the treatment of human ailments such as pain, anxiety, and cachexia. Targeted biosynthesis of cannabinoids with desirable properties requires identification of the underlying genes and their expression in a suitable heterologous host. We provide an overview of the structural classification of phytocannabinoids based on their decorated resorcinol core and the bioactivities of naturally occurring cannabinoids, and we review current knowledge of phytocannabinoid biosynthesis in Cannabis, Rhododendron, and Radula species. We also highlight the potential in planta roles of phytocannabinoids and the opportunity for synthetic biology approaches based on combinatorial biochemistry and protein engineering to produce cannabinoid derivatives with improved properties.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32646718/

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1360138520301874

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Impact of Cannabis-Based Medicine on Alzheimer’s Disease by Focusing on the Amyloid β- Modifications: A Systematic Study

 “Deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide in the brain is the leading source of the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies have suggested that anti-amyloidogenic agents may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for AD.

Aim: The current review was proposed to address the beneficial effects of cannabis-based drugs for the treatment of AD, focusing primarily on Aβ modifications.

Result: A total of 17 studies were identified based on the inclusion criteria; however, nine studies qualified for this systematic review. The maximum and minimum cannabis dosages, mostly CBD and THC in animal studies, were 0.75 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Cannabis (CBD and THC) was injected for 10 to 21 days. The findings of the 9 articles indicated that cannabis-based drugs might modulate Aβ modifications in several AD models.

Conclusion: Our findings establish that cannabis-based drugs inhibited the progression of AD by modulating Aβ modifications.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32640965/

https://www.eurekaselect.com/183559/article

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Evaluation of the Potential Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Cocaine Use Disorder: A Systematic Review

 Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorCannabinoids may have an important therapeutic potential for the treatment of dependence on crack cocaine.

Cannabidiol (CBD), in particular, has anxiolytic, antipsychotic and anticonvulsant properties and plays a role in regulating motivation circuitry and controlling sleep disorders. Several studies were performed evaluating CBD in experimental models for cocaine.

This systematic review aims evaluate the potential use of CBD in the treatment of cocaine use disorder.

Major findings: Fifty-one studies were analyzed, and 14 were selected. No studies conducted with humans were found; only one clinical trial was ongoing. The results were grouped into the following categories: cocaine self-administration, brain-stimulation reward, conditioned place preference, neuronal proliferation, anxiety, hepatic protection, anticonvulsant effect and locomotor sensitization response Only four studies had a low risk of bias. CBD promotes reduction on cocaine self-administration. Also, it interferes in cocaine induce brain reward stimulation and dopamine release. CBD promotes alteration in contextual memory associated with cocaine and in the neuroadaptations, hepatotoxicity and seizures induced by cocaine.

Conclusion: The evidence indicates that CBD is a promising adjunct therapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence due to its effect on: cocaine reward effects, cocaine consumption, behavioral responses, anxiety, neuronal proliferation, hepatic protection and safety. Moreover, clinical trials are strongly required to determine whether the findings in animal models occur in humans diagnosed for cocaine or crack cocaine use disorder.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32645315/

“CBD is a promising adjunct therapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence. CBD promotes reduction on cocaine self-administration.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305720300307?via%3Dihub

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Anticancer Effect of New Cannabinoids Derived From Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid on PANC-1 and AsPC-1 Human Pancreas Tumor Cells

View details for Journal of Pancreatic Cancer cover image

“New tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) derivatives ALAM027 and ALAM108 were proposed for the treatment of the pancreatic cancer disease.

Methods: The in vitro effect of new cannabinoids ALAM027 and ALAM108 was tested against PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cell lines by CellTiter Glo assay. Pancreatic cancer xenograft model was used for the in vivo anticancer activity study of these compounds on PANC-1 cells.

Results: The in vitro study of new cannabinoids showed greater activity of ALAM108 than ALAM027 both for PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells. The in vivo study of new cannabinoids on PANC-1 cells showed that their oral administration was effective in reducing tumor volume and tumor weight, and did not lead to any discomfort and weight loss of mice.

Conclusion: The cannabinoids ALAM108 and ALAM027 inhibited the tumor growing 1.6-2 times in mice with human PANC-1 cells.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32642629/

“The in vitro study of new cannabinoids showed greater activity of ALAM108 than of ALAM027 both for PANC-1 and AsPC-1 pancreas tumor cells. The in vivo study of these cannabinoids on PANC-1 cells showed that their oral administration decreased the tumor size 1.6–2 times and did not lead to any discomfort, psychotic effects, and weight loss of mice. Further study of these compounds will allow to determine the mechanism of their action on cancer cells and may open the way to new therapeutic drugs based on THCA.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/pancan.2020.0003

FIG. 1.

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Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Post-Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Exposure Protects Mice From Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Toxicity

Frontiers in Pharmacology welcomes new Field Chief Editor ...“Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening complication that can ensue following Staphylococcus aureus infection. The enterotoxin produced by these bacteria (SEB) acts as a superantigen thereby activating a large proportion of T cells leading to cytokine storm and severe lung injury.

Δ9Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive ingredient found in Cannabis sativa, has been shown to act as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. In the current study, we investigated the effect of THC treatment on SEB-induced ARDS in mice.

While exposure to SEB resulted in acute mortality, treatment with THC led to 100% survival of mice. THC treatment significantly suppressed the inflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Additionally, THC elevated the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their associated cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β. Moreover, THC caused induction of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs).

THC acted through CB2 receptor as pharmacological inhibitor of CB2 receptors blocked the anti-inflammatory effects. THC-treated mice showed significant alterations in the expression of miRNA (miRs) in the lung-infiltrated mononuclear cells (MNCs). Specifically, THC caused downregulation of let7a-5p which targeted SOCS1 and downregulation of miR-34-5p which caused increased expression of FoxP3, NOS1, and CSF1R.

Together, these data suggested that THC-mediated alterations in miR expression in the lungs may play a critical role in the induction of immunosuppressive Tregs and MDSCs as well as suppression of cytokine storm leading to attenuation of SEB-mediated lung injury.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32612530/

“In summary, the current study suggests that treatment of mice with THC post-SEB challenge protects mice from SEB-mediated toxicity by inhibiting inflammation and ARDS through the modulation of miRs. Because SEB is a super antigen that drives cytokine storm, our studies suggest that THC is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that has the potential to be used as a therapeutic modality to treat SEB-induced ARDS.

It is of interest to note that a significant proportion of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients come down with sepsis and ARDS accompanied by cytokine storm. ”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.00893/full

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The pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of a novel selective‐dose cannabis inhaler in patients with chronic pain: A randomized, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled trial

European Journal of Pain“Precise cannabis treatment dosing remains a major challenge, leading to physicians’ reluctance to prescribe medical cannabis.

Objective

To test the pharmacokinetics, analgesic effect, cognitive performance and safety effects of an innovative medical device that enables the delivery of inhaled therapeutic doses of Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients with chronic pain.

Methods

In a randomized, three‐arms, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled, cross‐over trial, 27 patients received a single inhalation of Δ9‐THC: 0.5mg, 1mg, or a placebo.

Δ9‐THC plasma levels were measured at baseline and up to 150‐min post‐inhalation. Pain intensity and safety parameters were recorded on a 10‐cm visual analogue scale (VAS) at pre‐defined time points. The cognitive performance was evaluated using the selective sub‐tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).

Results

Following inhalation of 0.5 mg or 1mg, Δ9‐THC plasma max ± SD were 14.3 ± 7.7 and 33.8 ± 25.7 ng/ml. max ± SD were 3.7 ± 1.4 and 4.4 ± 2.1 min, and AUC0 → infinity±SD were 300 ± 144 and 769 ± 331 ng*min/ml, respectively. Both doses, but not the placebo, demonstrated a significant reduction in pain intensity compared with baseline and remained stable for 150‐min. The 1‐mg dose showed a significant pain decrease compared to the placebo. Adverse events were mostly mild and resolved spontaneously. There was no evidence of consistent impairments in cognitive performance.

Conclusion

This feasibility trial demonstrated that a metered‐dose cannabis inhaler delivered precise and low THC doses, produced a dose‐dependent and safe analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain/ complex‐regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Thus, it enables individualization of medical cannabis regimens that can be evaluated pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically by accepted pharmaceutical models.

Significance

Evidence suggests that cannabis‐based medicines are an effective treatment for chronic pain in adults. The pharmacokinetics of THC varies as a function of its route of administration. Pulmonary assimilation of inhaled THC causes rapid onset of analgesia. However, currently used routes of cannabinoids delivery provide unknown doses, making it impossible to implement a pharmaceutical standard treatment plan. A novel selective‐dose cannabis inhaler delivers significantly low and precise doses of THC, thus allowing the administration of inhaled cannabis‐based medicines according to high pharmaceutical standards. These low doses of THC can produce safe and effective analgesia in patients with chronic pain.

To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the delivery of selective, significantly low, and precise therapeutic single doses of inhaled THC demonstrates an analgesic effect. It allows patients to reach the optimum balance between symptom relief and controlled side effects, enabling patients to regain their quality of life. In addition, this metered‐dose cannabis inhaler enables the individualization of medical cannabis regimens that can be evaluated pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically using accepted pharmaceutical models.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejp.1605

Study Finds Microdosing THC Reduces Pain Levels”  https://www.painnewsnetwork.org/stories/2020/7/1/study-finds-microdosing-thc-reduces-pain-levels

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