“Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is an important CB1 cannabinoid receptor-associated protein, first identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen to modulate CB1-mediated N-type Ca2+ currents. In this paper we review studies of CRIP1a function and structure based upon in vitro experiments and computational chemistry, which elucidate the specific mechanisms for the interaction of CRIP1a with CB1 receptors. N18TG2 neuronal cells overexpressing or silencing CRIP1a highlighted the ability of CRIP1 to regulate cyclic adenosine 3′,5’monophosphate (cAMP) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. These studies indicated that CRIP1a attenuates the G protein signaling cascade through modulating which Gi/o subtypes interact with the CB1 receptor. CRIP1a also attenuates CB1 receptor internalization via β-arrestin, suggesting that CRIP1a competes for β-arrestin binding to the CB1 receptor. Predictions of CRIP1a secondary structure suggest that residues 34-110 are minimally necessary for association with key amino acids within the distal C-terminus of the CB1 receptor, as well as the mGlu8a metabotropic glutamate receptor. These interactions are disrupted through phosphorylation of serines and threonines in these regions. Through investigations of the function and structure of CRIP1a, new pharmacotherapies based upon the CRIP-CB1 receptor interaction can be designed to treat diseases such as epilepsy, motor dysfunctions and schizophrenia.”
“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) is one of the oldest plants cultivated by men. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychomimetic compound derived from cannabis. It has been proposed to have a therapeutic potential over a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders.
In this narrative review, we have summarized a selected number of pre-clinical and clinical studies, examining the effects of CBD in neuropsychiatric disorders. In some pre-clinical studies, CBD was demonstrated to potentially exhibit anti-epileptic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-psychotic, anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce addictive effects of some drugs of abuse.
In clinical studies, CBD was shown to be safe, well-tolerated and efficacious in mitigating the symptoms associated with several types of seizure disorders and childhood epilepsies.
Given that treatment with CBD alone was insufficient at managing choreic movements in patients with Huntington’s disease, other cannabis-derived treatments are currently being investigated. Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have reported improvements in sleep and better quality of life with CBD; however, to fully elucidate the therapeutic potential of CBD on the symptoms of PD-associated movement disorders, larger scale, randomized, placebo-controlled studies still need to be conducted in the future.
Currently, there are no human studies that investigated the effects of CBD in either Alzheimer’s disease or unipolar depression, warranting further investigation in this area, considering that CBD was shown to have effects in pre-clinical studies.
Although, anxiolytic properties of CBD were reported in the Social Anxiety Disorder, antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia and anti-addictive qualities in alcohol and drug addictions, here too, larger, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CBD.”
“Evidence has been accumulating regarding alterations in components of the endocannabinoid system in patients with psychosis.
Of all the putative risk factors associated with psychosis, being at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR) has the strongest association with the onset of psychosis, and exposure to childhood trauma has been linked to an increased risk of development of psychotic disorder.
We aimed to investigate whether being at-risk for psychosis and exposure to childhood trauma were associated with altered endocannabinoid levels.
Individuals with both CHR and experience of childhood trauma had higher N-palmitoylethanolamine (p < 0.001) and anandamide (p < 0.001) levels in peripheral blood compared to healthy controls (HC) and those with no childhood trauma. There was also a significant correlation between N-palmitoylethanolamine levels and symptoms as well as childhood trauma.
Our results suggest an association between CHR and/or childhood maltreatment and elevated endocannabinoid levels in peripheral blood, with a greater alteration in those with both CHR status and history of childhood maltreatment compared to those with either of those risks alone. Furthermore, endocannabinoid levels increased linearly with the number of risk factors and elevated endocannabinoid levels correlated with the severity of CHR symptoms and extent of childhood maltreatment. Further studies in larger cohorts, employing longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these findings and delineate the precise role of endocannabinoid alterations in the pathophysiology of psychosis.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major chemical compound present in Cannabis sativa.
CBD is a nonpsychotomimetic substance, and it is considered one of the most promising candidates for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
The aim of this review is to illustrate the state of art about scientific research and the evidence of effectiveness of CBD in psychiatric patients.
Preclinical and clinical studies on potential role of CBD in psychiatry were collected and further discussed. We found four clinical studies describing the effects of CBD in psychiatric patients: two studies about schizophrenic patients and the other two studies carried out on CBD effects in patients affected by generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD).
Results from these studies are promising and suggest that CBD may have a role in the development of new therapeutic strategies in mental diseases, and they justify an in-depth commitment in this field. However, clinical evidence we show for CBD in psychiatric patients is instead still poor and limited to schizophrenia and anxiety, and it needs to be implemented with further studies carried out on psychiatric patients.”
“Results of our research, enriched in assessment of methodological quality of the studies, confirm the view of this cannabinoid as a promising molecule especially in particular sectors of psychiatry such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and autism. CBD is considered a safe substance and is one of the most promising candidates for the treatment of psychiatric disorders”.
“The increasing public acceptance of cannabis and the proliferation of cannabis products in the marketplace has coincided with more patients using the drug as a substitute for psychiatric medications or as an adjunctive treatment modality for psychiatric conditions, despite limited evidence of efficacy. With a goal of furthering harm-reduction efforts in psychiatric nursing, the current article reviews the fundamentals of the endocannabinoid system in humans and the exogenous phytocannabinoids that act on this regulatory neurotransmitter system. The basics of cannabis botany are also reviewed to help nurse clinicians understand the heterogeneous nature of cannabis products. This foundational knowledge will help improve clinical interactions with patients who use cannabis and provide the necessary understanding of cannabinoids needed to undertake further scientific query into their purported benefits in psychiatric disease states.”
“Accumulating evidence points towards the antipsychotic potential of cannabidiol. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol remain unclear.
We investigated this in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. We investigated 33 antipsychotic-naïve subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) randomised to 600 mg oral cannabidiol or placebo and compared them with 19 healthy controls.
We used the monetary incentive delay task while participants underwent fMRI to study reward processing, known to be abnormal in psychosis. Reward and loss anticipation phases were combined to examine a motivational salience condition and compared with neutral condition.
We observed abnormal activation in the left insula/parietal operculum in CHR participants given placebo compared to healthy controls associated with premature action initiation. Insular activation correlated with both positive psychotic symptoms and salience perception, as indexed by difference in reaction time between salient and neutral stimuli conditions.
CBD attenuated the increased activation in the left insula/parietal operculum and was associated with overall slowing of reaction time, suggesting a possible mechanism for its putative antipsychotic effect by normalising motivational salience and moderating motor response.”
“The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both psychotic disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs). The non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound, cannabidiol (CBD) is a highly promising tool in the treatment of both disorders. Here we review human clinical studies that investigated the efficacy of CBD treatment for schizophrenia, substance use disorders, and their comorbidity. In particular, we examined possible profiles of patients who may benefit the most from CBD treatment. CBD, either as monotherapy or added to regular antipsychotic medication, improved symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, with particularly promising effects in the early stages of illness. A potential biomarker is the level of anandamide in blood. CBD and THC mixtures showed positive effects in reducing short-term withdrawal and craving in cannabis use disorders. Studies on schizophrenia and comorbid substance use are lacking. Future studies should focus on the effects of CBD on psychotic disorders in different stages of illness, together with the effects on comorbid substance use. These studies should use standardized measures to assess cannabis use. In addition, future efforts should be taken to study the relationship between the eCB system, GABA/glutamate, and the immune system to reveal the underlying neurobiology of the effects of CBD.”
“Cognitive impairment is a major source of disability in schizophrenia and current antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have minimal efficacy for this symptom domain.
Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-intoxicating component of Cannabis sativa L., exhibits antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties.
We recently reported the effects of CBD on cognition in male offspring of a maternal immune activation (polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly I:C)) model relevant to the aetiology of schizophrenia; however, the effects of CBD treatment in females are unknown. Sex differences are observed in the onset of schizophrenia symptoms and response to APD treatment.
Furthermore, the endogenous cannabinoid system, a direct target of CBD, is sexually dimorphic in humans and rodents. Therefore, the present work aimed to assess the therapeutic impact of CBD treatment on behaviour and neurochemical signalling markers in female poly I:C offspring.
Overall, the findings of this study support the therapeutic benefits of CBD on recognition memory and sociability in female poly I:C offspring, and provide insight into the neurochemical changes that may underlie the therapeutic benefits of CBD in the poly I:C model.”
“These findings suggest that CBD is an efficacious treatment for behavioural and neurochemical changes in a female rodent model relevant to schizophrenia.”
“The present findings reveal an imbalance in the expression and function of different elements of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia.
This outcome highlights the relevance of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and emphasises its elements as potential targets in the search for new therapeutic strategies.”
“Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in schizophrenia.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605939
“Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: An Overview. Cannabinoids are found to be very useful in psychiatry because of their antipsychotic properties suggesting a therapeutic use. Cannabinoids treatments are both able to reduce the typical symptoms of schizophrenia and to slow down the disease aggravation.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26845552
“Quetiapine is a common atypical antipsychotic used to treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. There has been increasing number of reports describing its cardiotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying quetiapine-induced myocardial injury remain largely unknown.
Herein, we reported a novel cell death type, quetiapine-induced necroptosis, which accounted for quetiapine cardiotoxicity in mice and proposed novel therapeutic strategies.
Quetiapine-treated hearts showed inflammatory infiltration and evident fibrosis after 21-day continuous injection. The specific increases of protein levels of RIP3, MLKL and the phosphorylation of MLKL showed that quetiapine-induced necroptotic cell death both in vivo and in vitro. Pharmacologic blockade of necroptosis using its specific inhibitor Necrostatin-1 attenuated quetiapine-induced myocardial injury in mice.
In addition, quetiapine imbalanced the endocannabinoid system and caused opposing effects on two cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R).
Specific antagonists of CB1R (AM 281, Rimonabant), but not its agonist ACEA significantly ameliorated the heart histopathology induced by chronic quetiapine exposure. By contrast, specific agonists of CB2R (JWH-133, AM 1241), but not its antagonist AM 630 exerted beneficial roles against quetiapine cardiotoxicity.
The protective agents (AM 281, Rimonabant, AM 1241, and JWH-133) consistently inactivated the quetiapine-induced necroptosis signaling. Quetiapine bidirectionally regulates cannabinoid receptors and induces myocardial necroptosis, leading to cardiac toxic effects.
Therefore, pharmacologic inhibition of CB1R or activation of CB2R represents promising therapeutic strategies against quetiapine-induced cardiotoxicity.”