Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. ) Seed and their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

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“Hempseed is known for its content in fatty acids, proteins and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value.

Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hempseed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits.

This investigation led to the isolation of four new lignanamides cannabisin M, 2, cannabisin N, 5, cannabisin O, 8 and 3,3′-demethyl-heliotropamide, 10, together with ten known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hempseed.

Structures were established on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, UV, IR as well as by comparison with the literature data.

Lignanamides 2, 7, 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity among which 7, 10 and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro.

The new identified compounds in this study added to the diversity of hempseed composition and the bioassays implied that hempseed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26585089

“Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common single cause of dementia in our ageing society. On full assessment and diagnosis of AD, initiation of an AChe inhibitor is recommended as early as possible, it is important that AChe inhibitor therapy is considered for patients with mild to moderate AD.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2014378/

 “The Effects of Hempseed Meal Intake and Linoleic Acid on Drosophila Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Hypercholesterolemia. Our results indicate that hempseed meal (HSM) and linoleic acid are potential candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease. These results show that HSM may prove of great utility as a health food, with potential for the prevention of AD and cardiovascular disease.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933972/
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Dietary Supplement Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

“Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are chronic relapsing and remitting chronic diseases for which there is no cure.

The treatment of IBD frequently requires immunosuppressive and biologic therapies which carry an increased risk of infections and possible malignancy.

There is a continued search for safer and more natural therapies in the treatment of IBD.

This review aims to summarize the most current literature on the use of dietary supplements for the treatment of IBD. Specifically, the efficacy and adverse effects of vitamin D, fish oil, probiotics, prebiotics, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, aloe vera and cannabis sativa are reviewed.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561079

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Production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid from cannabigerolic acid by whole cells of Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris expressing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.

“The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from Cannabis sativa was expressed intracellularly in different organisms to investigate the potential of a biotechnological production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) using whole cells…

CONCLUSION:

Whole cells of P. pastoris offer the capability of synthesizing pharmaceutical THCA production.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994576

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Cannabinoids: New Promising Agents in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases.

“Nowadays, Cannabis sativa is considered the most extensively used narcotic. Nevertheless, this fame obscures its traditional employ in native medicine of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and in many regions of Asia as a therapeutic drug.

In fact, the use of compounds containing Cannabis and their introduction in clinical practice is still controversial and strongly limited by unavoidable psychotropic effects. So, overcoming these adverse effects represents the main open question on the utilization of cannabinoids as new drugs for treatment of several pathologies.

To date, therapeutic use of cannabinoid extracts is prescribed in patients with glaucoma, in the control of chemotherapy-related vomiting and nausea, for appetite stimulation in patients with anorexia-cachexia syndrome by HIV, and for the treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms.

Recently, researcher efforts are aimed to employ the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis sativa in the modulation of cannabinoid receptor activity within the central nervous system, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders.

This review evaluates the most recent available data on cannabinoids utilization in experimental and clinical studies, and highlights their beneficial effects in the prevention of the main neurological diseases and for the clinical treatment of symptoms with them correlated.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407719

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The trypanocidal effect of Cannabis sativa constituents in experimental animal trypanosomiasis.

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“The effect of Cannabis sativa on trypanosome-infected rats was examined. An aqueous extract of the seeds administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d cured animals infected with Trypanosome brucei brucei of blood stream parasites.

Six fractions eluted from the crude extract by column chromatography were assessed for trypanocidal properties. Of these, only 2 fractions retained trypanocidal activity by curing mice infected with T brucei brucei.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7900270

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“Trypanosoma brucei is a species of parasitic kinetoplastid belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. The parasite is the cause of a vector-borne disease of vertebrate animals, including humans, carried by genera of tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. In humans T. brucei causes African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trypanosoma_brucei

“A trypanocidal agent is an antiprotozoal agent that acts upon trypanosome parasites.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trypanocidal_agent

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Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

“OBJECTIVE:

Cannabis may alleviate some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study investigated the effect of an orally administered standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract in MS patients with poorly controlled spasticity.”

“CONCLUSION:

A standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract might lower spasm frequency and increase mobility with tolerable side effects in MS patients with persistent spasticity not responding to other drugs.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327040

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Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist-induced Apoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer Cells LNCaP Proceeds through Sustained Activation of ERK1/2 Leading to G1 Cell Cycle Arrest

“Prostate cancer (CaP)2 ranks as the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American males, with similar trends in many Western countries…The major cause of mortality from this disease is metastasis of hormone refractory cancer cells that fail to respond to hormone ablation therapy. Because surgery and current treatment options have proven to be inadequate in treating and controlling CaP, the search for novel targets and mechanism-based agents for prevention and treatment of this disease has become a priority.”

“In recent years, cannabinoids the active components of Cannabis sativa linnaeus (marijuana) and their derivatives are drawing renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacological activities such as cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects, and tumor regression. Further interest in cannabinoid research came from the discovery of the cannabinoid system and the cloning of specific cannabinoid receptors. Two cannabinoid receptors have been identified: the “central” CB1 and the “peripheral” CB2 receptor. In a recent study, we have shown that WIN 55,212-2 a mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonist imparts cell growth inhibitory effects in LNCaP cells via an induction of apoptosis. An important observation of this study was that WIN 55,212-2 treatment did not result in apoptosis of the normal prostate epithelial cell at similar doses.”

“Cannabinoids and their derivatives are drawing considerable attention in the treatment of cancer because of their diverse activities such as cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects, and tumor regression. Accumulated evidence indicates that cannabinoid receptor(s) could be an important target for the treatment of cancer. We have earlier shown that WIN-55,212-2 induced apoptosis of prostate cancer LNCaP cells is mediated through CB1 and CB2 receptors and suggested that these receptors could be an important targets for the treatment of prostate cancer…”

“Hence, we conclude that cannabinoid receptor agonist should be considered as an effective agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. If our hypothesis is supported by in vivo experiments, the long term implications of our study could be to develop nonhabit-forming cannabinoid agonist (s) for the management of prostate cancer.”

http://www.jbc.org/content/281/51/39480.long

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A pilot clinical study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

“One of the most devastating forms of cancer is glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma), the most frequent class of malignant primary brain tumours. Current standard therapeutic strategies for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (surgical resection and focal radiotherapy) are only palliative…”

“The hemp plant Cannabis sativa L. produces approximately 60 unique compounds known as cannabinoids, of which Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most important owing to its high potency and abundance in cannabis. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts a wide variety of biological effects by mimicking endogenous substances – the so-called endocannabinoids – that bind to and activate specific cell surface receptors. cannabinoids have been proposed as potential antitumoral agents owing to their ability to inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of various types of tumour xenografts in animal models.”

“Here we report the first clinical study aimed at assessing cannabinoid antitumoral action, specifically a pilot phase I trial in which nine patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme were administered THC intratumoraly. The patients had previously failed standard therapy (surgery and radiotherapy) and had clear evidence of tumour progression. The primary end point of the study was to determine the safety of intracranial THC administration… Cannabinoid delivery was safe and could be achieved without overt psychoactive effects…. The fair safety profile of THC, together with its possible antiproliferative action on tumour cells reported here and in other studies, may set the basis for future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2360617/

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Nature against depression.

Abstract

“Depression is a major health problem currently recognized as a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. In the United States alone, depression affects approximately 20% of the population. With current medications suffering from major shortcomings that include slow onset of action, poor efficacy, and unwanted side effects, the search for new and improved antidepressants is ever increasing. In an effort to evade side effects, people have been resorting to popular traditional herbal medicines to relieve the symptoms of depression, and there is a need for more empirical knowledge about their use and effectiveness. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge state regarding a variety of natural plant products commonly used in depression. Herbal medicines discussed that have been used in clinical trials for the treatment of mild to moderate depression states include the popular St. John’s wort, saffron, Rhodiola, lavender, Echium, and the Chinese formula banxia houpu. In addition, new emerging herbal products that have been studied in different animal models are discussed including Polygala tenuifolia, the traditional Chinese herbal SYJN formula, gan mai da zao, and Cannabis sativa constituents. A comprehensive review of the chemical, pharmacological, and clinical aspects of each of the reviewed products is provided. Finally, recent preclinical studies reporting the antidepressant action of marine-derived natural products are discussed at the end of the review.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22414105

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Ajulemic Acid, a Synthetic Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Acid, Bound to the Ligand Binding Domain of the Human Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ*

  “Ajulemic acid (AJA) is a synthetic analog of THC-11-oic acid, a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of the recreational drug marijuana derived from the plant Cannabis sativa. AJA has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, but without the psychotropic action of THC. However, its precise mechanism of action remains unknown. Biochemical studies indicate that AJA binds directly and selectively to the isotype γ of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) suggesting that this may be a pharmacologically relevant receptor for this compound and a potential target for drug development in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of the γ isotype of human PPAR in complex with ajulemic acid, determined at 2.8-Å resolution. Our results show a binding mode that is compatible with other known partial agonists of PPAR, explaining their moderate activation of the receptor, as well as the structural basis for isotype selectivity, as observed previously in vitro. The structure also provides clues to the understanding of partial agonism itself, suggesting a rational approach to the design of molecules capable of activating the receptor at levels that avoid undesirable side effects.”

“AJA (also known as CT-3, IP-751, or 1′,1′-dimethylheptyl-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid) was originally designed based on observations of the metabolic transformations of THC using the metabolite THC-11-oic acid as a template. AJA suppresses neuropathic pain in humans and prevents joint tissue injury in rat models of inflammatory arthritis. In all cases, these effects are observed without producing the motor side effects associated with THC.”

“In summary, our results show that AJA, as well as other THC analogs, in presenting specific binding together with minimal toxicity and good bioavailability may provide useful novel templates for rational drug design aimed at PPARγ regulation.”

 http://www.jbc.org/content/282/25/18625.long

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