Anandamide, Acting via CB2 Receptors, Alleviates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Rat Primary Microglial Cultures.

“Microglial activation is a polarized process divided into potentially neuroprotective phenotype M2 and neurotoxic phenotype M1, predominant during chronic neuroinflammation.

Endocannabinoid system provides an attractive target to control the balance between microglial phenotypes.

Anandamide as an immune modulator in the central nervous system acts via not only cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) but also other targets (e.g., GPR18/GPR55).

In summary, we showed that the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the management of neuroinflammation by dampening the activation of an M1 phenotype. This effect was primarily controlled by the CB2 receptor, although functional cross talk with GPR18/GPR55 may occur.”

Marijuana kills brain cancer, new study confirms

“The active molecules in cannabis kill brain cancer — another study has revealed.”

“Scientists using an extract of whole-plant marijuana rich in pot’s main psychoactive ingredient THC as well as cannabidiol (CBD) showed “dramatic reductions in tumor volumes” of a type of brain cancer.”

“Marijuana kills brain cancer, new study confirms. The active molecules in cannabis kill brain cancer — another study has revealed.”

“Marijuana Kills Brain Cancer Cells. Researchers have found that the THC in marijuana causes brain cancer cells to die in both mice and humans.”

“Marijuana Kills Brain Cancer, New Study Confirms”

Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells


“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times.”

“Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.”

“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back at least 3,000 years. It came into use in Western medicine in the 19th century and was said to relieve pain, inflammation, spasms, and convulsions.”

“Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory”

“…cannabinoids may be able to kill cancer cells while protecting normal cells…

A laboratory study of delta-9-THC… showed that it damaged or killed the cancer cells…

A laboratory study of cannabidiol… showed that it caused cancer cell death…”

“Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not effect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death.”

“Because cannabinoid receptors, unlike opioid receptors, are not located in the brainstem areas controlling respiration, lethal overdoses from Cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur.”

Medical marijuana for cancer.

“Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols.

Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications.

Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions.

Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain.

Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain.

This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology)”

“Both cannabis and cannabinoid pharmaceuticals can be helpful for a number of problems, including many affecting patients with cancer… given the limitations inherent in using oral medications to treat nausea and vomiting, inhalation of marijuana or a cannabinoid may be better than oral ingestion in treating this condition.”

Study: Marijuana Appears to Slow Cancer Growth in Laboratory Setting -FOXNEWS

“Certain marijuana components may suppress the tumors of highly invasive cancers, a new study finds.

In laboratory tests, cannabinoids, the active components in marijuana, were found to slow the spread of lung and cervical cancer tumors, according to researchers Robert Ramer and Burkhard Hinz of the University of Rostock in Germany.

Proponents of medical marijuana believe that cannabinoids reduce the side effects of cancer treatment, such as pain, weight loss and vomiting.

The study, published in the Jan. 2 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, finds that the compounds may also have an anticancer effect;

Click here for the study.

In addition to suppressing tumor cell invasion, cannabinoids also stimulated the expression of TIMP-1, an inhibitor of a group of enzymes involved in tumor cell invasion.

“To our knowledge, this is the first report of TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive effects of cannabinoids,” the authors wrote. “This signaling pathway may play an important role in the antimetastatic action of cannabinoids, whose potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of highly invasive cancers should be addressed in clinical trials.””

“Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1. Cannabinoids may therefore offer a therapeutic option in the treatment of highly invasive cancers.”

Marijuana as a possible treatment for HIV and cancer


“There’s been some interesting research on using THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the principal psychoactive drug in marijuana, to help fight HIV, and damage cancer cells in some leukemias and possibly malignant tumors.

…the possibility exists that information from both of these research studies may produce beneficial results in the treatment of HIV and cancer.”


Upregulated expression of CAP1 is associated with tumor migration and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

“Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers that exhibits high incidences of intrahepatic metastasis and tumor recurrence.

Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1)… was recently reported to play a role in cell motility and the pathology of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we examined a potential role of CAP1 in HCC progression, and found that CAP1 was overexpressed in HCC specimens…

Collectively, our results indicated that upregulated expression of CAP1 might contribute heavily to the metastasis of HCC.”

Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type-8.

“… we have reported here for the first time the potent and efficacious modulatory effects by some phytocannabinoids on TRPA1- and TRPM8-mediated [Ca2+]ielevation…

Our findings suggest that phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts exert some of their pharmacological actions also by interacting with TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels, with potential implications for the treatment of pain and cancer.”

Study: Marijuana’s Active Ingredient May Shrink Cancerous Tumors – FoxNews

“The active ingredient in marijuana appears to reduce tumor growth…

The researchers showed giving THC to mice with cancer decreased tumor growth and killed cells off in a process called autophagy.

“Our findings support that safe, therapeutically efficacious doses of THC may be reached in cancer patients,” Guillermo Velasco of Complutense University in Madrid and colleagues reported in the Journal of Clinical Investigation…

Other research has shown benefits, such as staving off Alzheimer’s, and many doctors view THC as a valuable way to treat weight loss associated with AIDS, and nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy in cancer patients.

Velasco and his team’s study included an analysis of two tumors from two people with a highly aggressive brain cancer which showed signs of autophagy after receiving THC.

The researchers said the findings could pave the way for cannabinoid-based drugs to treat cancer…”


“Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells… These findings describe a mechanism by which THC can promote the autophagic death of human and mouse cancer cells and provide evidence that cannabinoid administration may be an effective therapeutic strategy for targeting human cancers.”

Critical appraisal of the potential use of cannabinoids in cancer management

“Cannabinoids have been attracting a great deal of interest as potential anticancer agents. Originally derived from the plant Cannabis sativa, there are now a number of endo-, phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids available. This review summarizes the key literature to date around the actions, antitumor activity, and mechanisms of action for this broad range of compounds…

Two therapeutic avenues exist for the development of cannabinoids as anticancer agents. As antiemetic and analgesic compounds, this class of compounds has been explored in terms of palliative care. More recently, cannabinoid agonists and antagonists have been screened for potential direct antitumorigenic properties.

… results suggest that overall the cannabinoids affect multiple cellular signaling pathways, which means they have the potential to decrease cancer development, growth, and metastasis.

Overall, the cannabinoids may show future promise in the treatment of cancer, but there are many significant hurdles to be overcome. There is much still to be learned about the action of the cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system.

It is a distinct possibility that the cannabinoids may have a place in the future treatment of cancer.”

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