On the influence of cannabinoids on cell morphology and motility of glioblastoma cells.

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“The mechanisms behind the anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids by impacting the migratory activity of tumor cells are only partially understood. Previous studies demonstrated that cannabinoids altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types.

As actin is one of the main contributors to cell motility and is postulated to be linked to tumor invasion, we tested the following hypothesizes: 1) Can cannabinoids alter cell motility in a cannabinoid receptor dependent manner? 2) Are these alterations associated with reorganizations in the actin cytoskeleton? 3) If so, what are the underlying molecular mechanisms?

Three different glioblastoma cell lines were treated with specific cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonists and antagonists. Afterwards, we measured changes in cell motility using live cell imaging and alterations of the actin structure in fixed cells. Additionally, the protein amount of phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinases (FAK) and phosphorylated FAK (pFAK) over time were measured.

Cannabinoids induced changes in cell motility, morphology and actin organization in a receptor and cell line dependent manner. No significant changes were observed in the analyzed signaling molecules. Cannabinoids can principally induce changes in the actin cytoskeleton and motility of glioblastoma cell lines. Additionally, single cell motility of glioblastoma is independent of their morphology. Furthermore, the observed effects seem to be independent of p44/42 MAPK and pFAK pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30753211

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212037

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Inhibition of human tumour prostate PC-3 cell growth by cannabinoids R(+)-Methanandamide and JWH-015: Involvement of CB2

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“We have previously shown that cannabinoids induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells, which express high levels of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). In this study, we investigated the role of CB2 receptor in the anti-proliferative action of cannabinoids and the signal transduction triggered by receptor ligation.

This study defines the involvement of CB2-mediated signalling in the in vivo and in vitro growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells and suggests that CB2 agonists have potential therapeutic interest and deserve to be explored in the management of prostate cancer.

Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives, exert a wide spectrum of modulatory actions and pharmacological activities in the brain as well as in the periphery, and therefore, the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids has gained much attention during the past few years. One of the most exciting areas of current research in the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids is cancer.

Recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids are powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation. They have been shown to exert anti-tumoural effects by decreasing viability, proliferation, adhesion and migration on various cancer cells, thereby suggesting the potential use of cannabinoids in the treatment of gliomas, prostate and breast cancers and malignancies of immune origin.

Overall, our data show a role for the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in the anti-tumour effect of cannabinoids on prostate cells in vitroand in vivo. There is considerable interest in the application of selective CB2 receptor agonists, which are devoid of typical marijuana-like psychoactive properties of CB1 agonists, for future cannabinoid-based anticancer therapies. Therefore, our findings point to the potential application of cannabinoid receptor type 2 ligands as anti-tumour agents in prostate cancer.”

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An update on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation by cannabinoids.

“Some cannabinoids activate the different isoforms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs; α, β and γ), as shown through the use of reporter gene assays, binding studies, selective antagonists and knockout studies.

Activation of all isoforms, but primarily PPARα and γ, mediate some (but not all) of the analgesic, neuroprotective, neuronal function modulation, anti-inflammatory, metabolic, anti-tumoral, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of some cannabinoids, often in conjunction with activation of the more traditional target sites of action such as CB1 , CB2 and TRPV1.

PPARs also mediate some of the effects of inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation or transport. Cannabinoids may be chaperoned to the PPARs by fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs).

The aim of this review is to update the evidence supporting PPAR activation by cannabinoids, and review the physiological responses to cannabinoids that are mediated, and not mediated, by PPAR activation.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27077495

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Cannabinoids receptor type 2, CB2, expression correlates with human colon cancer progression and predicts patient survival.

“Many studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is altered in different tumor types, including colon cancer.

However, little is known about the role of the ECS in tumor progression.

Here we report the correlation between CB 2 expression and pathological data in a series of 175 colorectal cancer patients, as well as the response of the HT29 colon cancer-derived cell line upon CB 2 activation…

These results raise the question whether the activation of CB 2 should be considered as anti-tumoral therapy.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859556

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/colon-cancer/

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Targeting astrocytomas and invading immune cells with cannabinoids: a promising therapeutic avenue.

“The last quarter century has borne witness to great advances in both the detection and treatment of numerous cancers. Even so, malignancies of the central nervous system, especially high-grade astrocytomas, continue to thwart our best efforts toward effective chemotherapeutic strategies.

With prognosis remaining bleak, the time for serious consideration of alternative therapies has arrived. Various preparations of the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa, and related synthetic and endogenous compounds, may constitute just such an alternative.

Cannabinoids, although much maligned historically for their psychotropic effects and clear abuse potential, have long been used medicinally and are now staging an impressive comeback, as recent studies have begun to explore their powerful anti-tumoral properties.

In this study, we review in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting the use of cannabinoids for treatment of brain tumors. We further propose the continued intense investigation of cannabinoid efficacies as novel anti-cancer agents, especially in models recapitulating such properties within the unique environment of the brain.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952648

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Cannabinoids can inhibit tumor cell growth in highly invasive cancers

“A new study has found that Cannabinoids, the active components in marijuana, may aid in inhibiting tumor cell growth in highly invasive cancers.”

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“Although, Cannabinoids are used in reducing the side effects of cancer treatment, such as pain, weight loss, and vomiting, evidences indicate that they might even help in suppressing tumor invasion.

Robert Ramer, Ph.D., and Burkhard Hinz, Ph.D., of the University of Rostock in Germany investigated whether and by what mechanism cannabinoids hold back tumor cell invasion.

It was found that Cannabinoids did suppress tumor cell invasion and stimulated TIMP-1 expression.

TIMP-1 is an inhibitor of a group of enzymes involved in tumor cell invasion.

“To our knowledge, this is the first report of TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive effects of cannabinoids,” the authors said.

They added: “This signaling pathway may play an important role in the antimetastatic action of cannabinoids, whose potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of highly invasive cancers should be addressed in clinical trials.”

The study was published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute (ANI)”

“Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1” http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/1/59.long

http://www.topnews.in/health/cannabinoids-can-inhibit-tumor-cell-growth-highly-invasive-cancers-2380 

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Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids

“Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, inhibit tumor growth in animal models… Because the generation of a new vascular supply (angiogenesis) is causally involved in the progression of the majority of solid tumors, the aim of this study was to test whether cannabinoids inhibit tumor angiogenesis.”

Figure 1.

“PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

1. Cannabinoid administration inhibits tumor angiogenesis

2. Cannabinoid administration inhibits vascular endothelial cell migration and survival

3. Cannabinoid administration inhibits tumor expression of proangiogenic factors and improves other markers of tumor malignancy

 

 …In the context of the renaissance in the study of the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids, our findings show that these compounds may be considered promising anti-tumoral agents as they inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth in vivo with no significant side effects.

 This report provides a mechanistic basis for the anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids and a novel pharmacological target for cannabinoid-based anti-tumoral therapies…”

Full text:  http://www.fasebj.org/content/17/3/529.full

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Cannabinoids inhibit energetic metabolism and induce AMPK-dependent autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells.

“The anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids have been described in different tumor systems, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but their mechanism of action remains unclear.

We used cannabinoids specific for the CB1 (ACPA) and CB2 (GW) receptors and metabolomic analyses to unravel the potential pathways mediating cannabinoid-dependent inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth. Panc1 cells treated with cannabinoids show elevated AMPK activation induced by a ROS-dependent increase of AMP/ATP ratio. ROS promote nuclear translocation of GAPDH, which is further amplified by AMPK, thereby attenuating glycolysis. Furthermore, ROS determine the accumulation of NADH, suggestive of a blockage in the respiratory chain, which in turn inhibits the Krebs cycle. Concomitantly, inhibition of Akt/c-Myc pathway leads to decreased activity of both the pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2), further downregulating glycolysis, and glutamine uptake.

Altogether, these alterations of pancreatic cancer cell metabolism mediated by cannabinoids result in a strong induction of autophagy and in the inhibition of cell growth.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23764845

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A pilot clinical study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

“One of the most devastating forms of cancer is glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma), the most frequent class of malignant primary brain tumours. Current standard therapeutic strategies for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (surgical resection and focal radiotherapy) are only palliative…”

“The hemp plant Cannabis sativa L. produces approximately 60 unique compounds known as cannabinoids, of which Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most important owing to its high potency and abundance in cannabis. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts a wide variety of biological effects by mimicking endogenous substances – the so-called endocannabinoids – that bind to and activate specific cell surface receptors. cannabinoids have been proposed as potential antitumoral agents owing to their ability to inhibit the growth and angiogenesis of various types of tumour xenografts in animal models.”

“Here we report the first clinical study aimed at assessing cannabinoid antitumoral action, specifically a pilot phase I trial in which nine patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme were administered THC intratumoraly. The patients had previously failed standard therapy (surgery and radiotherapy) and had clear evidence of tumour progression. The primary end point of the study was to determine the safety of intracranial THC administration… Cannabinoid delivery was safe and could be achieved without overt psychoactive effects…. The fair safety profile of THC, together with its possible antiproliferative action on tumour cells reported here and in other studies, may set the basis for future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2360617/

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Major Health Benefits of Medical Cannabis

“The benefits of medical marijuana plant are extensive, pervasive, and long-standing. Because of the way the cannabis impacts the Autonomic Nervous System which develops the breath and relaxes the body, prospective for health and curative characteristics are huge. Some of the major health benefits of medical cannabis are explained below:

Treats Migraines

Cannabis healing has been very effective in the treatment of migraine headaches. Migraine headaches are vascular in source and are often preceded by an air characterized by nausea, flashes of light, faintness or photosensitivity.

Slows Down Tumor Growth

Studies have shown that cannabis help in slow down the facsimile and slow down the production of cancer cells in body. It is also a natural antiemetic, which makes it effectual in plummeting the nausea and vomiting related with chemo and radiation therapies. So taking marijuana slows down the tumor growth too.

Relieves Symptoms of Chronic Diseases

Marijuana is one of the best natural pain relievers that can help sufferers of chronic pain live more relaxed lives. The side effects are often much less severe than the other common pain medications.

Prevents Alzheimer’s

Cannabis reduces the occurrence of depression in Alzheimer’s patients, which can help patients to keep up a higher level of brain function. That is a powerful way to keep patients performance for a longer time after the first onset of Alzheimer’s disease.

Treats Glaucoma

Some strains of this medicinal plant have been shown that, they are potentially decreasing the force that glaucoma can place on the optic nerve; thereby the patients can easily cut the critical condition by smoking or taking the marijuana edibles or medicines.

Prevents Seizures

Seizure is a kind of epilepsy which almost affects more than 2 millions of Americans and 30 millions of people worldwide. Epilepsy is a condition when some of the brain cells become abnormally excitable. People using marijuana to control epilepsy should be alert when there is any removal of any tablets which controls seizures may leave you more susceptible to the patient. Marijuana is no exception. Patients with epilepsy are advised to exercise caution when using oral THC because there is no enough sufficient knowledge about the convulsive or anti-convulsive properties of the single compound.

For ADD and ADHD

Many people who endure with ADD and/or ADHD find that medical cannabis recovers their knack to hub and their level of recital with definite tasks. There are no clinical studies on humans but there are some beginner studies have done on animals that point to less hyperactivity and impulsivity with the use of cannabinoids (the active medicines in cannabis).

Relieve PMS

Millions of women have an illness on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). PMS includes the symptoms of headaches, abdominal cramps, bloating and fluid retention. Many women report that they have tried several different medications but none as give any significant relief like Medical Marijuana. Cannabis medicine has shown to give symptomatic relief from all the unpleasant symptoms of PMS.

Calm Those With Tourette’s and OCD

Several psychological disorders have been known to be related with the medical benefits of marijuana as well. Taking weed of prescribed amount on regular basis can slow down the tics for those who are suffering from Tourette’s syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Yes some of the qualities in marijuana plant help the patient to calm themselves when any creation of intrusive thoughts which produces fear, uneasiness and abnormal behaviors.”

http://www.herbalmission.org/major-health-benefits-of-medical-cannabis.php

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