Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol

“Cannabidiol (CBD), a major constituent of Cannabis, has been shown to be a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety drug, without exerting a psychotropic effect. However, when given either intraperitoneally or orally as a purified product, a bell-shaped dose-response was observed, which limits its clinical use.
In the present study, we have studied in mice the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of standardized plant extracts derived from the Cannabis sativa L., clone 202, which is highly enriched in CBD and hardly contains any psychoactive ingredients.
In stark contrast to purified CBD, the clone 202 extract, when given either intraperitoneally or orally, provided a clear correlation between the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive responses and the dose, with increasing responses upon increasing doses, which makes this plant medicine ideal for clinical uses.
The clone 202 extract reduced zymosan-induced paw swelling and pain in mice, and prevented TNFα production in vivo. It is likely that other components in the extract synergize with CBD to achieve the desired anti-inflammatory action that may contribute to overcoming the bell-shaped dose-response of purified CBD.
We therefore propose that Cannabis clone 202 (Avidekel) extract is superior over CBD for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.”  https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=53912
“In conclusion, we recommend standardized plant extract of the Cannabis clone 202 for treatment of various inflammatory conditions.” https://file.scirp.org/Html/5-2500582_53912.htm
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Evidences for the anti-panic actions of Cannabidiol.

“Panic disorder (PD) is a disabling psychiatry condition that affects approximately 5% of the worldwide population. Currently, long-term selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line treatment for PD; however, the common side-effect profiles and drug interactions may provoke patients to abandon the treatment, leading to PD symptoms relapse.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant with anti-anxiety properties that has been suggested as an alternative for treating anxiety disorders.

In the present chapter, we included both experimental laboratory animal and human studies that have investigated the putative anti-panic properties of CBD.

Taken together, the studies assessed in the present chapter clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD in both animal models and healthy volunteers.

Novel clinical trials involving patients with the PD diagnosis, however, are clearly needed to clarify the specific mechanism of action of CBD and the safe and ideal therapeutic doses of this compound.”


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Activation of CB2 receptor is required for the therapeutic effect of ABHD6 inhibition in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

“Alpha/beta-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a novel 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) hydrolytic enzyme, that can fine-tune the endocannabinoid signaling in the central nervous system.

Recently we and others have demonstrated the protective effect of ABHD6 inhibition in the animal models of traumatic brain injury and epileptic seizures. In this study, we investigated the role of targeting ABHD6 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS)…

These results suggest that inhibition of ABHD6 might be used as an ideal strategy for the treatment of MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.”


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Id-1 is a key transcriptional regulator of glioblastoma aggressiveness and a novel therapeutic target.

Figure 2

“Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of primary adult brain tumors…

It is, therefore, essential to discover master regulators that control GBM invasiveness and target them therapeutically.

We demonstrate here that the transcriptional regulator Id-1 plays a critical role in modulating the invasiveness of GBM cell lines and primary GBM cells.

Furthermore, we show that a non-toxic compound, cannabidiol, significantly down-regulates Id-1 gene expression and associated glioma cell invasiveness…

Our results suggest that Id-1 regulates multiple tumor-promoting pathways in GBM, and that drugs targeting Id-1 represent a novel and promising strategy for improving the therapy and outcome of GBM patients.

We previously showed a strong correlation between Id-1 expression and the invasive and metastatic behavior of breast cancer cells.”

“Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells… CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells…  Moreover, reducing Id-1 expression with cannabinoids could also provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of additional aggressive cancers because Id-1 expression was found to be up-regulated during the progression of almost all types…”  http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.long

“In this report, we show that Id-1 is a key regulator of brain tumor cell invasiveness and neurosphere growth, and that Id-1 expression is specifically up-regulated in tissues from patients with high-grade gliomas. Importantly, we demonstrate that targeting Id-1 expression using either genetic approaches or the non-toxic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), leads to a significant reduction in the invasion of both GBM cell lines and patient-derived primary GBM cultures. CBD also significantly inhibits GBM dispersal ex vivo, and reduces tumor growth and Id-1 expression in vivo.

Consistent with the breast cancer study, we found that the non-psychoactive cannabinoid CBD significantly down-regulated Id-1 expression in serum-derived and primary GBM cells. As expected, we observed robust inhibition of glioma cell invasiveness.

In conclusion, our results establish Id-1 as a key regulator of both invasion and stemness in GBM cells and demonstrate that the non-toxic cannabinoid compound CBD down-regulates Id-1 expression and tumor aggressiveness in culture and in vivo.

The data also shed light on some of the key pathways that control GBM cell dispersal and progression. A greater understanding of these pathways may lead to more effective therapies for cancer patients including the additional refinement of cannabinoid analogs targeting Id-1.

We expect our efforts to ultimately translate to the development of future clinical trials with nontoxic compounds that target the expression of Id-1, a master regulator of GBM aggressiveness.

With its lack of systemic toxicity and psychoactivity, CBD is an ideal candidate agent in this regard and may prove useful in combination with front-line agents for the treatment of patients with aggressive and high-grade GBM tumors.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3594064/

“McAllister Lab… Cannabidiol inhibits tumor (glioblastoma) progression in mouse models of brain cancer. Mice bearing human brain tumors derived from glioblastoma were treated with the naturally occurring cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD).”  http://www.cpmcri-currents.org/our-people/discovery-investigators/mcallister-lab

“New Study Finds Cannabis Compound Could Have Even Greater Reach in Inhibiting Aggressive Cancer than Previously Thought. Researchers at California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute (CPMCRI, a Sutter Health affiliate) have found that a compound in cannabis previously shown to decrease metastatic breast cancer now shows promise in stopping aggressive brain cancer as well. The findings are particularly important given the safety of the cannabis compound and the fact that patients with advanced brain cancer have few options for treatment.”  http://www.cpmc.org/about/press/news2012/cannabis-brain.html


Glioblastoma progression in mouse models of brain cancer, after treatment with CBD

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Arachidonoyl-ethanolamide activates endoplasmic reticulum stress-apoptosis in tumorigenic keratinocytes: Role of cyclooxygenase-2 and novel J-series prostamides.

“Non-melanoma skin cancer and other epithelial tumors overexpress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), differentiating them from normal cells…

Arachidonoyl-ethanolamide (AEA) is a cannabinoid that causes apoptosis in diverse tumor types…

These findings suggest that AEA will be selectively toxic in tumor cells that overexpress COX-2 due to the metabolism of AEA by COX-2 to J-series prostaglandin-ethanolamides (prostamides).

Hence, AEA may be an ideal topical agent for the elimination of malignancies that overexpress COX-2.”



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Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat haunting traumatic memories

“One of the core symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the traumatic memory that constantly haunts the patient.

An increasing body of evidence points to the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a key system in the regulation of emotionality and memory.

Hence, eCB enhancers may be the ideal pharmacological treatment for PTSD…

…eCBs have an essential role in maintaining emotional homeostasis and in modulating memory consolidation, retrieval and extinction.

Hence, the authors concluded that eCBs could be an ideal drug to treat PTSD by addressing both the emotional and cognitive aspects of the disorder.

Indeed, accumulating data from both clinical and pre-clinical studies suggest that targeting the eCB system may benefit PTSD.

Several studies support the self-medication hypothesis explanation for cannabis use to cope with PTSD symptoms.

To conclude, the eCB system may be a useful target for treating both the cognitive and emotional features of PTSD…”



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The endocannabinoid system as a possible target to treat both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

“Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of significant prevalence and morbidity, whose pathogenesis relies on paradoxical changes of emotional memory processing. An ideal treatment would be a drug able to block the pathological over-consolidation and continuous retrieval of the traumatic event, while enhancing its extinction and reducing the anxiety symptoms. While the latter benefit from antidepressant medications, no drug is available to control the cognitive symptomatology. Endocannabinoids regulate affective states and participate in memory consolidation, retrieval, and extinction. Clinical findings showing a relationship between Cannabis use and PTSD, as well as changes in endocannabinoid activity in PTSD patients, further suggest the existence of a link between endocannabinoids and maladaptive brain changes after trauma exposure. Along these lines, we suggest that endocannabinoid degradation inhibitors may be an ideal therapeutic approach to simultaneously treat the emotional and cognitive features of PTSD, avoiding the unwanted psychotropic effects of compounds directly binding cannabinoid receptors.”


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