Cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonism: a new perspective on treating a murine schistosomal liver fibrosis model.

 SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online“Formation of schistosomal granulomata surrounding the ova can result in schistosomiasis-associated liver fibrosis (SSLF). The current standard of treatment is praziquantel (PZQ), which cannot effectively reverse SSLF.

The role of the cannabinoid (CB) receptor family in liver fibrosis has recently been highlighted.

This study aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of CB1 receptor antagonism in reversing SSLF in a murine model of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

MAIN CONCLUSIONS:

Combining PZQ with CB1 receptor antagonists yielded the best results in reversing SSLF. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test this regimen in S. mansoni infection.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31389521

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762019000100338&tlng=en

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Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Modulation by the Transcription Factor NRF2 is Specific in Microglial Cells.

 “Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a pleiotropic transcription factor that has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, regulating more than 250 genes. As NRF2, cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is also implicated in the preservation of neurons against glia-driven inflammation. To this concern, little is known about the regulation pathways implicated in CB2 receptor expression. In this study, we analyze whether NRF2 could modulate the transcription of CB2 in neuronal and microglial cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed an antioxidant response element in the promoter sequence of the CB2 receptor gene. Further analysis by chemical and genetic manipulations of this transcription factor demonstrated that NRF2 is not able to modulate the expression of CB2 in neurons. On the other hand, at the level of microglia, the expression of CB2 is NRF2-dependent. These results are related to the differential levels of expression of both genes regarding the brain cell type. Since modulation of CB2 receptor signaling may represent a promising therapeutic target with minimal psychotropic effects that can be used to modulate endocannabinoid-based therapeutic approaches and to reduce neurodegeneration, our findings will contribute to disclose the potential of CB2 as a novel target for treating different pathologies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31385133

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10571-019-00719-y

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Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses monocyte-mediated astrocyte production of MCP-1 and IL-6 in a TLR7-stimulated human co-culture.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics“Cannabis is widely used in the United States with an estimated prevalence of 9.5%. Certain cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa, in particular, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), possess immune modulating and anti-inflammatory activity. Depending on the context, the anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids may be beneficial, such as in treating inflammatory diseases, or detrimental to normal immune defense against pathogens. The potential beneficial impact of cannabinoids on chronic neuroinflammation has gained recent attention. Monocyte migration to the brain has been implicated as a key event in chronic neuroinflammation and in the etiology of central nervous system diseases including viral infection (e.g., HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder). In the brain, monocytes can contribute to neuroinflammation through interactions with astrocytes, including inducing astrocyte secretion of cytokines and chemokines. In a human co-culture system, monocyte-derived IL-1β due to toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-activation, has been identified to promote astrocyte production of MCP-1 and IL-6. THC treatment of TLR7-stimulated co-culture suppressed monocyte secretion of IL-1β resulting in decreased astrocyte production of MCP-1 and IL-6. Furthermore, THC displayed direct inhibition of monocytes, as TLR7-stimulated monocyte monocultures treated with THC also showed suppressed IL-1β production. The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-015, impaired monocyte IL-1β production similar to that of THC, suggesting THC is, in part, acting through CB2. THC also suppressed key elements of the IL-1β production pathway, including IL1B mRNA levels and caspase-1 activity. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory properties of THC suppress TLR7-induced monocyte secretion of IL-1β, through CB2, which results in decreased astrocyte secretion of MCP-1 and IL-6.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: As cannabis use is highly prevalent in the United States and has putative anti-inflammatory properties, it is important to investigate the effect of cannabinoids on immune cell function. Furthermore, cannabinoids have garnered particular interest due to their potential beneficial effects on attenuating viral-induced chronic neuroinflammation. This study utilized a primary human co-culture system to demonstrate that the major psychotropic cannabinoid in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) selective agonist, suppress specific monocyte-mediated astrocyte inflammatory responses. In the context of viral-induced chronic neuroinflammation, the findings presented here suggest that cannabinoids via CB2 ligation may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31383729

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2019/08/05/jpet.119.260661

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Endocannabinoid System and Alcohol Abuse Disorders.

“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the primary active component in Cannabis sativa preparations such as hashish and marijuana, signals by binding to cell surface receptors. Two types of receptors have been cloned and characterized as cannabinoid (CB) receptors. CB1 receptors (CB1R) are ubiquitously present in the central nervous system (CNS) and are present in both inhibitory interneurons and excitatory neurons at the presynaptic terminal. CB2 receptors (CB2R) are demonstrated in microglial cells, astrocytes, and several neuron subpopulations and are present in both pre- and postsynaptic terminals.

The majority of studies on these receptors have been conducted in the past two and half decades after the identification of the molecular constituents of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system that started with the characterization of CB1R. Subsequently, the seminal discovery was made, which suggested that alcohol (ethanol) alters the eCB system, thus establishing the contribution of the eCB system in the motivation to consume ethanol. Several preclinical studies have provided evidence that CB1R significantly contributes to the motivational and reinforcing properties of ethanol and that the chronic consumption of ethanol alters eCB transmitters and CB1R expression in the brain nuclei associated with addiction pathways.

Additionally, recent seminal studies have further established the role of the eCB system in the development of ethanol-induced developmental disorders, such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These results are augmented by in vitro and ex vivo studies, showing that acute and chronic treatment with ethanol produces physiologically relevant alterations in the function of the eCB system during development and in the adult stage. This chapter provides a current and comprehensive review of the literature concerning the role of the eCB system in alcohol abuse disorders (AUD).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31332736

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-21737-2_6

“Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5742761/

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Endogenous cannabinoid levels and suicidality in combat veterans.

Psychiatry Research“Combat veterans are at elevated suicide risk. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that combat veterans who have made a suicide attempt post-deployment can be distinguished from combat veterans who have never made a suicide attempt based on differences in psychological and biological variables. For the latter, we focused on endogenous cannabinoids, neuroendocrine markers that are associated with stress. Demographic and clinical parameters of suicide attempters and non-attempters were assessed. Blood samples were assayed for anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and cortisol. Suicide attempters had higher Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) scores in comparison to non-attempters. Controlling for gender, 2-AG levels were higher among suicide attempters in comparison to non-attempters. Cortisol levels positively correlated with 2-AG levels and negatively correlated with SSI scores among non-attempters but not among attempters. AEA levels negatively correlated with SSI scores among attempters but not among non-attempters. Our results indicate that there are psychological and biological differences between combat veterans with or without a history of suicidal attempt. Our findings also suggest that clinically observed differences between the groups may have a neurobiological basis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31375282

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165178119315173?via%3Dihub

“Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Neurobiology of Suicide”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK107200/

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Stable Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 Deficient Mice.

ijms-logo “The G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been implicated in the regulation of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The contribution of CB2 towards basal levels of proliferation and the number of neural progenitors in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus, however, remain unclear. We stained hippocampal brain sections of 16- to 17-week-old wildtype and CB2-deficient mice, for neural progenitor and immature neuron markers doublecortin (DCX) and calretinin (CR) and for the proliferation marker Ki67 and quantified the number of positive cells in the SGZ. The quantification revealed that CB2 deficiency neither altered overall cell proliferation nor the size of the DCX+ or DCX and CR double-positive populations in the SGZ compared to control animals. The results indicate that CB2 might not contribute to basal levels of adult neurogenesis in four-month-old healthy mice. CB2 signaling might be more relevant in conditions where adult neurogenesis is dynamically regulated, such as neuroinflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31374821

“Cannabinoids have been linked to the regulation of adult neurogenesis (AN), a process in the mammalian brain that takes place in stem cell niches in the adult brain and is responsible for the continued generation of new neurons.”

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/15/3759/htm

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β-Caryophyllene Mitigates Collagen Antibody Induced Arthritis (CAIA) in Mice Through a Cross-Talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ Receptors.

biomolecules-logo “β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist that tempers inflammation.

An interaction between the CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been suggested and PPAR-γ activation exerts anti-arthritic effects.

The aim of this study was to characterize the therapeutic activity of BCP and to investigate PPAR-γ involvement in a collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) experimental model.

BCP significantly hampered the severity of the disease, reduced relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. BCP also decreased joint expression of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9. Arthritic joints showed increased COX2 and NF-ĸB mRNA expression and reduced expression of the PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha, PGC-1α, and PPAR-γ. These conditions were reverted following BCP treatment.

Finally, BCP reduced NF-ĸB activation and increased PGC-1α and PPAR-γ expression in human articular chondrocytes stimulated with LPS. These effects were reverted by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist.

These results suggest that BCP ameliorates arthritis through a cross-talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31370242

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/9/8/326

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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The curative effect of cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology banner“Ischemia and reperfusion of intestinal tissue (intestinal I/R) induces disruption of ileal contractility and chain responses of inflammatory.

The aim of this study was to reveal whether therapeutic value of cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor activity in the intestinal I/R, via to the exogenous administration of CB2 agonist (AM-1241).

Intestinal I/R injury were performed through 30 min ischemia and 150 min reperfusion of mesenteric artery in Wistar rats. The pre-administered doses of 0.1, 1, and 5 mg/kg of CB2 agonist were studied to inhibit inflammation of intestinal I/R injury including ileum smooth muscle contractility, polymorphonuclear cell migration, oxidant/antioxidant defence system, and provocative cytokines.

Pre-administration with CB2 receptor agonist ensured to considerable improving the disrupted contractile responses in ileum smooth muscle along with decreased the formation of MDA that production of lipid peroxidation, reversed the depleted glutathione, inhibited the expression of TNF-α and of IL-1β in the intestinal I/R of rats.

Taken together results of this research, the agonistic activity of CB2 receptor for healing of intestinal I/R injury is ensuring associated with anti-inflammatory mechanisms such as the inhibiting of migration of inflammatory polymorphonuclear cells that origin of acute and initial responses of inflammation, the inhibiting of production of provocative and pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-1β, the rebalancing of oxidant/antioxidant redox system disrupted in injury of reperfusion period, and the supporting of physiologic defensive systems in endothelial and inducible inflammatory cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31373049

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fcp.12502

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Cannabichromene is a cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist.

British Journal of Pharmacology banner“Cannabichromene (CBC) is one of the most abundant phytocannabinoids in Cannabis spp. It has modest anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects and potentiates some effects of Δ9 – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vivo. How CBC exerts these effects is poorly defined and there is little information about its efficacy at cannabinoid receptors. We sought to determine the functional activity of CBC at CB1 and CB2 receptors.

KEY RESULTS:

CBC activated CB2 but not CB1 receptors to produce a hyperpolarization of AtT20 cells. This activation was inhibited by a CB2 antagonist AM630, and sensitive to pertussis toxin. Application of CBC reduced activation of CB2 receptors (but not CB1 receptors) by subsequent co-application of CP55,940, an efficacious CB1 and CB2 agonist. Continuous CBC application induced loss of cell surface CB2 receptors and desensitisation of the CB2-induced hyperpolarization.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

CBC is a selective CB2 receptor agonist displaying higher efficacy than THC in hyperpolarising AtT20 cells. CBC can also recruit CB2 receptor regulatory mechanisms. CBC may contribute to the potential therapeutic effectiveness of some cannabis preparations, potentially through CB2-mediated modulation of inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31368508

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.14815

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The Endocannabinoid System May Modulate Sleep Disorders In Aging.

“Aging is an inevitable process that involves changes along life in multiple neurochemical, neuroanatomical, hormonal systems, and many others. In addition, these biological modifications lead to an increase in age-related sickness such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and sleep disturbances, among others that affect activities of daily life. Demographic projections have demonstrated that aging will increase its worldwide rate in the coming years. The research on chronic diseases of the elderly is important to gain insights into this growing global burden.

Novel therapeutic approaches aimed for treatment of age-related pathologies have included the endocannabinoid system as an effective tools since this biological system shows beneficial effects in preclinical models. However, and despite these advances, little has been addressed in the arena of the endocannabinoid system as option for treating sleep disorders in aging since experimental evidence suggests that some elements of the endocannabinoid system modulate the sleep-wake cycle.

This article addresses this less-studied field, focusing on the likely perspective of the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of sleep problems reported in aged. We conclude that beneficial effects regarding the putative efficacy of the endocannabinoid system as therapeutic tools in aging is either inconclusive or still missing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31368874

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174043/article

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