A chronic low dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) restores cognitive function in old mice

Image result for nature medicine

“The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging. There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes underlying aging.

The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the brain tissues of older animals and the levels of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are lower. However, a direct link between endocannabinoid tone and aging symptoms has not been demonstrated.

Here we show that a low dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reversed the age-related decline in cognitive performance of mice aged 12 and 18 months. This behavioral effect was accompanied by enhanced expression of synaptic marker proteins and increased hippocampal spine density.

THC treatment restored hippocampal gene transcription patterns such that the expression profiles of THC-treated mice aged 12 months closely resembled those of THC-free animals aged 2 months. The transcriptional effects of THC were critically dependent on glutamatergic CB1 receptors and histone acetylation, as their inhibition blocked the beneficial effects of THC.

Thus, restoration of CB1 signaling in old individuals could be an effective strategy to treat age-related cognitive impairments.”

https://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.4311.html

“CAN MARIJUANA RESTORE MEMORY? NEW STUDY SHOWS CANNABIS CAN REVERSE COGNITIVE DECLINE IN MICE” http://www.newsweek.com/cannabis-marijuana-restores-memory-learning-cognitive-decline-596160

“A little cannabis every day might keep brain ageing at bay” https://www.newscientist.com/article/2130257-a-little-cannabis-every-day-might-keep-brain-ageing-at-bay/

“Low-dose cannabinoid THC restores memory and learning in old mice”  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317342.php

“Daily Dose Of Cannabis May Protect And Heal The Brain From Effects Of Aging”  https://www.forbes.com/sites/janetwburns/2017/05/08/daily-dose-of-cannabis-may-protect-and-heal-the-brain-from-effects-of-aging/#70ef658f2e44

“Cannabis reverses aging processes in the brain”  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-05-cannabis-reverses-aging-brain.html

“Future dementia cure – Chemical in cannabis could REVERSE the ageing process” http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/801827/dementia-cure-cannabis-THC-chemical-memory

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis

Cover image

“From last decade, there has been progressive improvement in computational drug designing. Several diseases are being cured from different plant extracts and products.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most shared disease among auto-inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is associated with RA pathway and has adverse effects.

Extensive literature review showed that plant species under study (Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera) possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties.

13 anti-inflammatory compounds were characterized and filtered out from medicinal plant species and analyzed for RA by targeting TNF-α through in silicoanalyses. By using ligand based pharmacophore generation approach and virtual screening against natural products libraries we retrieved twenty unique molecules that displayed utmost binding affinity, least binding energies and effective drug properties. The docking analyses revealed that Ala-22, Glu-23, Ser-65, Gln-67, Tyr-141, Leu-142, Asp-143, Phe-144 and Ala-145 were critical interacting residues for receptor-ligand interactions.

It is proposed that the RA patients should use reported compounds for the prescription of RA by targeting TNF-α. This report is opening new dimensions for designing innovative therapeutic targets to cure RA.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472734

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1093326317302735

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Preliminary Evidence on Cannabis Effectiveness and Tolerability for Adults With Tourette Syndrome.

Image result for J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci

“The authors retrospectively evaluated effectiveness and tolerability of cannabis in 19 adults with Tourette syndrome.

Tics scores decreased by 60%, and 18 of the 19 participants were at least “much improved.”

Cannabis was generally well tolerated, although most participants reported side effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28464701

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs – a cross-sectional study

Image result for dovepress

“The use of medical cannabis is increasing, most commonly for pain, anxiety and depression. Emerging data suggest that use and abuse of prescription drugs may be decreasing in states where medical cannabis is legal. The aim of this study was to survey cannabis users to determine whether they had intentionally substituted cannabis for prescription drugs.

A total of 1,248 (46%) respondents reported using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common classes of drugs substituted were narcotics/opioids (35.8%), anxiolytics/benzodiazepines (13.6%) and antidepressants (12.7%). A total of 2,473 substitutions were reported or approximately two drug substitutions per affirmative respondent.

These patient-reported outcomes support prior research that individuals are using cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs, particularly, narcotics/opioids, and independent of whether they identify themselves as medical or non-medical users. This is especially true if they suffer from pain, anxiety and depression. Additionally, this study suggests that state laws allowing access to, and use of, medical cannabis may not be influencing individual decision-making in this area.”

https://www.dovepress.com/cannabis-as-a-substitute-for-prescription-drugs-ndash-a-cross-sectiona-peer-reviewed-article-JPR

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial.

Image result for Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.

“A double-blind study was performed comparing 5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) p.o., 50 mg codeine p.o., and placebo in a patient with spasticity and pain due to spinal cord injury. The three conditions were applied 18 times each in a randomized and balanced order. Delta-9-THC and codeine both had an analgesic effect in comparison with placebo. Only delta-9-THC showed a significant beneficial effect on spasticity. In the dosage of THC used no altered consciousness occurred.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Compound found in cannabis helps ‘shrink’ four-year-old’s brain tumour

Four-year-old William Frost from Newark

“The family of a four-year-old boy from Nottinghamshire are backing new research into whether a non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis can reduce paediatric brain cancer cells.

Experts from Nottingham’s Children’s Brain Tumour Research Centre, at The University of Nottingham, will test Cannabidiol (CBD) for its effects on paediatric brain tumours in youngsters. This research will form part of the pre-clinical phase of the evaluation of the potential use of cannabidiol in paediatric brain tumours” http://www.nottinghampost.com/compound-found-in-cannabis-helps-shrink-four-year-old-s-brain-tumour/story-30307458-detail/story.html

“Scientists plan study after Nottinghamshire boy’s tumour shrinks during cannabis compound treatment” https://nottstv.com/notts-scientists-treating-brain-tumours-with-cannabis-backed-by-four-year-old-boy-with-the-condition/
 
“Study looks at cannabis ingredient’s ability to help children’s tumours. UK research into cannabidiol (CBD) comes after surge in parents administering it to children without medical advice” https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/may/02/study-cannabis-cannabidiol-cbd-ability-to-help-children-brain-tumours

 “Little boy’s aggressive brain tumour shrinks thanks to CANNABIS compound, his parents claim” https://www.thesun.co.uk/living/3472080/little-boys-aggressive-brain-tumour-shrinks-thanks-to-cannabis-his-parents-claimed/

“Little boy battling golf ball-sized brain tumour given new lease of life after being given a special OIL” http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/little-boy-battling-golf-ball-10347423

 “Four-year-old brain cancer patient sees tumour shrink – thanks to cannabis oil”  http://metro.co.uk/2017/05/03/four-year-old-brain-cancer-patient-sees-tumour-shrink-thanks-to-cannabis-oil-6613034/
Four-year-old William was diagnosed with a brain tumour in 2014
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and AM 404 protect against cerebral ischaemia in gerbils through a mechanism involving cannabinoid and opioid receptors

Logo of brjpharm

“It has been suggested that the endocannabinoid system elicits neuroprotection against excitotoxic brain damage.

In the present study the therapeutic potential of AM 404 on ischaemia-induced neuronal injury was investigated in vivo and compared with that of the classical cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) agonist, Δ9-tetraydrocannabinol (THC), using a model of transient global cerebral ischaemia in the gerbil.

Our findings demonstrate that AM 404 and THC reduce neuronal damage caused by bilateral carotid occlusion in gerbils and that this protection is mediated through an interaction with CB1 and opioid receptors.

Endocannabinoids might form the basis for the development of new neuroprotective drugs useful for the treatment of stroke and other neurodegenerative pathologies.

There is some evidence from experiments with mice that increasing anandamide or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol content may lead to neuroprotection.

Collectively, our data demonstrate that AM 404 and THC protect against neuronal ischaemia-induced injury through a mechanism involving cannabinoid and opioid receptors but not vanilloid receptors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2189998/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Combined cannabinoid therapy via an oromucosal spray.

“Extensive basic science research has identified the potential therapeutic benefits of active compounds extracted from the Cannabis sativa L. plant (the cannabinoids). It is recognized that a significant proportion of patients suffering with the debilitating symptoms of pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis or other conditions smoke cannabis despite the legal implications and stigma associated with this controlled substance. GW Pharmaceuticals have developed Sativex (GW- 1000-02), a combined cannabinoid medicine that delivers and maintains therapeutic levels of two principal cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), via an oromucosal pump spray, that aims to minimize psychotropic side effects.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16969427

“Sativex has proved to be well tolerated and successfully self-administered and self-titrated in both healthy volunteers and patient cohorts. Clinical assessment of this combined cannabinoid medicine has demonstrated efficacy in patients with intractable pain (chronic neuropathic pain, pain due to brachial plexus nerve injury, allodynic peripheral neuropathic pain and advanced cancer pain), rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis (bladder problems, spasticity and central pain), with no significant intoxication-like symptoms, tolerance or withdrawal syndrome.”  https://journals.prous.com/journals/servlet/xmlxsl/pk_journals.xml_summaryn_pr?p_JournalId=4&p_RefId=1021517

“Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) oromucosal spray contains the two main active constituents of Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 molecular ratio, and acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449855

“Abuse potential and psychoactive effects of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol oromucosal spray (Sativex), a new cannabinoid medicine. Evidence to date suggests that abuse or dependence on Sativex is likely to occur in only a very small proportion of recipients.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21542664

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Short-Term Efficacy of CBD-Enriched Hemp Oil in Girls with Dysautonomic Syndrome after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

“Cannabidiol (CBD)-based treatments for several diseases, including Tourette’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, movement disorders and glaucoma, are proving to be beneficial and the scientific clinical background of the drug is continuously evolving.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the short-term effect of CBD-enriched hemp oil for relieving symptoms and improving the life quality (QOL) in young girls with adverse drug effects (ADRs) following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

METHODS:

In this anecdotal, retrospective, “compassionate-use”, observational, open-label study, 12 females (age 12-24 years) with severe somatoform and dysautonomic syndrome following HPV vaccination were given sublingual CBD-rich hemp oil drops, 25 mg/kg per day supplemented by 2-5 mg/ml CBD once a week until a maximum dose of 150 mg/ml CBD per day was reached over a 3 month period. Patients’ quality of life was evaluated using the medical outcome short-form health survey questionnaire (SF-36).

RESULTS:

Two patients dropped out due to iatrogenic adverse events and another two patients stopped the treatment early due to lack of any improvement. SF-36 showed significant benefits in the physical component score (P < 0.02), vitality (P < 0.03) and social role functioning (P < 0.02) after the treatment. The administration of hemp oil also significantly reduced body pain according to the SF-36 assessment. No significant differences from the start of treatment to several months post-treatment were detected in role limitations due to emotional reactions (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CBD-rich hemp oil and the primary efficacy endpoint. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to characterize the safety profile and efficacy of this compound.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457055

“This study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CBD-rich hemp oil and the primary efficacy endpoint” https://www.ima.org.il/imaj/viewarticle.aspx?year=2017&month=02&page=79

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

GPR55 and the regulation of glucose homeostasis.

Image result for Int J Biochem Cell Biol.

“Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are reportedly associated to over-activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Therefore, modulation of the ECS offers potential therapeutic benefits on those diseases. GPR55, the receptor for L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) that has also affinity for various cannabinoid ligands, is distributed at the central and peripheral level and it is involved in several physiological processes. This review summarizes the localization and role of GPR55 in tissues that are crucial for the regulation of glucose metabolism, and provides an update on its contribution in obesity and insulin resistance. The therapeutic potential of targeting the GPR55 receptor is also discussed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457969

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous