Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids.

“The beta amyloid (Aβ) and other aggregating proteins in the brain increase with age and are frequently found within neurons. The mechanistic relationship between intracellular amyloid, aging and neurodegeneration is not, however, well understood.

We use a proteotoxicity model based upon the inducible expression of Aβ in a human central nervous system nerve cell line to characterize a distinct form of nerve cell death caused by intracellular Aβ. It is shown that intracellular Aβ initiates a toxic inflammatory response leading to the cell’s demise. Aβ induces the expression of multiple proinflammatory genes and an increase in both arachidonic acid and eicosanoids, including prostaglandins that are neuroprotective and leukotrienes that potentiate death.

Cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol stimulate the removal of intraneuronal Aβ, block the inflammatory response, and are protective.

Altogether these data show that there is a complex and likely autocatalytic inflammatory response within nerve cells caused by the accumulation of intracellular Aβ, and that this early form of proteotoxicity can be blocked by the activation of cannabinoid receptors.”

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Antinociceptive effects of HUF-101, a fluorinated cannabidiol derivative.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with multiple pharmacological effects and several potential therapeutic properties. Its low oral bioavailability, however, can limit its clinical use.

Preliminary results indicate that fluorination of the CBD molecule increases its pharmacological potency. Here, we investigated whether HUF-101 (3, 10, and 30mg/kg), a fluorinated CBD analogue, would induce antinociceptive effects.

These findings show that HUF-101 produced antinociceptive effects at lower doses than CBD, indicating that the addition of fluoride improved its pharmacological profile. Furthermore, some of the antinociceptive effects of CBD and HUF-101 effects seem to involve the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors.”

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The In Vivo Effects of the CB1-Positive Allosteric Modulator GAT229 on Intraocular Pressure in Ocular Normotensive and Hypertensive Mice.

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“Orthosteric cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) activation leads to decreases in intraocular pressure (IOP).

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the novel CB1-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) GAT229 on IOP.

The CB1 PAM GAT229 reduces IOP in ocular hypertensive mice and enhanced CB1-mediated IOP reduction when combined with subthreshold CB1 orthosteric ligands in normotensive mice. Administration of CB1 PAMs may provide a novel approach to reduce IOP with fewer of the disadvantages associated with orthosteric CB1 activation.”

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Deletion of Type-2 Cannabinoid Receptor Induces Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Tau Pathology and Memory Impairment Through AMPK/GSK3β Pathway.

Molecular Neurobiology

“Although several studies have shown that type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) is involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, the effects of CB2R on AD-like tau abnormal phosphorylation and its underlying mechanism remain unclear.

Herein, we employed the CB2R-/- mice as the animal model to explore roles of CB2R in regulating tau phosphorylation and brain function.

Taken together, our study indicated that deletion of CB2R induces behavior damage and AD-like pathological alternation via AMPK/GSK3β pathway. These findings proved that CB2R/AMPK/GSK3β pathway can be a promising new drug target for AD.”

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The synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212-2 ameliorates traumatic spinal cord injury via inhibition of GAPDH/Siah1 in a CB2-receptor dependent manner.

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“The essential role of GAPDH/Siah1 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of various injurious conditions such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been gradually recognized. However, the drugs targeting this signaling pathway are still lacking.

The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB1 and CB2), act as neuroprotective and immunomodulatory modulators in SCI. WIN55212-2, an agonist for CB1 and CB2 receptors, has been demonstrated with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in multiple neurological diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether WIN55212-2 could promote functional recovery after traumatic SCI via inhibition of the GAPDH/Siah1 signaling.

In conclusion, our study indicates that, WIN55212-2 improves the functional recovery after SCI via inhibition of GAPDH/Siah1 cascades in a CB2 receptor dependent manner, indicative of its therapeutic potential for traumatic SCI or other traumatic conditions.”

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Highly selective CB2 receptor agonist A836339 has gastroprotective effect on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in mice.

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology

“Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors are distributed in central and peripheral tissues, including immunocytes and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, suggesting that CB2 receptor agonists represent potential therapeutics in GI inflammatory states.

In this study, we investigated the effect of highly selective CB2 agonist, A836339, on the development of gastric lesions.

Activation of CB2 receptors exhibited gastroprotective effect through enhancement of anti-oxidative pathways in the stomach. Activation of CB2 receptors may thus become a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of GU.”

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CB₁ receptor antagonism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis interferes with affective opioid withdrawal in rats.

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“The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region.

Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning.

The current findings emphasize an important role for the BNST in opioid withdrawal and suggest that the ameliorative effects of systemically administered CB1 antagonists are mediated, in part, by their actions within this region.”

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Sativex® effects on promoter methylation and on CNR1/CNR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

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“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disease that involve oligodendrocyte loss and failure to remyelinate damaged brain areas causing a progressive neurological disability.

Studies in MS mouse model suggest that cannabinoids ameliorate symptoms as spasticity, tremor and pain reducing inflammation via cannabinoid-mediated system.

The aim of our study is to investigate the changes in cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1) and 2 (CNR2) receptors mRNA expression levels and promoter methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS secondary progressive (MSS-SP) patients treated with Sativex®.

These results suggest that the different expression of cannabinoid receptors by Sativex® treatment in leukocytes might be regulated through a molecular mechanism that involve interferon modulation.”

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Identification of Terpenoid Chemotypes Among High (−)-trans-Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol-Producing Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars

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Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) is an annual diecious member of the Cannabaceae family. Since ancient times cannabis has been used by humans for its fiber, seed, as well as its psychoactive and medicinal resin. Despite a long history of use, the legal status of cannabis in modern times often depends on its intended use. Cannabis grown for its fiber or seed, commonly known as hemp, is legally cultivated in many nations. Cannabis used for its psychoactive properties, in North American commonly known as “marijuana,” has been illegal in most nations worldwide since the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Recently however, laws concerning the legal status of cannabis are changing around the world. In the United States of America, many states have legalized cannabis for medical use, whereas some have even legalized cannabis for adult consumption. Uruguay recently legalized cannabis and laws in various countries within the European Union (EU) are also changing regarding cannabis. Due to its many and controversial uses, the taxonomic classification of cannabis has been the subject of both legal and scientific debate.

From a morphological perspective, three main types of cannabis have been described sativa, indica, and ruderalis. Generally sativa plants are described as taller and loosely branched, whereas indica is typically shorter, more densely branched, and conical in shape. Ruderalis is described as short (≤2 feet) at maturity and sparsely if at all branched.7Whether the genus Cannabis is monotypic and composed of just a single species (C. sativa) or polytypic and composed of multiple species is an old taxonomic debate. A more recent taxonomic classification dividing cannabis into seven putative taxa based on morphological, geographical, and genetic traits has been proposed.

Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds found in cannabis. Today over 100 cannabinoids from cannabis have been characterized. (−)-Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the primary active ingredient responsible for the intoxicating and medical effects attributed to cannabis. THC has antiemetic, neuroprotectant, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the ability to reduce certain forms of neuropathic and chronic pain. Another important cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, and antiseizure properties without the intoxicating effects of THC. Other minor cannabinoids, such as cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), also exhibit interesting pharmacological properties.

Since cannabinoids are the major active ingredients found in cannabis, it makes sense to classify cannabis from a chemotaxonomic perspective according to cannabinoid levels for both medical and legal purposes. Early studies noted that cannabis used for fiber tended to have higher levels of CBD, whereas cannabis used for drug purposes had higher levels of THC

Terpenoids represent another interesting group of biologically active compounds found in cannabis. Due to their volatile nature, the mono- and sesquiterpenoids found in cannabis contribute to the plants’ aroma and flavor. About 100 terpenoids have been identified in cannabis, many of which are found in other plants. Both cannabinoids and terpenoids are produced in the trichomes of cannabis, which are found at highest density on female flower buds.Terpenoids are usually present in cannabis flower buds in the 0.5–3.5% range and are found at significant levels in cannabis smoke and vapor. As biologically active compounds, terpenoids may play a role in the overall effects of herbal cannabis.

The popularly understood distinctions between indica and sativa may have more to do with aroma and subjective effects than plant morphology. Recent studies have shown that terpenoids are useful in distinguishing cannabis cultivars that have similar cannabinoid content. A study of cannabinoid and terpenoid profiles among medical cannabis samples analyzed by a cannabis testing laboratory in California found a continuum of terpenoid profiles among the wide variety of sample names.Another study found that cannabis samples described as indica contained more myrcene and hydroxylated terpenoids, whereas those described as sativa tended to contain more terpinolene, 3-carene, and a few specified sesquiterpenes.”

“Due to its astonishing efficacy, nowadays cannabis is prescribed by physicians for the treatment of neurological, psychiatric, immunological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and oncological conditions. The active principles inside plants have been exploited by humans for centuries, with Cannabis sativa being one of the oldest ever used for medicinal purposes. Surprisingly, contrary to whole plant extracts, medicinal products containing exclusively THC have been found to lack efficacy and lead to unbearable side effects. These results arise from the fact that these products lack other important co-factors typically found in the Phyto-complex, such as terpenoids and other cannabinoids that contribute to the synergistic effects seen with whole plant extracts.”

“In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa. Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Interestingly, treatments based on the use of cannabis flowers or their derivatives have been shown to be very effective, while therapies based on drugs containing THC alone lack therapeutic value and lead to increased side effects, likely resulting from the absence of other pivotal entourage compounds found in the Phyto-complex. Among these compounds are terpenoids,”


“Terpenoids: natural products for cancer therapy.”

“Inhibition of tumor progression by naturally occurring terpenoids.”

“Terpenoids as anti-colon cancer agents – A comprehensive review on its mechanistic perspectives.”


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A Conversion of Oral Cannabidiol to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Seems Not to Occur in Humans

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“Cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of hemp, does not bind to CB1 receptors and is therefore devoid of psychotomimetic properties. Under acidic conditions, CBD can be transformed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. It has been argued that this may occur also after oral administration in humans. However, the experimental conversion of CBD to THC and delta8-THC in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is a highly artificial approach that deviates significantly from physiological conditions in the stomach; therefore, SGF does not allow an extrapolation to in vivo conditions.

Unsurprisingly, the conversion of oral CBD to THC and its metabolites has not been observed to occur in vivo, even after high doses of oral CBD. In addition, the typical spectrum of side effects of THC, or of the very similar synthetic cannabinoid nabilone, as listed in the official Summary of Product Characteristics (e.g., dizziness, euphoria/high, thinking abnormal/concentration difficulties, nausea, tachycardia) has not been observed after treatment with CBD in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, the conversion of CBD to THC in SGF seems to be an in vitro artifact.

Over 40 years of research on CBD does not suggest a conversion of CBD to delta9-THC and/or other cannabinoids in vivo after oral administration. Such transformation occurs under artificial conditions, but is without any relevance for an oral therapy with CBD.”

“Cannabidiol Does Not Convert to THC In Vivo. Although CBD Can Be Transformed to THC Under Acidic Conditions, the Conversion of Oral CBD Doesn’t Occur In Vivo”

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