“The incidence of atherosclerosis is increasing rapidly all over the world. Inflammatory processes have outstanding role in coronary artery disease (CAD) etiology and other atherosclerosis manifestations. Recently attentions have been increased about gut microbiota in many fields of medicine especially in inflammatory diseases like atherosclerosis. Ineffectiveness in gut barrier functions and subsequent metabolic endotoxemia (caused by rise in plasma lipopolysaccharide levels) is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation i.e. a recognized feature of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the role of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut bacterial metabolite has been suggested in atherosclerosis development. On the other hand, the effectiveness of gut microbiota modulation that results in TMAO reduction has been investigated. Moreover, considerable evidence supports a role for the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in atherosclerosis pathology which affects gut microbiota, but their effects on atherosclerosis are controversial. Therefore, we presented some evidence about the relationship between gut microbiota and ECS in atherosclerosis. We also presented evidences that gut microbiota modulation by pre/probiotics can have significant influence on the ECS.
Even though there are many questions which have been unanswered, studies demonstrated that mucosal barrier function disruption and subsequent gut microbiota-derived endotoxemia could contribute to cardiometabolic diseases pathogenesis. As well, number of studies revealed that TMAO in systemic circulation can activate macrophages which lead to cholesterol accumulation and subsequent foam cells formation in atherosclerotic lesions. On the other hand, accumulating evidence proposes that ECS involved in many physiological processes that are related to maintenance of gut-barrier function and inflammation regulation. Hence, although present literature review provides beneficial evidence in support of crosstalk between ECS and gut microbiota, additional studies are needed to clarify whether gut microbiota modulation can alter ECS tone and inflammation levels or not.”