“Hallmark features of acute kidney injury (AKI) include mobilization of immune and inflammatory mechanisms culminating in tissue injury. Emerging information indicates heterogeneity of neutrophils with pro- and anti-inflammatory functions (N1 and N2, respectively). Also, regulatory T-17 (Treg17) cells curtail Th-17-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. However, the status of Treg17 cells and neutrophil phenotypes in AKI are not established.
Further, cannabidiol exerts immunoregulatory effects but its impact on Treg17 cells and neutrophil subtypes is not established. Thus, we examined the status of Treg17 cells and neutrophil subtypes in AKI and determined whether cannabidiol favors regulatory neutrophils and T cells accompanied with renoprotection.
Importantly, cannabidiol treatment preserved ψm, reduced cell death and KIM-1 accompanied by restoration of N1 and N2 imbalance and preservation of Treg17 cells while decreasing Th-17 cells. The ability of cannabidiol to favor development of Treg17 cells was further established using functional mixed lymphocytic reaction. Subsequent studies showed higher renal blood flow and reduced serum creatinine in cannabidiol-treated IRI animals.
Collectively, our novel observations establish that renal IRI causes neutrophil polarization in favor of N1 and also reduces Treg17 cells in favor of Th-17, effects that are reversed by cannabidiol treatment accompanied with significant renoprotection.”