Repetitive high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation reverses depressive-like behaviors and protein expression at hippocampal synapses in chronic unpredictable stress-treated rats by enhancing endocannabinoid signaling.

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior“The anti-depressant effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a clinically-useful treatment for depression, is associated with changes to the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

However, it is currently unknown whether different frequencies of rTMS alter the ECS differently. To test this, rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were treated with rTMS at two different frequencies (5 (high) or 1 Hz (low), 1.26 Tesla) for 7 consecutive days.

Interestingly, we found that only high-frequency rTMS ameliorated depressive-like behaviors and normalized the expression of hippocampal synaptic proteins in CUS-treated rats;

Collectively, our results suggest that high-frequency rTMS exerts its anti-depressant effect by up-regulating diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) and cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31229467

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305719301376?via%3Dihub

Transcranial magnetic stimulation.jpg

“Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), also known as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), is a noninvasive form of brain stimulation in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current at a specific area of the brain through electromagnetic induction. An electric pulse generator, or stimulator, is connected to a magnetic coil, which in turn is connected to the scalp. The stimulator generates a changing electric current within the coil which induces a magnetic field; this field then causes a second inductance of inverted electric charge within the brain itself. Adverse effects of TMS are rare, and include fainting and seizure. Other potential issues include discomfort, pain, hypomania, cognitive change, hearing loss, and inadvertent current induction in implanted devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators”  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091305719301376?via%3Dihub

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