“In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and the POMC-derived peptide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) promote satiety. POMC neurons receive orexin-A (OX-A)-expressing inputs and express both OX-A receptor type 1 (OX-1R) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) on the plasma membrane.
OX-A is crucial for the control of wakefulness and energy homeostasis and promotes, in OX-1R-expressing cells, the biosynthesis of the endogenous counterpart of marijuana’s psychotropic and appetite-inducing component Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, i.e., the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), which acts at CB1R.
We report that OX-A/OX-1R signaling at POMC neurons promotes 2-AG biosynthesis, hyperphagia, and weight gain by blunting α-MSH production via CB1R-induced and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation- and STAT3 inhibition-mediated suppression ofPomcgene transcription. Because the systemic pharmacological blockade of OX-1R by SB334867 caused anorectic effects by reducing food intake and body weight, our results unravel a previously unsuspected role for OX-A in endocannabinoid-mediated promotion of appetite by combining OX-induced alertness with food seeking. Notably, increased OX-A trafficking was found in the fibers projecting to the ARC of obese mice (ob/oband high-fat diet fed) concurrently with elevation of OX-A release in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of mice.
Furthermore, a negative correlation between OX-A and α-MSH serum levels was found in obese mice as well as in human obese subjects (body mass index > 40), in combination with elevation of alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase, two markers of fatty liver disease.
These alterations were counteracted by antagonism of OX-1R, thus providing the basis for a therapeutic treatment of these diseases.”