“Sepsis represents a dysregulated immune response to infection, with a continuum of severity progressing to septic shock. This dysregulated response generally follows a pattern by which an initial hyperinflammatory phase is followed by a state of sepsis-associated immunosuppression.
Major challenges in improving sepsis care include developing strategies to ensure early and accurate identification and diagnosis of the disease process, improving our ability to predict outcomes and stratify patients, and the need for novel sepsis-specific treatments such as immunomodulation.
Biomarkers offer promise with all three of these challenges and are likely also to be the solution to determining a patient’s immune status; something that is critical in guiding effective and safe immunomodulatory therapy. Currently available biomarkers used in sepsis lack sensitivity and specificity, among other significant shortcomings.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an emerging topic of research with evidence suggesting a ubiquitous presence on both central and peripheral tissues, including an intrinsic link with immune function. This review will first discuss the state of sepsis biomarkers and lack of available treatments, followed by an introduction to the ECS and a discussion of its potential to provide novel biomarkers and treatments.”