Therapeutic prospects of cannabidiol for alcohol use disorder and alcohol-related damages on the liver and the brain

 Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a natural compound of cannabis, which exerts complex and widespread immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antiepileptic properties. Many experimental data suggest that CBD could have several types of application in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-related damage on the brain and the liver.

Experimental studies converge to find that CBD reduces the overall level of alcohol drinking in animal models of AUD by reducing ethanol intake, motivation for ethanol, relapse, and by decreasing anxiety and impulsivity. Moreover, CBD has been shown to reduce alcohol-related steatosis and fibrosis in the liver by reducing lipid accumulation, stimulating autophagy, modulating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, and inducing death of activated hepatic stellate cells. Last, CBD has been found to reduce alcohol-related brain damage, preventing neuronal loss by its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.

CBD could directly reduce alcohol drinking in subjects with AUD. But other original applications warrant human trials in this population. By reducing alcohol-related processes of steatosis in the liver, and brain alcohol-related damage, CBD could improve both the hepatic and neurocognitive outcomes of subjects with AUD, regardless of the individual drinking trajectories. This might pave the way for testing new harm reduction approaches in AUD, i.e., for protecting the organs of subjects with an ongoing AUD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.00627/abstract

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Parameters of the Endocannabinoid System as Novel Biomarkers in Sepsis and Septic Shock.

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“Sepsis represents a dysregulated immune response to infection, with a continuum of severity progressing to septic shock. This dysregulated response generally follows a pattern by which an initial hyperinflammatory phase is followed by a state of sepsis-associated immunosuppression.

Major challenges in improving sepsis care include developing strategies to ensure early and accurate identification and diagnosis of the disease process, improving our ability to predict outcomes and stratify patients, and the need for novel sepsis-specific treatments such as immunomodulation.

Biomarkers offer promise with all three of these challenges and are likely also to be the solution to determining a patient’s immune status; something that is critical in guiding effective and safe immunomodulatory therapy. Currently available biomarkers used in sepsis lack sensitivity and specificity, among other significant shortcomings.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an emerging topic of research with evidence suggesting a ubiquitous presence on both central and peripheral tissues, including an intrinsic link with immune function. This review will first discuss the state of sepsis biomarkers and lack of available treatments, followed by an introduction to the ECS and a discussion of its potential to provide novel biomarkers and treatments.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29104224

http://www.mdpi.com/2218-1989/7/4/55

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Cannabidiol Activates Neuronal Precursor Genes in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

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“In the last years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from oral tissues have received considerable interest in regenerative medicine since they can be obtained with minimal invasive procedure and exhibit immunomodulatory properties.

This study was aimed to investigate whether in vitro pre-treatment of MSCs obtained from human gingiva (hGMSCs) with Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid component produced by the plant Cannabis sativa, may promote human gingiva derived MSCs to differentiate towards neuronal precursor cells.

From our results we hypothesize that human gingiva-derived MSCs conditioned with CBD could represent a valid method for improving the hGMSCs phenotype and thus might be a potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27918106

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The Potential Role of Cannabinoids in Modulating Serotonergic Signaling by Their Influence on Tryptophan Metabolism.

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“Phytocannabinoids present in Cannabis plants are well known to exert potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

Previously, we have demonstrated that the psychoactive D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD) modulate mitogen-induced Th1-type immune responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

The suppressive effect of both cannabinoids on mitogen-induced tryptophan degradation mediated by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), suggests an additional mechanism by which antidepressive effects of cannabinoids might be linked to the serotonergic system.

Here, we will review the role of tryptophan metabolism in the course of cell mediated immune responses and the relevance of cannabinoids in serotonergic signaling.

We conclude that in particular the non-psychotropic CBD might be useful for the treatment of mood disorders in patients with inflammatory diseases, since this cannabinoid seems to be safe and its effects on activation-induced tryptophan degradation by CBD were more potent as compared to THC.”

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[Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis — therapeutically reasonable?].

“For centuries extracts from the Cannabis sativa plant have been used for recreational use and as remedies.

Anecdotal reports from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experiencing relief of their spasticity and pain after smoking marihuana have prompted discussions about a potential therapeutic application of cannabis preparations in MS.

Only recently the first large, multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled study was conducted evaluating the use of cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to MS.

Based on this trial and previous uncontrolled observations together with insights from basic research and animal experiments there is reasonable evidence for the therapeutical employment of cannabinoids in the treatment of MS related symptoms.

Furthermore, data are arising that cannabinoids have immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties.

This article summarizes the present knowledge of clinical and experimental research regarding the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of MS.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16052440

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Pure Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and a Cannabis sativa extract with high content in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin inhibit nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages.

“Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects.

We have here investigated the effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and of a Cannabis sativa extract with high (64.8%) content in THCV (THCV-BDS) on nitric oxide (NO) production, and on cannabinoid and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages.

THCV-BDS and THCV exhibited similar affinity in radioligand binding assays for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and inhibited, via CB2 but not CB1 cannabinoid receptors, nitrite production evoked by LPS in peritoneal macrophages.

THCV down-regulated the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) proteins induced by LPS.

Furthermore, THCV counteracted LPS-induced up-regulation of CB1 receptors, without affecting the changes in CB2, TRPV2 or TRPV4 mRNA expression caused by LPS. Other TRP channels, namely, TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPM8 were poorly expressed or undetectable in both unstimulated and LPS-challenged macrophages.

It is concluded that THCV – via CB2 receptor activation – inhibits nitrite production in macrophages. The effect of this phytocannabinoid was associated with a down-regulation of CB1, but not CB2 or TRP channel mRNA expression.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498155

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Arthritis and cannabinoids: HU-210 and Win-55,212-2 prevent IL-1alpha-induced matrix degradation in bovine articular chondrocytes in-vitro.

 

“Cannabinoids have analgesic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties and attenuate joint damage in animal models of arthritis.

Chondrocytes appeared to constitutively express cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.

It is concluded that biologically stable synthetic cannabinoids protect cartilage matrix from degradation induced by cytokines and this effect is possibly CB-receptor mediated and involves effects on prostaglandin and nitric oxide metabolism.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16536902

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Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption.

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“Cannabinoids, components of the Cannabis sativa (marijuana) plant, are known to exert potent anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and analgesic effects through activation of cannabinoid-1 and -2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors located in the central nervous system and immune cells.

The limitation of the therapeutic utility of the major cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is the development of psychoactive effects through central nervous system CB1 receptor. In contrast, cannabidiol (CBD), one of the most abundant cannabinoids of Cannabis sativa with reported antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects is well tolerated without side effects when chronically administered to humans and is devoid of psychoactive properties due to a low affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors.

A nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has recently been reported to lower the incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice and to preserve the blood-retinal barrier in experimental diabetes.

In this study we have investigated the effects of CBD on high glucose (HG)-induced, mitochondrial superoxide generation, NF-κB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, monocyte-endothelial adhesion, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and disruption of endothelial barrier function in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs).

HG markedly increased mitochondrial superoxide generation (measured by flow cytometry using MitoSOX), NF-κB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, upregulation of iNOS and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and monocyte-endothelial adhesion in HCAECs. HG also decreased endothelial barrier function measured by increased permeability and diminished expression of vascular endothelial cadherin in HCAECs.

Remarkably, all the above mentioned effects of HG were attenuated by CBD pretreatment.

Since a disruption of the endothelial function and integrity by HG is a crucial early event underlying the development of various diabetic complications, our results suggest that CBD, which has recently been approved for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans, may have significant therapeutic benefits against diabetic complications and atherosclerosis.

Collectively, our results suggest that the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid CBD have significant therapeutic benefits against diabetic complications and atherosclerosis by attenuating HG-induced mitochondrial superoxide generation, increased NF-κB activation, upregulation of iNOS and adhesion molecules, 3-NT formation, monocyte-endothelial adhesion, TEM of monocytes, and disruption of the endothelial barrier function.

This is particularly encouraging in light of the excellent safety and tolerability profile of CBD in humans.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2228254/

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Decreased prevalence of diabetes in marijuana users: cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III

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“To determine the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and marijuana use.

We hypothesised that the prevalence of DM would be reduced in marijuana users due to the presence of one or more cannabinoids because of their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

Our analyses of adults aged 20–59 years in the NHANES III database showed that participants who used marijuana had lower prevalence of DM and had lower odds of DM relative to non-marijuana users.

We did not find an association between the use of marijuana and other chronic diseases, such as hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure.

Marijuana use was independently associated with a lower prevalence of DM.

In conclusion, marijuana use was associated with a decreased prevalence of DM.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289985/

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Up-regulation of immunomodulatory effects of mouse bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells by tetrahydrocannabinol pre-treatment involving cannabinoid receptor CB2.

“Chronic pain is commonly and closely correlated with inflammation.

Both cannabinoid signaling and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to reduce inflammatory pain.

Although cannabinoid signaling is essential for mesenchymal stem cell survival and differentiation, little is known about its role in modulatory effect of MSCs on inflammation and pain sensitivity. Here we showed that mouse bone-marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) expressed both cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). CB2 expression level in BM-MSCs increased with their maturation.

In addition, we found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) activated CB2 receptor and ERK signaling, consequently enhancing the modulation of MSCs on inflammation-associated cytokine release from lipopolysaccharides-stimulated microglia.

Consistent with in vitro data, THC pretreatment enhanced the immunomodulatory effects of BM-MSC on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in chronic constriction injury model, by decreasing the release of pro-inflammation cytokines.

Our study revealed the crucial role of THC in promoting the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs and proposed a new strategy to alleviate pain based on stem cells therapy.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824325

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