Nabiximols as an Agonist Replacement Therapy During Cannabis Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

“There are no medications approved for treating cannabis dependence or withdrawal. The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex), developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal…

The data support further evaluation of nabiximols for management of cannabis dependence and withdrawal in treatment-seeking populations.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24430917

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Δ(9)-THC and N-arachidonoyl glycine regulate BV-2 microglial morphology and cytokine release plasticity: implications for signaling at GPR18.

“Microglial cells are extremely plastic and undergo a variety of CNS-prompted shape changes relative to their location and current role. Signaling molecules from neurons also regulate microglial cytokine production. Neurons are known to employ the endogenous cannabinoid system to communicate with other cells of the CNS.

N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) signaling via GPR18 has been introduced as an important new target in microglial-neuronal communication…

These data add to an emerging profile that emphasizes NAGly as a component of an endogenous system present in the CNS that tightly integrates microglial proliferation, recruitment, and adhesion with neuron-glia interactivity and tissue remodeling.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24427137

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Effects of cannabinoid receptor type 2 on endogenous myocardial regeneration by activating cardiac progenitor cells in mouse infarcted heart.

“Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) activation is recently reported to promote proliferation of some types of resident stem cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell or neural progenitor cell).

Resident cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) activation and proliferation are crucial for endogenous cardiac regeneration and cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI). This study aims to explore the role and possible mechanisms of CB2 receptor activation in enhancing myocardial repair…

In conclusion, AM1241 could induce myocardial regeneration and improve cardiac function, which might be associated with PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway activation.

Our findings may provide a promising strategy for cardiac endogenous regeneration after MI.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24430557

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The Novel Endocannabinoid Receptor GPR18 is Expressed in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla and Exerts Tonic Restraining Influence on Blood Pressure.

“Systemic administration of the GPR18 agonist abnormal cannabidiol (Abn CBD) lowers blood pressure (BP).

These findings are the first to demonstrate GPR18 expression in the RVLM, and to suggest sympathoinhibitory role for this receptor. The findings yield new insight into the role of a novel cannabinoid receptor (GPR18) in central BP control.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24431468PR

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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: Analytical and phytochemical characterization of unsaponifiable fraction.

“Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively known as “hemp”, have been an important source of food, fiber and medicince for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components…

This study is an important contribution for Cannabis sativa L. valorization as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to research novel applications for hemp seed oil in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other non-food industries.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24422510

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A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment.

“Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) associated with allodynia poses a significant clinical challenge. The efficacy of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray, a novel cannabinoid formulation, was investigated in this 15-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study…

These findings demonstrate that, in a meaningful proportion of otherwise treatment-resistant patients, clinically important improvements in pain, sleep quality and SGIC of the severity of their condition are obtained with THC/CBD spray. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated and no new safety concerns were identified.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420962

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The endocannabinoid system: an emerging key player in inflammation.

“The purpose of this review is to illustrate the expanding view of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in relation to its roles in inflammation…

Diet is among the main factors determining synthesis and release of endocannabinoids and related mediators.

SUMMARY:

The complexity of what may be called the ‘endocannabinoidome’ requires approaches that take into account its dynamics and interconnections with other regulatory systems. This endocannabinoidome continues to offer possibilities for prevention and intervention, but multiple target approaches will probably provide the only keys to success.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24419242

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Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat.

“Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain.

In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation…

These results indicate that the changes in neurogenic, apoptotic and gliotic processes that were produced by repeated cocaine administration were normalized by pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restorative effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with the prevention of the induction of conditioned locomotion but not with the prevention of cocaine-induced sensitization.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24409127

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CB2 Receptor Deficiency Increases Amyloid Pathology and Alters Tau Processing in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.

“The endocannabinoid CB2 receptor system has been implicated in the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)…

The results confirm the constitutive role of the CB2 receptor system both in reducing amyloid plaque pathology in AD and also support the potential of cannabinoid therapies targeting CB2 to reduce Aβ…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24408112

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Modulation of Gut-Specific Mechanisms by Chronic Δ9-THC Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus: A Systems Biology Analysis.

“Our studies have demonstrated that chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration results in a generalized attenuation of viral load and tissue inflammation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques…

Our results indicate that chronic THC treatment modulated duodenal T cell populations, favored a pro-Th2 cytokine balance, and decreased intestinal apoptosis.

These findings reveal novel mechanisms that may potentially contribute to cannabinoid-mediated disease modulation.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24400995

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