A Multiple-Dose, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group QT/QTc Study to Evaluate the Electrophysiologic Effects of THC/CBD Spray.

“Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray has proved efficacious in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.

A thorough QT/QTc study was performed to investigate the effects of THC/CBD spray on electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters in compliance with regulatory requirements, evaluating the effect of a recommended daily dose (8 sprays/day) and supratherapeutic doses (24 or 36 sprays/day) of THC/CBD spray on the QT/QTc interval in 258 healthy volunteers.

The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of THC/CBD spray were also evaluated. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of THC/CBD spray had no effect on cardiac repolarization with primary and secondary endpoints of QTcI and QTcF/QTcB, respectively, showing similar results. There was no indication of any effect on heart rate, atrioventricular conduction, or cardiac depolarization and no new clinically relevant morphological changes were observed.

Overall, 19 subjects (25.0%) in the supratherapeutic (24/36 daily sprays of THC/CBD spray) dose group and one (1.6%) in the moxifloxacin group withdrew early due to intolerable AEs. Four psychiatric serious adverse events (AEs) in the highest dose group resulted in a reduction in the surpatherapeutic dose to 24 sprays/day.

In conclusion, THC/CBD spray does not significantly affect ECG parameters. Additionally, THC/CBD spray is well tolerated at therapeutic doses with an AE profile similar to previous clinical studies.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121791

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Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin.

“Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation.

Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing.

Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH).

We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process.

Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin.

Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical counter measures against vesicants.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27125198

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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of potent FAAH inhibitors.

“A new series of 3-carboxamido-5-aryl-isoxazoles was designed, synthesized and evaluated for their biological activity. Different pharmacomodulations have been explored and the lipophilicity of these compounds was assessed. Investigation of the in vitro biological activity led to the identification of 5 compounds as potent FAAH inhibitors, their good FAAH inhibition capacity is probably correlated with their suitable lipophilicity. Specifically, compound 25 showed similar inhibition potency against FAAH in comparison with URB597, one of the most potent FAAH inhibitor known to date.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117424

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Fatty Acid Binding Protein-1 (FABP1) and the Human FABP1 T94A Variant: Roles in the Endocannabinoid System and Dyslipidemias.

“The first discovered member of the mammalian FABP family, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP), occurs at high cytosolic concentration in liver, intestine, and in the case of humans also in kidney.

While the rat FABP1 is well studied, the extent these findings translate to human FABP1 is not clear-especially in view of recent studies showing that endocannabinoids and cannabinoids represent novel rat FABP1 ligands and FABP1 gene ablation impacts the hepatic endocannabinoid system, known to be involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) development.

Although not detectable in brain, FABP1 ablation nevertheless also impacts brain endocannabinoids. Despite overall tertiary structure similarity, human FABP1 differs significantly from rat FABP1 in secondary structure, much larger ligand binding cavity, and affinities/specificities for some ligands. Moreover, while both mouse and human FABP1 mediate ligand induction of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα), they differ markedly in pattern of genes induced.

This is critically important because a highly prevalent human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (26-38 % minor allele frequency and 8.3 ± 1.9 % homozygous) results in a FABP1 T94A substitution that further accentuates these species differences. The human FABP1 T94A variant is associated with altered body mass index (BMI), clinical dyslipidemias (elevated plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol), atherothrombotic cerebral infarction, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Resolving human FABP1 and the T94A variant’s impact on the endocannabinoid and cannabinoid system is an exciting challenge due to the importance of this system in hepatic lipid accumulation as well as behavior, pain, inflammation, and satiety.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117865

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WHERE’s MY ENTOURAGE? THE CURIOUS CASE OF 2-oleoylglycerol, 2-linolenoylglycerol, and 2-palmitoylglycerol.

“2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is the most abundant endogenous cannabinoid in the brain and an agonist at two cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). The synthesis, degradation and signaling of 2-AG have been investigated in detail but its relationship to other endogenous monoacylglycerols has not been fully explored.

Three congeners that have been isolated from the CNS are 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG), 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG), and 2-palmitoylglycerol (2-PG). These lipids do not orthosterically bind to cannabinoid receptors but are reported to potentiate the activity of 2-AG, possibly through inhibition of 2-AG degradation. This phenomenon has been dubbed the ‘entourage effect’ and has been proposed to regulate synaptic activity of 2-AG. To clarify the activity of these congeners of 2-AG we tested them in neuronal and cell-based signaling assays.

The signaling profile for these compounds is inconsistent with an entourage effect. None of the compounds inhibited neurotransmission via CB1 in autaptic neurons. Interestingly, each failed to potentiate 2-AG-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE), behaving instead as antagonists. Examining other signaling pathways we found that 2-OG interferes with agonist-induced CB1 internalization while 2-PG modestly internalizes CB1 receptors. However in tests of pERK, cAMP and arrestin recruitment, none of the acylglycerols altered CB1 signaling.

Our results suggest 1) that these compounds do not serve as entourage compounds under the conditions examined, and 2) that they may instead serve as functional antagonists. Our results suggest that the relationship between 2-AG and its congeners is more nuanced than previously appreciated.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117667

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Marijuana is medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association concludes

“Marijuana is one hundred percent a form of medicine, researchers conclude in a bombshell series of reports released by the Journal of the American Medical Association. Cannabis has been used medicinally for thousands of years” http://blog.sfgate.com/smellthetruth/2015/06/23/marijuana-is-medicine-journal-of-the-american-medical-association-concludes/

Marijuana is medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association concludes

“Cannabinoids for Medical Use. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.”  http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2338251

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Cannabimovone, a Cannabinoid with a Rearranged Terpenoid Skeleton from Hemp

“An investigation of the polar fractions from a nonpsychotropic variety of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) afforded cannabimovone, a polar cannabinoid with a rearranged 2(34) abeo-terpenoid skeleton, biogenetically originating from the intramolecular aldolization of a 2′,3′-seco-menthanyl precursor.

The structure of cannabimovone was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, whereas attempts to mimic its biogenetic derivation from cannabidiol gave only anhydrocannabimovone, the intramolecular oxy-Michael adduct of the crotonized version of the elusive natural products.

Biological evaluation of cannabimovone against metabotropic (CB1, CB2) and ionotropic (TRPs) cannabinoid receptors showed a significant activity only for ionotropic receptors, especially TRPV1, whereas anhydrocannabimovone exhibited strong activity at both ionotropic and metabotropic cannabinoid receptors.

Overall, the biological profile of anhydrocannabimovone was somewhat similar to that of THC, suggesting a remarkable tolerance to constitutional and configurational changes.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejoc.200901464/abstract

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Synthesis of (-)-Cannabimovone and Structural Reassignment of Anhydrocannabimovone through Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization.

“The first total synthesis of cannabimovone from Cannabis sativa and anhydrocannabimovone was achieved by means of a highly stereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization. The results led to reassignment of the structure of anhydrocannabimovone.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27119910

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[Cannabinoid WIN55, 212-2 inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of human SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

“Objective To investigate the effects of WIN55, 212-2 (WIN) on the proliferation, invasion and migration of SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and its underlying mechanisms. Methods SMMC-7721 cells were treated with (0, 1, 5, 10, 20) μmol/L WIN, and cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay. The morphological changes of the cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope with Hoechst33258 staining. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry combined with annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins P53, P21, Bcl-2 and Bax, and the phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) were analyzed by Western blotting. Transwell(TM) invasion assay was used to detect cell invasion ability. Would healing assay was performed to test cell migration ability. The expression level of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) was evaluated by Western blotting. Results WIN inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. After treatment with WIN, the cell nucleus concentrated and broken, indicating obvious cell apoptosis. Western blotting exhibited an up-regulation in the protein expression of P53, P21 and Bax. And the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was repressed. The expression levels of AKT, p-AKT and p-ERK were down-regulated, whereas the expression of total ERK was not obviously changed. Compared with control group, there was a significant inhibition of cell invasion and migration abilities when SMMC-7721 cells were treated with WIN. The expression level of MMP-14 decreased as well. Conclusion WIN can inhibit the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells and induce cell apoptosis. The mechanism is associated with the activation of P53 and the inhibition of AKT, p-AKT and p-ERK. WIN can inhibit the invasion and migration of SMMC-7721 cells through down-regulating the protein expression of MMP-14.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126940

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The Endocannabinoid System: An Osteopathic Perspective

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“A person is the product of dynamic interaction between body, mind, and spirit—This holistic principle is exemplified by cannabinoid receptors, which span the field of psychoneuroimmunology. Taken together, CB1, CB2, and their endocannabinoid ligands represent a microcosm of mind-body medicine. The primary purpose of the current article is to review the expanding endocannabinoid literature beginning with exogenous compounds—Cannabis and plant cannabinoids—and then shift to the endogenous system, highlighting embryology and development, neuroprotection, autonomics and immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, hunger and feeding, and nociception and pain.” http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2093607

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