Anandamide, Acting via CB2 Receptors, Alleviates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Rat Primary Microglial Cultures.

“Microglial activation is a polarized process divided into potentially neuroprotective phenotype M2 and neurotoxic phenotype M1, predominant during chronic neuroinflammation.

Endocannabinoid system provides an attractive target to control the balance between microglial phenotypes.

Anandamide as an immune modulator in the central nervous system acts via not only cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) but also other targets (e.g., GPR18/GPR55).

In summary, we showed that the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the management of neuroinflammation by dampening the activation of an M1 phenotype. This effect was primarily controlled by the CB2 receptor, although functional cross talk with GPR18/GPR55 may occur.”

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No smoke, no fire: What the initial literature suggests regarding vapourized cannabis and respiratory risk

“Given current limitations in developing an inhalant alternative for delivering cannabis medication, smoked marijuana remains the most readily accessible form of cannabis among medicinal users…

Cannabis actually served as an asthma treatment in the 1800s and, perhaps, in ancient times…

Informed health care professionals may consider making recommendations to their medicinal cannabis patients for vapourization of the plant, particularly for those who want the rapid relief that oral administration fails to provide.

It is not our intention to encourage inappropriate use of the plant, but to increase safety for those who choose to use it.

Vapourization of cannabis is likely less harmful than smoking.

Preliminary findings do support the idea that vapourization is an improvement over smoking.”

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Emerging targets in treating pain.

“Chronic pain poses an enormous socioeconomic burden for the more than 30% of people who suffer from it, costing over $600 billion per year in the USA. In recent years, there has been a surge in preclinical and clinical research endeavors to try to stem this epidemic. Preclinical studies have identified a wide array of potential targets, with some of the most promising translational research being performed on novel opioid receptors, cannabinoid receptors, selective ion channel blockers, cytokine inhibitors, nerve growth factor inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, glial cell inhibitors, and bisphosphonates.


There are many obstacles for the development of effective medications to treat chronic pain, including the inherent challenges in identifying pathophysiological mechanisms, the overlap and multiplicity of pain pathways, and off-target adverse effects stemming from the ubiquity of drug target receptor sites and the lack of highly selective receptor ligands. Despite these barriers, the number and diversity of potential therapies have continued to grow, to include disease-modifying and individualized drug treatments.”

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Endocannabinoids drive the acquisition of an alternative phenotype in microglia.

“The ability of microglia to acquire diverse states of activation, or phenotypes, reflects different features that are determinant for their contribution to homeostasis in the adult CNS, and their activity in neuroinflammation, repair or immunomodulation.

Despite the widely reported immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids in both the peripheral immune system and the CNS, less is known about how the endocannabinoid signaling system (eCBSS) influence the microglial phenotype.

The general aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endocannabinoids in microglia polarization by using microglia cell cultures.

We show that alternative microglia (M2a) and acquired deactivated microglia (M2c) exhibit changes in the eCB machinery that favor the selective synthesis of 2-AG and AEA, respectively.

Once released, these eCBs might be able to act through CB1 and/or CB2 receptors in order to influence the acquisition of an M2 phenotype.

We present three lines of evidence that the eCBSS is critical for the acquisition of the M2 phenotype: (i) M2 polarization occurs on exposure to the two main endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA in microglia cultures; (ii)cannabinoid receptor antagonists block M2 polarization; and, (iii) M2 polarization is dampened in microglia from CB2 receptor knockout mice.

Taken together, these results indicate the interest of eCBSS for the regulation of microglial activation in normal and pathological conditions.”

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Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in a Mouse Model of Aβ Amyloidosis: Immunohistochemical Analysis and Suitability as a PET Biomarker of Neuroinflammation.

“In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), one of the early responses to Aβ amyloidosis is recruitment of microglia to areas of new plaque. Microglial receptors such as cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) might be a suitable target for development of PET radiotracers that could serve as imaging biomarkers of Aβ-induced neuroinflammation…

The presence of CB2 immunoreactivity in neurons does not likely contribute to the enhanced CB2 PET signal in amyloid-bearing mice due to a lack of significant neuronal loss in this model. However, significant loss of neurons as seen at late stages of AD might decrease the CB2 PET signal due to loss of neuronally-derived CB2.

Thus this study in mouse models of AD indicates that a CB2-specific radiotracer can be used as a biomarker of neuroinflammation in the early preclinical stages of AD, when no significant neuronal loss has yet developed.”

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Coadministration of indomethacin and minocycline attenuates established paclitaxel-induced neuropathic thermal hyperalgesia: Involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors.

“Taxanes such as paclitaxel, which are chemotherapeutic drugs, cause dose-dependent painful neuropathy in some patients.

We investigated whether coadministration of minocycline and indomethacin produces antinociceptive effects in mice with paclitaxel-induced neuropathic thermal hyperalgesia and if the cannabinoid system is involved…

In conclusion our results indicate that coadministration of minocycline and indomethacin abrogates established paclitaxel-induced neuropathic thermal hyperalgesia in mice, and the potentiation of the antinociceptive effects of this combination involves the cannabinoid system.”

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Bi-directional CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in anaesthetized rats: role of the paraventricular nucleus.

“The activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors decreases and increases blood pressure (BP) in anaesthetized and conscious rats, respectively. The aim of our study was to check the possible involvement of CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in rats.

In conclusion, the cannabinoid CP55940 administered to the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats can induce depressor and pressor effects. The direction of the response probably depends on the sympathetic tone. The centrally induced hypertensive response of CP55940 can, in addition, be masked by peripheral CB1 receptors.”

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Cannabis Use and Reduced Risk of Insulin Resistance in HIV-HCV Infected Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH).

“Diabetes and insulin resistance (IR) is common in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus (HIV-HCV)-coinfected patients…

Cannabis has been associated with reduced IR risk in some population-based surveys.

We determined whether cannabis use was consistently associated with reduced IR risk in HEPAVIH, a French nationwide cohort of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients…

Cannabis use is associated with a lower IR risk in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients.

The benefits of cannabis-based pharmacotherapies for patients concerned with increased risk of IR and diabetes need to be evaluated in clinical research and practice.”

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Brief Report: Cannabis Smoking and Diabetes Mellitus: Results from Meta-analysis with Eight Independent Replication Samples.

“Recently active cannabis smoking and diabetes mellitus are inversely associated…

…but there now is a more stable evidence base for new lines of clinical translational research on a possibly protective cannabis smoking-diabetes mellitus association suggested in prior research.”


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Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications.

“Increasing evidence suggests that an overactive endocannabinoid system (ECS) may contribute to the development of diabetes by promoting energy intake and storage, impairing both glucose and lipid metabolism, and by exerting pro-apoptotic effects in pancreatic β cells, and by facilitating inflammation in pancreatic islets.

Furthermore, hyperglycemia associated with diabetes has also been implicated in triggering perturbations of the ECS amplifying the above mentioned pathological processes, eventually culminating in a vicious circle.

Compelling evidence from preclinical studies indicates that the ECS also influences diabetes-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and subsequent tissue injury in target organs for diabetic complications.

In this review, we provide an update on the contribution of the ECS to the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and cardiovascular complications. The therapeutic potential of targeting the ECS is also discussed.”

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