[Ttextual research of Cannabis sativa varieties and medicinal part].

“Cannabis used now is identical with that described in ancient herbal literatures.

People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. sativa …unripe fruit, fruit and kernel of seed were all used..,both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part.


The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical.

The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern.

And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel.

The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. Sativa.”


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Cannabis (Medical Marijuana) Treatment for Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease: An Open-Label Observational Study.

“The use of cannabis as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions has been well documented…The aim of the present open-label observational study was to assess the clinical effect of cannabis on motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD).

Analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant improvement after treatment…

There was also significant improvement of sleep and pain scores. No significant adverse effects of the drug were observed.

The study suggests that cannabis might have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of PD.”


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A drug discovery case history of ‘delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol’.

“…the Cannabis sativa herb has been known for its therapeutic benefit for centuries… interest in the clinical potential of cannabinoid-based drugs escalated after the discovery of the endocannabinoid system… therapeutic applications of cannabinoids (plant-derived or synthetic)… may constitute a useful addition to the pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium in chronic conditions insufficiently alleviated by existing drugs.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22646020

“The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic exploitation.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15340387

“Cannabinoid receptors as therapeutic targets.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16402900

“Cannabinoids.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266285

“Plant, synthetic, and endogenous cannabinoids in medicine.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16409166

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Anti-cancer properties of Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) mushrooms

“Anti-cancer properties of triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum…Accumulated data show that triterpenoids exhibit a broad spectrum of anti-cancer properties, including anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic activities.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790022

“Ganoderma lucidum: a potential for biotechnological production of anti-cancer and immunomodulatory drugs.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227951

“Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in cancer treatment.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14713328

“Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22696372

“Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice…mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers… anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT)…Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3484149/

“Triterpenes from Ganoderma Lucidum induce autophagy in colon cancer… Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most esteemed natural products that have been used in the traditional Chinese medicine…G. lucidum triterpene extract (GLT) suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells…our data demonstrate a novel mechanism responsible for the inhibition of colon cancer cells by G. lucidum and suggest GLT as natural product for the treatment of colon cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20574924

“Anti-Tumor Effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in Inflammatory Breast Cancer in In Vivo and In Vitro Models. The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) was tested as a potential therapeutic for Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) using in vivo and in vitro IBC models… Because of its non-toxic and selective anti-cancer activity, medicinal mushroom extracts have received attention for their use in cancer therapy…Reishi is a potential natural therapeutic for breast and other cancers.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3585368/

“Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients…Preclinical studies have established that the Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) fractions have potent anti-tumor activity, which has been associated with the immuno-stimulating effects… The present study indicates that Ganopoly enhanced the immune responses in patients with advanced-stage cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12916709

“Biologic activity of spores and dried powder from Ganoderma lucidum for the inhibition of highly invasive human breast and prostate cancer cells. Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a home remedy to prevent or cure cancer. Ganoderma lucidum has demonstrated strong activity against breast and prostate cancer cells.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14499024

“Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells…Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi, Lingzhi) is a popular Asian mushroom that has been used for more than 2 millennia for the general promotion of health and was therefore called the “Mushroom of Immortality.” Ganoderma lucidum was also used in traditional Chinese medicine to prevent or treat a variety of diseases, including cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15489214

“Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells…implicate G. lucidum as a suitable herb for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of breast cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16865287

“Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Key Molecules in Inflammatory Breast Cancer.. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer…These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3201987/

Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells…Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), an oriental medical mushroom, has been widely used in Asian countries for centuries to prevent or treat different diseases, including cancer. Ganoderma lucidum exerts its effect on cancer cells by multiple mechanisms and may have potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15067330

“Pharmacological values of medicinal mushrooms for prostate cancer therapy: the case of Ganoderma lucidum.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19116872

“Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis…Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a popular medicinal mushroom that has been used as a home remedy for the general promotion of health and longevity in East Asia. The dried powder of G. lucidum was recommended as a cancer chemotherapy agent…our results suggest that G. lucidum inhibits prostate cancer-dependent angiogenesis and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of prostate cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15781230

Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells… Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth…Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21399867

Suppression of proliferation and oxidative stress by extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in the ovarian cancer cell line…Lingzhi (LZ) is a medical mushroom also known as Ganoderma lucidum, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 4,000 years…These findings indicate that Ganoderma lucidum possesses chemopreventive potential contributing to its overall health effects and further suggest that Ganoderma lucidum may have clinical applications as an adjunct supplementary agent in chemotherapy.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887458

“The in vitro and in vivo experimental evidences disclose the chemopreventive effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cancer invasion and metastasis. The Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst, an edible mushroom, has been utilized for centuries to prevent or treat various diseases and to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis… G. lucidum may be an effective nutraceutical used in the prevention of cancer metastasis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20461449

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Anti-cancer Medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill

“Effects of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on immunity, infection and cancer. Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) is an edible, medicinal mushroom of Brazilian origin. It is used traditionally against a range of diseases, including cancer…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18782264

“Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. The Basidiomycete fungus Agaricus blazei Murill has traditionally been used as a health food for the prevention of cancer. Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis. The beta-glucan-dependent signaling pathways are critical for our understanding of anticancer events and development of cancer therapeutic agents.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15883813

“Selective tumoricidal effect of soluble proteoglucan extracted from the basidiomycete, Agaricus blazei Murill, mediated via natural killer cell activation and apoptosis.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9625538

“Tumoricidal effects of beta-glucans: mechanisms include both antioxidant activity plus enhanced systemic and topical immunity. These results indicate the A. blazei extract may enhance not only the immnunomodulatory effects that promote activity of peritoneal exudate cells for tumor regression but also potentially result in the direct destruction of tumor cells through its antioxidant activity.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18791933

“Anti-tumor polysaccharide from the mycelium of liquid-cultured Agaricus blazei mill.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10319424

Agaritine from Agaricus blazei Murrill induces apoptosis in the leukemic cell line…Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) has been shown to exhibit immunostimulatory and anti-cancer activities…This is the first report suggesting that the anti-tumor effect of agaritine is mediated through apoptosis (programmed cell death). The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of anti-tumor drugs toward leukemia patients.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21382445

“An extract of Agaricus blazei Murill administered orally promotes immune responses in murine leukemia BALB/c mice in vivo.. The edible mushroom (fungus) Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) is a health food in many countries. Importantly, it has been shown to have antitumor and immune effects…ABM extract is likely to stimulate immunocytes and regulate immune response in leukemia mice in vivo.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22637937

 “The anti-tumorigenic mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill… (AbM) has been reported to possess immune activity against tumors and infections…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402498/
“Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy…might be beneficial for gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15304151

“The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation…The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168293/

Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murill and its mechanism of action…This is the first report of ergosterol as an antiangiogenic substance.”  http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/5/1409.long

“Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: its antitumor and antimetastatic actions…This is the first report showing that sodium pyroglutamate isolated from A. blazei as an anti-angiogenic substance has potent antitumor and antimetastatic actions, as well as immune-modulatory activity…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15471563

“A low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (LMPAB) exhibits anti-metastatic effect… indicating the potential of its clinical application for the prevention and treatment of cancer metastasis.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19885951

“Immunostimulatory activities of a low molecular weight antitumoral polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazeiMurill (LMPAB) in Sarcoma tumor-bearing mice”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19694186

“In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma by an alpha–glucan-beta–glucan-protein complex polysaccharide obtained from Agaricus blazei Murill…this polysaccharide probably could explain the ethnopharmacological use of this mushroom in the treatment of cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18726068

“Antitumor beta glucan from the cultured fruit body of Agaricus blazei.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11456124

Inhibitory mechanisms of Agaricus blazei Murill on the growth of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo…A. blazei might have potential therapeutic use in the prevention and treatment of human prostate cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18926679

“Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM), in Cancer Patients in Remission… This trial supports previous evidence that the ABM product is generally safe, excluding possible allergic reaction.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092499/

Quality of life improvements among cancer patients in remission following the consumption of Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom extract.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24050580

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Antitumor effects of edible mushroom Maitake (Grifola frondosa)

“Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide fraction extracted from cultured fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6491867

“Antitumor effects of a water-soluble extract from Maitake (Grifola frondosa) on human gastric cancer cell lines. We investigated the effects of a water-soluble extract of Maitake (Grifola frondosa), a Japanese edible mushroom, on the proliferation and cell death of four human gastric cancer cell lines. The Maitake extract (ME) inhibited the proliferation of all four cell lines in a time-dependent manner…these results suggest that ME induces apoptosis…resulting in potential antitumor effects on gastric cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19639212

“Maitake extracts and their therapeutic potential…premier culinary as well as medicinal mushroom. Maitake is increasingly being recognized as a potent source of polysaccharide compounds with dramatic health-promoting potential…MD-fraction, and other extracts, often in combination with whole maitake powder, have shown particular promise as immunomodulating agents, and as an adjunct to cancer…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207456

“Effect of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the activation of NK cells in cancer patients. Maitake D-Fraction, extracted from maitake mushroom, has been reported to exert its antitumor effect in tumor-bearing mice by enhancing the immune system…maitake D-Fraction appears to repress cancer progression…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14977447

“Effects of D-Fraction, a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa on tumor growth involve activation of NK cells.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12499658

“Effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the carcinoma angiogenesis…D-Fraction extracted from maitake (Grifola frondosa), activates immune competent cells, and indicates anti-tumor activities.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11566496

“Enhancement of cytotoxicity of NK cells by D-Fraction, a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa…D-Fraction, a polysaccharide extracted from the maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa), activates macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells and inhibits the growth of tumor cells.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15706424

“A polysaccharide extracted from Grifola frondosa enhances the anti-tumor activity of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell-based immunotherapy against murine colon cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20563803

“A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects. Cancer patients commonly use dietary supplements to “boost immune function”. A polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake extract) showed immunomodulatory effects in preclinical studies and therefore the potential for clinical use.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751581/

“Maitake (D fraction) mushroom extract induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells…For many years mushrooms have been used empirically in traditional medicine to treat several diseases…The identification of the molecular mechanisms by which D fraction exerts its effects is crucial for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21480800

“Maitake D-Fraction enhances antitumor effects and reduces immunosuppression by mitomycin-C in tumor-bearing mice. D-Fraction, a polysaccharide extracted from maitake mushrooms (Grifola frondosa), has been reported to exhibit an antitumor effect… These results suggest that D-Fraction can decrease the effective dosage in tumor-bearing mice by increasing the proliferation, differentiation, and activation of immunocompetent cells and thus provide a potential clinical benefit for patients with cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15850970

“Antitumor activity of a beta-1,3-glucan obtained from liquid cultured mycelium of Grifola frondosa.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3820062

“Physiochemical properties and antitumor activities of chemically modified derivatives of antitumor glucan “grifolan LE” from Grifola frondosa.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2805163

“Immunomodulating activities of cultivated maitake medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) S.F. Gray (higher Basidiomycetes)…Grifola frondosa is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that contains several physiologically active compounds, of which polysaccharides, specifically β-glucans, are known to possess immunomodulating properties…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510175

“Structure of a β-glucan from Grifola frondosa and its antitumor effect…This molecule could be a promising biological response modifier with clear application for antitumor therapies.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22744837

“Oral administration of soluble β-glucans extracted from Grifola frondosa induces systemic antitumor immune response and decreases immunosuppression in tumor-bearing mice. Maitake D (MD)-Fraction is a highly purified soluble β-glucan derived from Grifola frondosa (an oriental edible mushroom)…Our preclinical study suggests that MD-Fraction is a useful oral therapeutic agent in the management of patients with cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23280601

“Host-mediated antitumor effect of grifolan NMF-5N, a polysaccharide obtained from Grifola frondosa. These results suggested that grifolan NMF-5N shows antitumor activity via host-mediated mechanisms…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3446772

“Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa and its influence on immunological function.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12858772

“Administration of a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa stimulates immune function of normal mice…D-Fraction, a polysaccharide extracted from the edible maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa), activates immunocompetent cells, thereby eliciting antitumor activity… its administration may enhance host defense against foreign pathogens and protect healthy individuals from infectious diseases.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15298759

“Preparation of a chemically sulfated polysaccharide derived from Grifola frondosa and its potential biological activities…combination might increase cytotoxic efficacy and decrease toxicity of some chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16822541

“Antitumor activity exhibited by orally administered extract from fruit body of Grifola frondosa (maitake).” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3203420

“Nitric oxide-mediated antitumor activity induced by the extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom)…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11876556

Potential growth inhibitory effect of maitake D-fraction on canine cancer cells… The postulated anticancer effect of D-fraction, the bioactive extract of maitake mushroom, on three types of canine cancer cells was evaluated… D-fraction was highly effective on the canine cancer cells, either potently inhibiting cell growth or directly killing cells. Similar effects were also demonstrated in certain human cancer cells… D-fraction is a potent natural agent that could be useful in treating canine cancers as well as other veterinary cancers.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15719326

“Possible immunotherapeutic potentiation with D-fraction in prostate cancer cells.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613393/

“Inhibitory effect of MD-Fraction on tumor metastasis…The anti-metastatic activity of MD-Fraction extracted from the maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) was examined in an experimental murine model of lung metastasis…These results suggest that MD-Fraction inhibits tumor metastasis…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18520039

“A heteropolysaccharide, L-fuco-D-manno-1,6-α-D-galactan extracted from Grifola frondosa and antiangiogenic activity of its sulfated derivative… tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis dependent, thus blockade of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treatment of cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24299820

“Characterization and antitumor effect of a novel polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa. A novel polysaccharide, MZF… was isolated from Grifola frondosa…These results indicate that MZF is a novel effective immunomodulator that has antitumor activity…” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19839588

“Potential antitumor activity of a low-molecular-weight protein fraction from Grifola frondosa…clearly showed an inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136432

“Enhancement of in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of polysaccharide peptide from Grifola frondosa by chemical modifications.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21595572

“Genes related to suppression of malignant phenotype induced by Maitake D-Fraction in breast cancer cells. Maitake (D-Fraction) mushroom is involved in stimulating the immune system and activating certain cells that attack cancer… According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, polysaccharide complexes present in Maitake mushrooms appear to have significant anticancer activity. Altogether, these results suggest that Maitake D-Fraction could be a potential new target for breast cancer chemoprevention and treatment.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23875900

“Possible disease remission in patient with invasive bladder cancer with D-fraction regimen…To our knowledge, this is the first and only case report of possible disease remission in a bladder cancer patient…it is conceivable that D-fraction is a natural agent that may have clinical implications in patients with superficial bladder tumors.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840560/

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Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes)- Natural Antitumor Drug

“The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22583406

“Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by an ethyl acetate fraction from shiitake mushrooms. Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms have been reported to have cancer-preventing properties…These data suggest that inhibition of growth in tumor cells by “mycochemicals” in shiitake mushrooms may result from induction of apoptosis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566671

“Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15737684

“Antitumor effect of virus-like particles from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7271461

“Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). This study showed that the antitumor property of lentinan was maintained with oral administration.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12470439

“The Use of Lentinan for Treating Gastric Cancer. Natural compounds containing fungal β-glucans have been used to improve general health for thousands of years…Lentinan…is one of the active ingredients purified from Shiitake mushrooms and has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer in Japan.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3664515/

“[Anti tumor activities of lentinan and micellapist in tumor-bearing mice]… Lentinan (LNT) is sold as a medicine, and Micellapist (MME) sold as a food supplement, both LNT and MME are beta-glucans isolated from the Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)…tumor growth was significantly suppressed…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17212088

“Lentinula edodes mycelia (L.E.M.) is a dried powder extracted from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes)… Direct cytotoxicity of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line…may have potential chemotherapeutic applications for the treatment of HCC.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22791146

“Lentinus edodes: a macrofungus with pharmacological activities…Antibiotic, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral compounds have been isolated…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491636

A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia exhibits potential antitumor activity…could be explored as a potential antitumor material…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955351

“Immunological study on the antitumor effects of fungus polysaccharides compounds.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725070

“Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10702635

“Effect of the culture extract of Lentinus edodes mycelia on splenic sympathetic activity and cancer cell proliferation…These findings suggest that L.E.M has an inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19059811

“Effects of lentinan alone and in combination with fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent on growth of human oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that the combination of Lentinan and S-1 is effective against OSCC and has the potential of being a new therapeutic tool for future treatment of these tumors.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20664931

“Efficacy of orally administered Lentinula edodes mycelia extract for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy: a pilot study.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22126542

“An evidence-based review of a Lentinula edodes mushroom extract as complementary therapy in the surgical oncology patient.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21628606

“Lentinan from shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) suppresses expression of cytochrome P450 1A subfamily in the mouse liver.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15630237

“In vitro cytostatic and immunomodulatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes. Lentinula edodes, known as “shiitake” is one of the widely used medicinal mushrooms in the Orient. Antitumour activity of extracts of this mushroom has been widely demonstrated in animals and humans…  L. edodes aqueous extracts have demonstrated direct inhibition of the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and immunostimulatory properties…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18242970

“Oral ingestion of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract inhibits B16 melanoma growth via mitigation of regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21261790

“Oral ingestion of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract can restore the antitumor T cell response of mice inoculated with colon-26 cells into the subserosal space of the cecum…oral ingestion of Lentinula edodes mycelia (L.E.M.) extract can inhibit the growth of a subcutaneously established melanoma…important implications for anticancer immunotherapy of human colon cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086364

“Anticarcinogenic actions of water-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions from culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6891904

“Anticarcinogenic action of an alcohol-insoluble fraction (LAP1) from culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4039972

“[Evaluation of quality of life and immune function in cancer patients receiving combined immunotherapy and oral administration of lentinula edodes mycelia extract]. In this study, we evaluated the quality of life (QOL) and immune function in cancer patients receiving a combination of immunotherapy and oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM)…Oral administration of LEM may improve QOL and immunity in patients receiving cancer immunotherapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23267884

“Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked antitumor activity, especially lentinan, fromLentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an edible mushroom).”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5530561

“Purification, structural elucidation and antitumor activity of a novel mannogalactoglucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes… should be explored as potential antitumor agents and could be potentially applied as a natural antitumor drug.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23262267

“Structure, chain conformation and antitumor activity of a novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes…could be potentially applied as a natural antitumor drug.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20659533

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The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms

“The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms…dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22583406

“Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)”

Anti-cancer properties of triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790022


“Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)” 

“Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus… Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties… antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22217303


“A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus),” 

Anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects of Pleurotus ostreatus…could be used as immunomodulators and anti cancer agents.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782541


“Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes),” 

A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia exhibits potential antitumor activity…could be explored as a potential antitumor material…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955351


“and maitake (Grifola frondosa)”

Antitumor effects of a water-soluble extract from Maitake (Grifola frondosa) on human gastric cancer cell lines…potential antitumor effects on gastric cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19639212

“From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine…The chief medicinal uses of mushrooms discovered so far are as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, nephroprotective, and anti-microbial agents. The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3339609/

“Compounds from wild mushrooms with antitumor potential.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545620


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Anti-Cancer Effects of Calvatia lilacina, Pleurotus ostreatus and Volvariella volvacea

“Anti-Cancer Effects of Protein Extracts from Calvatia lilacina (CL)Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Volvariella volvacea (VV)… widely distributed worldwide and commonly eaten as mushrooms…the protein extracts of these mushrooms could be considered an important source of new anti-cancer drugs…”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139501/

“Calvatia lilacina (CL),” 

“Calvatia lilacina protein-extract induces apoptosis through glutathione depletion in human colorectal carcinoma cells. This paper reports that a novel protein extract isolated from Calvatia lilacina (CL) can induce cell death against four types of human colorectal cancer cells…we report here for the first time the anticancer effect of CL on human colorectal cancer cells…CL can thus provide the basis for the strategic design of a treatment of colorectal cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19182949


“Pleurotus ostreatus (PO),” 

“Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells…our results indicated that the edible oyster mushroom has potential therapeutic/preventive effects on breast and colon cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796484/


“and Volvariella volvacea (VV)”

Isolation and characterization of a lectin from edible mushroom, Volvariella volvacea… The lectin has a moderate inhibitory effect on the growth of tumor cells.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6541650

“Structures and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from mycelium of Volvariella volvacea.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1368842

“Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12436306

“Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22865023

“The protein extracts of CL, PO and VV can be considered as a source of potential cancer therapeutic agents.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139501/

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Anti-cancer effects of Pleurotus ostreatus

“Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells… our results indicated that the edible oyster mushroom has potential therapeutic/preventive effects on breast and colon cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796484/

“An aqueous polysaccharide extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects…Here, we describe a newly identified low-molecular-weight alpha-glucan with promising anti-tumorigenic properties, and demonstrate its direct effect on colon cancer cell proliferation via induction of programmed cell death.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16413114

“Anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia-derived proteoglycans…proteoglycans derived from the mushroom (P. ostreatus) mycelia could be used as immunomodulators and anti cancer agents.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782541

“Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)… Mushrooms have been used, as a source of food and for their medicinal (generally anticancer) properties, since ancient times. A number of biologically active compounds, including polysaccharides, vitamins, terpenes, steroids, amino acids, and trace elements, have been identified in different mushroom species…In conclusion, the results of our study show that the edible oyster mushroom possesses anti-inflammatory activity. As such, the mushroom and its extract or concentrate, can be considered a functional food that has the potential to control inflammation.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3120742/

“Anti-inflammatory plant natural products for cancer therapy.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432202

“Cytotoxic effect of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. A water-soluble extract (POE) prepared from the fresh oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus produced the most significant cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells among the mushroom species tested.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16822205

“Effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on pathological changes in dimethylhydrazine-induced rat coloncancer…a reduction in total number of tumours was observed in both groups of animals fed mushroom diet.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9538185

“The role of apoptosis, proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 protein in the preventive effects of dietary fiber treated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on rat-colon tumorigenesis was studied… corncob (treated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus) inhibits colon cancer development, and, therefore, may considered of potential use to the public.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9216672

“Anti-Cancer Effects of Protein Extracts from… Pleurotus ostreatus…protein extracts of these mushrooms could be considered an important source of new anti-cancer drugs.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139501/

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