Effects of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil Press-Cake and Decaffeinated Green Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis) on Functional Characteristics of Gluten-Free Crackers.

“A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers.

All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers.

All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves.

Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9.

This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24527987

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Human orexin/hypocretin receptors form constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other and with human CB1 cannabinoid receptors.

“Human OX1 orexin receptors have been shown to homodimerize and they have also been suggested to heterodimerize with CB1 cannabinoid receptors. The latter has been suggested to be important for orexin receptor responses and trafficking. In this study, we wanted to assess the ability of the other combinations of receptors to also form similar complexes…

In conclusion, orexin receptors have a significant propensity to make homo- and heterodi-/oligomeric complexes. However, it is unclear whether this affects their signaling. As orexin receptors efficiently signal via endocannabinoid production to CB1 receptors, dimerization could be an effective way of forming signal complexes with optimal cannabinoid concentrations available for cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24530395

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Targeting the cannabinoid system for pain relief?

“Marijuana has been used to relieve pain for centuries, but its analgesic mechanism has only been understood during the past two decades. It is mainly mediated by its constituents, cannabinoids, through activating central cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, as well as peripheral CB1 and CB2receptors.

CB2-selective agonists have the benefit of lacking CB1 receptor-mediated CNS side effects. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are two intensively studied endogenous lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, termed endocannabinoids, which are synthesized on demand and rapidly degraded…

In addition to the antinociceptive properties of  exogenous cannabinoids and endocannabinoids, involving their biosynthesis and degradation processes, we also review recent studies that revealed a novel analgesic mechanism, involving 2-AG in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain region for initiating descending pain inhibition…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529672

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Detailed characterization of the endocannabinoid system in human macrophages and foam cells, and anti-inflammatory role of type-2 cannabinoid receptor.

“Here, we sought to ascertain whether different elements of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) were activated in human lipid-laden macrophages, and whether CB2R played any role in atherogenesis and inflammation of these cells…

CONCLUSIONS:

A fully active ECS is present in human macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells. Selective activation of CB2R reduces CD36-dependent oxLDL accumulation and modulates production of inflammatory cytokines, thus representing a potential therapeutic strategy to combat atherosclerosis.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529123

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Nabiximols (THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray, Sativex®) in Clinical Practice – Results of a Multicenter, Non-Interventional Study (MOVE 2) in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity.

“Nabiximols (Sativex®), a cannabinoid-based oromucosal spray, is an add-on therapy for patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis spasticity (MSS) resistant to other medications. The primary objective was to provide real-life observational data of clinical experience of nabiximols in contrast to formal clinical trials of effectiveness…

Conclusion: Real-life data confirm nabiximols as an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for resistant MSS in clinical practice.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525548

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Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: a systematic review.

“This systematic review aims to integrate the evidence on indications, efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of medical cannabinoids in older subjects…

Although trials studying medical cannabinoids included older subjects, there is a lack of evidence of its use specifically in older patients. Adequately powered trials are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids in older subjects, as the potential symptomatic benefit is especially attractive in this age group.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509411

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Endocannabinoid Modulation of Cortical Up-States and NREM Sleep.

“We hypothesized that the endocannabinoid (EC) system, a neuromodulatory system intrinsic to the cortical microcircuitry, is an important regulator of up-states and sleep…

Overall, these findings demonstrate that the EC system actively regulates cortical up-states and important features of NREM sleep such as its duration and low frequency cortical oscillations.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24520411

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1,2-Dihydro-2-oxopyridine-3-carboxamides: The C-5 substituent is responsible for functionality switch at CB2 cannabinoid receptor.

“The relevance of CB2R-mediated therapeutic effects is well-known for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and neurodegenerative disorders. In our search for new cannabinoid receptor modulators, we report the optimization of a series of 1,2-dihydro-2-oxopyridine-3-carboxamide derivatives as CB2R ligands…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518874

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Modulation of Fear Memory by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Cannabinoid Receptors.

“…several studies have suggested benefits of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) for patients with anxiety disorders.

Elevated fear is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of particular anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the dietary n-3 to n-6 PUFA (3/6) ratio influences fear memory…

These results suggest that the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA is a factor regulating fear memory via cannabinoid CB1 receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518289

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