Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Produces Neuron Loss That Can Be Rescued by Modulating Microglial Activation Using a CB2 Receptor Inverse Agonist.

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“We have previously reported that mild TBI created by focal left-side cranial blast in mice produces widespread axonal injury, microglial activation, and a variety of functional deficits.

We have also shown that these functional deficits are reduced by targeting microglia through their cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors using 2-week daily administration of the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189.

Overall, our findings indicate that SMM-189 rescues damaged neurons and thereby alleviates functional deficits resulting from TBI, apparently by selectively modulating microglia to the beneficial M2 state.

CB2 inverse agonists thus represent a promising therapeutic approach for mitigating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.”

Tetrahydropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine derivatives as potent and peripherally selective cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor inverse agonists.

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“Peripherally restricted CB1 receptor inverse agonists hold potential as useful therapeutics to treat obesity and related metabolic diseases without causing undesired CNS-mediated adverse effects. We identified a series of tetrahydropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine derivatives as potent and highly peripherally selective CB1 receptor inverse agonists. This discovery was achieved by introducing polar functional groups into the molecule, which increase the topological polar surface area and reduce its brain-penetrating ability.”

“Tetrahydroindazole derivatives as potent and peripherally selective cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor inverse agonists. A series of potent and receptor-selective cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor inverse agonists has been discovered. Peripheral selectivity of the compounds was assessed by a mouse tissue distribution study, in which the concentrations of a test compound in both plasma and brain were measured. A number of peripherally selective compounds have been identified through this process. Compound 2p was further evaluated in a 3-week efficacy study in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. Beneficial effects on plasma glucose were observed from the compound-treated mice.”

Computational Prediction and Biochemical Analyses of New Inverse Agonists for the CB1 Receptor.

“Human cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) G-protein coupled receptor is a potential therapeutic target for obesity.

The previously predicted and experimentally validated ensemble of ligand-free conformations of CB1 are used here to predict the binding sites for known CB1-selective inverse agonists including rimonabant and its seven known derivatives.

This binding pocket, which differs significantly from previously published models, is used to identify 16 novel compounds expected to be CB1 inverse agonists by exploiting potential new interactions.

We show experimentally that two of these compounds exhibit inverse agonist properties including inhibition of basal and agonist-induced G-protein coupling activity, as well as an enhanced level of CB1 cell surface localization.

This demonstrates the utility of using the predicted binding sites for an ensemble of CB1 receptor structures for designing new CB1 inverse agonists.”