Anti-invasion Effects of Cannabinoids Agonist and Antagonist on Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells.

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“Studies show that cancer cell invasion or metastasis is the primary cause of death in malignancies including breast cancer.

The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer may account for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis.

Recent studies have reported different effects of cannabinoids on cancer cells via CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.

In the present study, the effects of ACEA (a selective CB1 receptor agonist) and AM251 (a selective CB1 antagonist) on CSCs and their parental cells were investigated.

It was observed that ACEA decreased CD44+/CD24-/low/ESA+ cancer stem cell invasiveness.

Since one of the main cancer recurrence factors is anti-cancer drugs fail to inhibit CSC population, this observation would be useful for cancer treatment.”

“Our results indicate that cannabinoids may interfere with invasive cancer stem cells in benefit of cancer eradication. In summary, our results clarified that cannabinoid receptor agonist possesses anti-invasion potential in both main population and breast cancer stem cells. Considering that most anti-cancer drugs do not eradicate stem cells and only target main population cells, the results disclosed here can be used for prevention of cancer recurrence.”

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The dual effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on cholangiocarcinoma cells: anti-invasion activity at low concentration and apoptosis induction at high concentration.

“Currently, only gemcitabine plus platinum demonstrates the considerable activity for cholangiocarcinoma.

The anticancer effect of Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active component of cannabinoids has been demonstrated in various kinds of cancers.

We therefore evaluate the antitumor effects of THC on cholangiocarcinoma cells.

Both cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and surgical specimens from cholangiocarcinoma patients expressed cannabinoid receptors.

THC inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis.

THC also decreased actin polymerization and reduced tumor cell survival in anoikis assay. pMEK1/2 and pAkt demonstrated the lower extent than untreated cells.

Consequently, THC is potentially used to retard cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis.” 

“Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial cell malignancy arising from varying locations within the biliary tree showing markers of cholangiocyte differentiation. The most contemporary classification based on anatomical location includes intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal cholangiocarcinoma… Understanding of cholangiocarcinoma biology, the oncogenic landscape of this disease, and its complex interaction with the tumour microenvironment could lead to optimum therapies with improvement in patient survival… Hopefully, personalised or precision medicine is in the near future for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma”

 “Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epithelial cells of the intrahepatic, perihilar and extrahepatic bile ducts.”

“Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. CC accounts for approximately 10%-25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. CC is a rare malignancy in Western countries, but more common in Asia. There are several established risk factors for CC, including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established potential risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, cirrhosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and host genetic polymorphisms.”

“Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant cancer of the biliary tract with a poor prognosis, which often arises from conditions causing long-term inflammation, injury, and reparative biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Several conditions are known to be major risk factors for cancer in the biliary tract or gallbladder, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection, pancreaticobiliary maljunction, and chemical exposure in proof-printing workers.”

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Evaluation of anti-invasion effect of cannabinoids on human hepatocarcinoma cells.

“Cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells. One of the most common types of liver cancers is called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which is highly metastatic. As most of cannabinoids have shown anticancer effect against different cell lines in a number of reports, a biological investigation of two cannabinoids, CB65 (CB2 receptor agonist) and ACEA (CB1 receptor agonist) was carried out in this study.

In an attempt to find natural products as a new solution of cancer, this study was designed to investigate the potential antitumoral and anti-invasive activity of cannabinoids…

The results revealed that both cannabinoids reduce cell viability, cell invasion as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in higher dose of 20 nM. Furthermore, higher concentrations of examined cannabinoids were more effective.

These data suggest ACEA and CB65 as an option for novel treatment of hepatocellular cancer.

Our findings may contribute to design of new therapeutic strategies for the management of HCC.”

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