“Currently, only gemcitabine plus platinum demonstrates the considerable activity for cholangiocarcinoma.
The anticancer effect of Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active component of cannabinoids has been demonstrated in various kinds of cancers.
We therefore evaluate the antitumor effects of THC on cholangiocarcinoma cells.
Both cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and surgical specimens from cholangiocarcinoma patients expressed cannabinoid receptors.
THC inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis.
THC also decreased actin polymerization and reduced tumor cell survival in anoikis assay. pMEK1/2 and pAkt demonstrated the lower extent than untreated cells.
Consequently, THC is potentially used to retard cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916793
“Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial cell malignancy arising from varying locations within the biliary tree showing markers of cholangiocyte differentiation. The most contemporary classification based on anatomical location includes intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal cholangiocarcinoma… Understanding of cholangiocarcinoma biology, the oncogenic landscape of this disease, and its complex interaction with the tumour microenvironment could lead to optimum therapies with improvement in patient survival… Hopefully, personalised or precision medicine is in the near future for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4069226/
“Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epithelial cells of the intrahepatic, perihilar and extrahepatic bile ducts.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3731530/
“Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. CC accounts for approximately 10%-25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. CC is a rare malignancy in Western countries, but more common in Asia. There are several established risk factors for CC, including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established potential risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, cirrhosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and host genetic polymorphisms.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3125451/
“Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant cancer of the biliary tract with a poor prognosis, which often arises from conditions causing long-term inflammation, injury, and reparative biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Several conditions are known to be major risk factors for cancer in the biliary tract or gallbladder, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection, pancreaticobiliary maljunction, and chemical exposure in proof-printing workers.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24895231