Reduced levels of the endocannabinoid arachidonylethanolamide (AEA) in hair in patients with borderline personality disorder – a pilot study.

 Publication Cover

“Endocannabinoids are involved in depressive and anxious symptoms and might play a role in stress-associated psychiatric disorders.

While alterations in the endogenous cannabinoid system have been repeatedly found in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this system has been mostly neglected in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, there is first evidence for elevated serum levels of the endocannabinoids arachidonylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) in BPD patients compared to healthy controls and PTSD patients.

In this study, hair endocannabinoids were analyzed, reflecting long-term endocannabinoid concentrations. We assessed AEA concentrations as well as 2-AG and the 2-AG main isomer 1-AG (1-AG/2-AG) in hair in women with BPD (n = 15) and age- and education-matched healthy women (n = 16).

We found significantly reduced log AEA in BPD patients compared to healthy women (p = .03) but no differences in log 1-AG/2-AG concentrations. In addition, there was no association between 1-AG/2-AG and hair cortisol, but we found a non-significant correlation between hair concentrations of AEA and cortisol (p = .06).

Our data indicate altered long-term release of endogenous cannabinoids in women with BPD depending on type of endocannabinoid. AEA has been suggested to modulate the basal activity of the endocannabinoid system and seems to attenuate depressive and anxious symptoms. Thus, chronically reduced AEA might contribute to psychiatric symptoms in BPD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29546791

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10253890.2018.1451837?journalCode=ists20

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Assay of Endocannabinoid Oxidation by Cyclooxygenase-2.

“The endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonylethanolamide (AEA), are endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and are implicated in a wide array of physiological processes. These neutral arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have been identified as efficient substrates for the second isoform of the cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-2). A diverse family of prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-Gs) and prostaglandin ethanolamides (PG-EAs) is generated by the action of COX-2 (and downstream prostaglandin synthases) on 2-AG and AEA. As the biological importance of the endocannabinoid system becomes more apparent, there is a tremendous need for robust, sensitive, and efficient analytical methodology for the endocannabinoids and their metabolites. In this chapter, we describe methodology suitable for carrying out oxygenation of endocannabinoids by COX-2, and analysis of products of endocannabinoid oxygenation by COX-2 and of endocannabinoids themselves from in vitro and cell assays.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27245906

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Arachidonylethanolamide induces apoptosis of human glioma cells through vanilloid receptor-1.

“The anti-tumor properties of cannabinoids have recently been evidenced, mainly with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Here we investigated whether the most potent endogenous cannabinoid, arachidonylethanolamide (AEA), could be a candidate.

We observed that AEA induced apoptosis in long-term and recently established glioma cell lines via aberrantly expressed vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1).

In contrast with their role in THC-mediated death, both CB1 and CB2 partially protected glioma against AEA-induced apoptosis.

These data show that the selective targeting of VR1 by AEA or more stable analogues is an attractive research area for the treatment of glioma.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15453094

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/gllomas/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Anandamide, a brain endogenous compound, interacts specifically with cannabinoid receptors and inhibits adenylate cyclase.

“A putative endogenous cannabinoid ligand, arachidonylethanolamide (termed “anandamide”), was isolated recently from porcine brain.

Here we demonstrate that this compound is a specific cannabinoid agonist and exerts its action directly via the cannabinoid receptors.

Anandamide specifically binds to membranes from cells transiently (COS) or stably (Chinese hamster ovary) transfected with an expression plasmid carrying the cannabinoid receptor DNA but not to membranes from control nontransfected cells.

Moreover, anandamide inhibited the forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the transfected cells and in cells that naturally express cannabinoid receptors (N18TG2 neuroblastoma) but not in control nontransfected cells. As with exogenous cannabinoids…

These data indicate that anandamide is an endogenous agonist that may serve as a genuine neurotransmitter for the cannabinoid receptor.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8515284

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous