Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of cannabinol or cannabigerol.

“Cannabinol or cannabigerol was administered to cats topically in doses of 250, 500 and 1000 micrograms as a single drop or chronically via osmotic minipumps (20 micrograms hr-1) over a period of 9 days. While cannabinol had a modest effect on intraocular pressure after a single dose, it caused a more significant reduction in ocular tension during chronic administration. Cannabigerol had similar effects, but the magnitude of response to its chronic administration was greater. Cannabinol but not cannabigerol caused conjunctival erythema and hyperemia. After systemic administration of cannabinol (20, 40 or 80 mg kg-1) to rats, 8-13 Hz polyspike discharges appeared in the electrocorticogram during wakefulness and during rapid eye movement sleep episodes. Cannabigerol (10, 30 and 100 mg kg-1) lacked this effect.

These results indicate that chronic administration of these cannabinoids lowers ocular tension considerably.

Like marihuana and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol produced both ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity. As cannabigerol lacked these toxicities, it appears that the ocular hypotensive effect of this cannabinoid is somewhat dissociable from both the adverse central and ocular effects accompanying marihuana intake.”

A comparison of the ocular and central effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol.

“Both delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) and cannabigerol, two naturally occurring marihuana cannabinoids, produced only a modest fall in intraocular pressure after acute topical application to the eyes of cats.

After chronic administration unilaterally to the cornea via Alzet osmotic minipumps and connecting extraocular cannulas, however, a considerable fall in ocular tension amounting to 4 to 7 mm Hg occurred. After systemic administration of delta 9-THC to rats, polyspike discharges appeared in the cortical electroencephalogram initially during wakefulness and behavioral depression. These polyspikes subsequently became evident within rapid eye movement sleep episodes. Cannabigerol was devoid of this effect. After removal of either sympathetic or parasympathetic input to the eyes of cats, the intraocular pressure lowering effect of delta 9-THC was not changed. Neither delta 9-THC nor cannabigerol altered the rate of formation of aqueous humor. On the other hand, both cannabinoids produced a two-to three-fold increase in aqueous outflow facility.

These results suggest that cannabigerol and related cannabinoids may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of glaucoma.”

Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells.

“Boron trifluoride etherate on silica-A modified Lewis acid reagent (VII). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells.


Geraniol (1), olivetol (2), cannabinoids (3 and 4) and 5-fluorouracil (5) were tested for their growth inhibitory effects against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cell lines (KB) and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts using two different 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and sulforhodamine B protein (SRB) assay.

Cannabigerol (3) exhibited the highest growth-inhibitory activity against the cancer cell lines.”

Antiestrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds.

“The antiestrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) and three major cannabinoids, ie., delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN), were evaluated…

The results showed that MSC induced the antiestrogenic effect via the ER-mediated pathway, while THC, CBD, and CBN did not have any antiestrogenic activity.

This suggests that the combined effects of the marijuana smoke components are responsible for the antiestrogenicity of marijuana use.”

“Antiestrogen treatment of breast cancer: an overview.”

“Newly Found Estrogen Pathway Suggests Novel Breast Cancer Targets”

“New Estrogen Mechanism Holds Novel Cancer Treatment Promise”

“CB1 and CB2 receptors are novel molecular targets for Tamoxifen and 4OH-Tamoxifen.”

“Scientists discover new role estrogen plays in cancer growth”

“Antiestrogen-induced remissions in stage IV breast cancer.”

“Antiestrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds.”

“New estrogen-related breast cancer mechanism detected”

“Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol targeting estrogen receptor signaling: the possible mechanism of action… Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a biologically active constituent of marijuana, possesses a wide variety of pharmacological and toxicological effects (e.g., analgesia, hypotension, reduction of inflammation, and anti-cancer effects).”

“Anti-Estrogen Drugs to Treat Breast Cancer”


Advances in the Management of MS Spasticity: Recent Observational Studies.

“Clinical trials demonstrate the efficacy and tolerability of an intervention under experimental conditions, but information on use under daily practice conditions is required to confirm the effectiveness and safety of new management options.

Clinical outcomes for THC:CBD oromucosal spray (Sativex®) in patients with treatment-resistant MS spasticity have been collected in post-marketing safety registries from the UK and Germany, a safety study from Spain and two observational studies from Germany, including one investigating its effects on driving ability.

Collectively, findings from daily practice support the long-term effectiveness and safety of THC:CBD oromucosal spray.

There was no evidence of abuse/misuse or other adverse events of special interest with a cannabis-based medicine and no impairment of driving ability.

Observational data and real world experience reinforce the efficacy and safety of THC:CBD oromucosal spray as reported in phase III clinical trials.”

Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: recent clinical trials.

“Most patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience spasticity as the clinical course evolves. Associated symptoms include (often painful) spasms, urinary dysfunction and sleep disturbances. THC:CBD oromucosal spray (Sativex®) is approved for symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe MS-related spasticity who have not responded adequately to other antispasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity-related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy.


In pivotal clinical trials of THC:CBD oromucosal spray, a meaningful proportion of patients with treatment-resistant MS spasticity achieved clinically relevant improvement with active treatment versus placebo. The utility of a 4-week trial of therapy to identify patients who respond to treatment was demonstrated in an enriched-design study.

THC:CBD oromucosal spray was well tolerated in these studies, with no evidence of effects typically associated with recreational cannabis use.

In a subsequent post approval clinical trial, THC:CBD oromucosal spray had no statistically significant effect on cognition and mood compared with placebo.

Moreover, after 50 weeks’ treatment, approximately two-thirds of patients, physicians and caregivers reported improvement from baseline in spasticity based on global impressions of change.

In phase III clinical trials, approximately one-third of MS patients with treatment-resistant spasticity had a clinically relevant and statistically significant response to THC:CBD oromucosal spray.

In addition to a reduction in spasticity, responders experienced meaningful relief from associated symptoms.

THC:CBD oromucosal spray was generally well tolerated and efficacy was maintained over the longer term.

A post-approval clinical trial indicated no effect of THC:CBD oromucosal spray on cognition or mood after 50 weeks of use.”

Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: multiple sclerosis spasticity nervous pathways.

“Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for spasticity has been demonstrated in animal models of MS…

Evidence indicates that the antispasticity effects of THC:CBD oromucosal spray (Sativex®) are associated with enhanced cortical long-term potentiation.

CB1 receptors, which are associated with movement, postural control, and pain and sensory perception, influence glutamatergic pathways.

THC:CBD oromucosal spray was shown to reverse motor cortex plasticity from long-term depression through long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission, thereby restoring, at least in part, effective corticospinal inputs to spinal circuits.”

Cannabinoids Alleviate Experimentally Induced Intestinal Inflammation by Acting at Central and Peripheral Receptors.

“… an attempt to further investigate the role of cannabinoid (CB) system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases…


This is the first evidence that central and peripheral CB receptors are responsible for the protective and therapeutic action of cannabinoids in mouse models of colitis.

Our observations provide new insight to CB pharmacology and validate the use of novel ligands AM841 and CB13 as potent tools in CB-related research.”

Cannabis oil stopped my cancer says Lake Macquarie’s Susannah Patch

“A LAKE Macquarie woman whose ‘‘aggressive’’ breast cancer spread to various parts of her body including her spine and lungs credits her remarkable recovery to cannabis oil.

Awaba woman Susannah Patch, 44, is one of a growing number of Hunter people who have treated themselves using an underground network of cannabis oil suppliers.

Although she had surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, Ms Patch says most of her improvement has come since stopping chemotherapy against the advice of the cancer specialists and continuing with cannabis oil…

‘It is a distinct possibility that the cannabinoids may have ‘‘a place in the future treatment of cancer,’’

“It’s breast cancer awareness month. Please, BE AWARE:”

“A laboratory study of cannabidiol in estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells showed that it caused cancer cell death while having little effect on normal breast cells.”

“Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells… In summary, we showed that CBD, a plant-derived cannabinoid, preferentially kills breast cancer cells…”

“Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa,”

“Cannabidiol (CBD) Shown To Kill Breast Cancer Cells”

“Here, we show that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), reduces human breast cancer cell proliferation by blocking the progression of the cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis.”

“Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)”

“Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells…”

“…cannabinoids may be able to kill cancer cells while protecting normal cells… A laboratory study of delta-9-THC… showed that it damaged or killed the cancer cells… A laboratory study of cannabidiol… showed that it caused cancer cell death…”

“Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not effect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death.”

“Cannabis oil stopped my cancer says Lake Macquarie’s Susannah Patch”

A multicentre, open-label, follow-on study to assess the long-term maintenance of effect, tolerance and safety of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in the management of neuropathic pain.

“Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) poses a significant clinical challenge.

The long-term efficacy of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray was investigated…

THC/CBD spray was well tolerated for the study duration and patients did not seek to increase their dose with time, with no new safety concerns arising from long-term use.

In this previously difficult to manage patient population, THC/CBD spray was beneficial for the majority of patients with PNP associated with diabetes or allodynia.”