The Direct Actions of Cannabidiol and 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol at GABAA Receptors.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties.

Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABAA receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD.

Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABAA receptors (synaptic α1-6βg2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes.

Taken together these results reveal a mode of action of CBD on specifically configured GABAA receptors that may be relevant to the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of the compound.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28249817

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Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition for the symptomatic relief of Parkinsońs disease.

“Elements of the endocannabinoid system are strongly expressed in the basal ganglia where they suffer profound rearrangements after dopamine depletion.

Modulation of the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol by inhibiting monoacylglycerol lipase alters glial phenotypes and provides neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinsońs disease.

In this study, we assessed whether inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase could also provide beneficial effects on the time course of this disease.

Together, these results demonstrate an effect of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on the motor symptoms of Parkinsońs disease in two distinct experimental models that is mediated by cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318096

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Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin.

“Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation.

Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing.

Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH).

We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process.

Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin.

Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical counter measures against vesicants.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27125198

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