“In contextual fear conditioning animals have to integrate various elemental stimuli into a coherent representation of the condition and then associate context representation with punishment. Although several studies indicated the modulating role of endocannabinoid system (ECS) on the associative learning, ECS effect on contextual fear conditioning requires further investigations. The present study assessed the effects of the increased endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) tone on acquisition, retrieval and extinction of the contextual fear conditioning…
The present study indicates that ECS controls the extinction of aversive memories in the contextual fear conditioning.”
“Multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are chronic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), featured by a complex interplay between inflammation and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence supports the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in both inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typical of these pathological conditions. Exogenous or endogenous cannabinoids regulate the function of immune system by limiting immune response. On the other hand, by preventing excitotoxic damage, cannabinoids protect neuronal integrity and function. Of note, the ECS not only plays a role as modulator of disease processes, but it can also be disrupted by the same diseases. Agents modulating cannabinoid receptors or endocannabinoid tone provide promising therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS.”
“Alterations of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have been recently implicated in a number of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions so that the pharmacological modulation of cannabinoid (CB) receptors and/or of the enzymes controlling synthesis, transport, and degradation of these substances has emerged as a valuable option to treat neurological diseases.
Here, we describe the current knowledge concerning the rearrangement of ECS in a primarily inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis (MS), and in a primarily degenerative condition such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Furthermore, the data supporting a therapeutic role of agents modulating CB receptors or endocannabinoid tone in these disorders will also be reviewed. Complex changes of ECS take place in both diseases, influencing crucial aspects of their pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. Neuroinflammation, microglial activation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity are variably combined in MS and in ALS and can be modulated by endocannabinoids or by drugs targeting the ECS.”
“Endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) is highly conserved during evolution of the body’s endocrine network. It is a regulator of mood, cognitive, autonomic nervous system and movement control system. ECS dysfunction can promote the progress and maintain of depression, phobia, and extreme anxiety. The antidepressant drugs to enhance the activity of ECS may represent a new direction, but rarely reported research in this regard.”
“Brain aging is associated with cognitive decline that is accompanied by progressive neuroinflammatory changes. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of glial activity and influences the progression of age-related learning and memory deficits.
Mice lacking the Cnr1 gene (Cnr1−/−), which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), showed an accelerated age-dependent deficit in spatial learning accompanied by a loss of principal neurons in the hippocampus. The age-dependent decrease in neuronal numbers in Cnr1−/− mice was not related to decreased neurogenesis or to epileptic seizures. However, enhanced neuroinflammation characterized by an increased density of astrocytes and activated microglia as well as an enhanced expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 during aging was present in the hippocampus of Cnr1−/− mice. The ongoing process of pyramidal cell degeneration and neuroinflammation can exacerbate each other and both contribute to the cognitive deficits. Deletion of CB1 receptors from the forebrain GABAergic, but not from the glutamatergic neurons, led to a similar neuronal loss and increased neuroinflammation in the hippocampus as observed in animals lacking CB1 receptors in all cells.
Our results suggest that CB1 receptor activity on hippocampal GABAergic neurons protects against age-dependent cognitive decline by reducing pyramidal cell degeneration and neuroinflammation.”
“During immuno-mediated attack of the brain, activation of endocannabinoids represents a protective mechanism, aimed at reducing both neurodegenerative and inflammatory damage through various and partially converging mechanisms that involve neuronal and immune cells. Here, we review the main alterations of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) within the central nervous system and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in order to discuss the intriguing observation that elements of the peripheral ECS mirror central dysfunctions of endocannabinoid signaling. As a consequence, elements of blood ECS might serve as novel, non-invasive diagnostic tools of several neurological disorders, and targeting the ECS might be useful for therapeutic purposes. In addition, we discuss the appealing working hypothesis that the presence of type-1 cannabinoid receptors on the luminal side, and that of type-2 cannabinoid receptors on the abluminal side of the blood-brain barrier, could drive a unidirectional transport of AEA in the luminal –> abluminal direction (i.e., from blood to brain), thus implying that blood may be a reservoir of AEA for the brain. On this basis, it can be expected that an unbalance of the endogenous tone of AEA in the blood may sustain a similar unbalance of its level within the brain, as demonstrated in Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, depression and headache.”
“Much progress has been achieved in cannabinoid research. A major breakthrough in marijuana-cannabinoid research has been the discovery of a previously unknown but elaborate endogenous endocannabinoid system (ECS), complete with endocannabinoids and enzymes for their biosynthesis and degradation with genes encoding two distinct cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors (CBRs) that are activated by endocannabinoids, cannabinoids, and marijuana use.
Physical and genetic localization of the CBR genes CNR1 and CNR2 have been mapped to chromosome 6 and 1, respectively. A number of variations in CBR genes have been associated with human disorders including osteoporosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), drug dependency, obesity, and depression. Other family of lipid receptors including vanilloid (VR1) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors appear to be related to the CBRs at the phylogenetic level. The ubiquitous abundance and differential distribution of the ECS in the human body and brain along with the coupling to many signal transduction pathways may explain the effects in most biological system and the myriad behavioral effects associated with smoking marijuana. The neuropharmacological and neuroprotective features of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoid associated neurogenesis have revealed roles for the use of cannabinoids in neurodegenerative pathologies with less neurotoxicity. The remarkable progress in understanding the biological actions of marijuana and cannabinoids have provided much richer results than previously appreciated cannabinoid genomics and raised a number of critical issues on the molecular mechanisms of cannabinoid induced behavioral and biochemical alterations. These advances will allow specific therapeutic targeting of the different components of the ECS in health and disease.
This review focuses on these recent advances in cannabinoid genomics and the surprising new fundamental roles that the ECS plays in the retrograde signaling associated with cannabinoid inhibition of neurotransmitter release to the genetic basis of the effects of marijuana use and pharmacotherpeutic applications and limitations. Much evidence is provided for the complex CNR1 and CNR2 gene structures and their associated regulatory elements. Thus, understanding the ECS in the human body and brain will contribute to elucidating this natural regulatory mechanism in health and disease.”
Recent studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) could offer an attractive antitumor target. Numerous findings suggest the involvement of this system (constituted mainly by cannabinoid receptors, endogenous compounds and the enzymes for their synthesis and degradation) in cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
This review covers literature from the past decade which highlights the potential of targeting the ECS for cancer treatment. In particular, the levels of endocannabinoids and the expression of their receptors in several types of cancer are discussed, along with the signaling pathways involved in the endocannabinoid antitumor effects. Furthermore, the beneficial and adverse effects of old and novel compounds in clinical use are discussed.
One direction that should be pursued in antitumor therapy is to select compounds with reduced psychoactivity. This is known to be connected to the CB1 receptor; thus, targeting the CB2 receptor is a popular objective. CB1 receptors could be maintained as a target to design new compounds, and mixed CB1-CB2 ligands could be effective if they are able to not cross the BBB. Furthermore, targeting the ECS with agents that activate cannabinoid receptors or inhibitors of endogenous degrading systems such as fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors may have relevant therapeutic impact on tumor growth. Additional studies into the downstream consequences of endocannabinoid treatment are required and may illuminate other potential therapeutic targets.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21244344
“CANNABIS CURES – Let me tell you how – All vertebrates have an endocannabinoid system – it controls the other systems in the body. The endocannabinoid system is the regulator of systems in the body.
When the endocannabioid system, or ECS as it is called, does it’s job, part of that job is sending endocannabinoids to adjust the situation, what ever that may be. It adjusts every little stressor in systems of the body keeping us in balance.
When the ECS misfires, due to a lack of endogenous cannabinoids, the body’s systems can not function correctly, they are off balance. This is the cause of ailments of all sorts – from minor things like motion sickness, to major things like cancer.
Cannabis is the only natural substance that has properties equal in all ways to our body’s own endocannabinoids, the cannabinoids in cannabis. So the cannabinoids from the cannabis fulfill the jobs of the lacking endocannabinoids, preventing disease(s), healing ailments, aiding in digestion, and keeping all systems functioning for optimal health.
Science knows this, now you do. Tell Everyone!
Many patients need to adjust their endocannabinoid system so their body will function appropriately, only cannabis can do that.
Google “endocannabinoid system homeostasis”. Enter those 3 words on a Google search if you “need more information”.
It’s your body, your health, tell your lawmakers to stop the manufacturing of illness by depriving humans and other living creatures of the one natural homeostasis necessity for health – the cannabis flower.”